Unsustainable....This activityhas culminated in many national and international agencies such as BREEAM etc. to address issues ofglobal warming, environmental pollution and campaign for sustainable development.Last month the EPA published its projections for Irelands greenhouse gas emissions for 2012-2030 Ireland is on track to meet its Kyoto Protocol commitments. But this is primarily a direct result of the current economic recession and economic outlook for the future.Ireland cannot rely on a recession and needs to develop as a low carbon economy going forward. Now the bad news, the current projections indicate that Ireland will not meet its 2020 EU targets even under the most ambitious emission reduction scenario. For the targeted cumulative reductions for 2013-2020 its projected that by 2015-2016 we will be in breachTransport and agriculture are listed as the key contributors to this trend.
1 Management01 Home Users Guide02 Responsible Construction Practices03 Construction Site impacts04 Security05 Protection and Enhancement of Ecological Features06 Project Management2 Health and Wellbeing01 Daylighting02 Sound Insulation03 Volatile Organic Compounds04 Inclusive Design05 Ventilation06 Safety3 Energy01 Improvement in Energy Efficiency Rating02 Energy Efficiency Rating Post Refurbishment03 Primary Energy Demand04 Renewable Technologies05 Energy Labelled White Goods06 Drying Space07 Lighting08 Display Energy Devices09 Cycle Storage10 Home Office4 Water01 Internal water use02 External Water Use03 Water meter5Materials01 Environmental Impact of Materials02 Responsible Sourcing of Materials03 Insulation6 Pollution01 Nitrogen Oxide Emissions02 Surface water runoff03 Flooding7 Waste01 Household waste02 Refurbishment Site Waste Management8 Innovation01 Innovation
Calculating a building’s BREEAM ratingA BREEAM Assessor must determine the BREEAM rating using the appropriate assessment tools and calculators. An indication of performance against the BREEAM scheme can also be determined using a BREEAM Pre-Assessment Estimator. The Pre-Assessment Estimator is available from the BREEAM website www.breeam.org.The process of determining a BREEAM rating is outlined below and an example calculation included in the following table:For each environmental section the number of credits’awarded must be determined by the assessor in accordance with the criteria of each assessment issue (as detailed in the technical sections of this document)The percentage of credits achieved is then calculated for each sectionThe percentage of credits achieved in each section is then multiplied by the corresponding section weighting. This gives the overall environmental section scoreThe section scores are then added together to give the overall BREEAM score. The overall score is then compared to the BREEAM rating benchmark levels and, provided all minimum standards have been met, the relevant BREEAM rating is achievedAn additional 1% can be added to the final BREEAM score for each ‘innovation credit’ achieved (up to a maximum of 10%)The BREEAM Domestic Refurbishment Mat 01 calculator is used to determine the number of credits awarded. Credits are awarded according to the impact of new materials according to their Green Guide Rating and their impact on improving the thermal performance of the dwelling for the following elements:RoofExternal wallsInternal walls (including separating walls)Upper and ground floorsWindowsUp to a maximum of 25 credits can be awarded through achieving a combination of the credits available for each element ,Awarding ‘credits’ for innovationIt is one of the aims of BREEAM to support innovation within the construction industry and refurbishment. BREEAM does this by making additional ‘credits’ available for the recognition of sustainability related benefits or performance levels which are currently not recognised by standard BREEAM assessment issues and criteria. By doing this BREEAM is rewarding buildings that go beyond best practice in terms of a particular aspect of sustainability i.e. where the building or its procurement has demonstrated innovation.Awarding credits for innovation enables clients and design teams to boost their building’s BREEAM performance and, in addition, helps to support the market for new innovative technologies, and design or construction practices.There are two ways in which BREEAM awards ‘innovation credits’ to recognise innovation in building design and procurement. The first is by meeting exemplary performance criteria defined within an existing BREEAM issue i.e. going beyond the standard BREEAM assessment criteria and therefore best practice. Note, not all assessment issues have exemplary performance criteria. The second route is where an application is made to BRE Global by the BREEAM Assessor in connection with a project registered for BREEAM assessment to have a particular building technology or feature, design or construction method or process recognised as ‘innovative’. If the application is successful and subsequently building compliance is verified, an ‘innovation credit’ can be awarded.An additional 1% can be added to a building’s overall score for each ‘innovation credit’ achieved. The maximum number of ’innovation credits’ that can be awarded for any one building is 10; therefore the maximum available additional score for ‘innovation’ is 10%. Innovation credits can be awarded regardless of the building’s final BREEAM rating i.e. they are awardable at any BREEAM rating level.Ecoprofiles, certified by BRE Certification to the 2008 BRE Environmental Profiles Methodology, have been created for all products in the Kingspan Kooltherm® and Therma™range produced at Kingspan Insulation’s Pembridge manufacturing facility.The BRE has assigned all Kingspan Kooltherm® products a 2008 Green Guide rating of A+. The Environmental Profiles Scheme Certificate Number for Kooltherm® is ENP 410.All Kingspan Therma™ foil faced products achieve a 2008 Green Guide rating of A+ and all other products an A. The Environmental Profiles Scheme Certificate Number for Therma™ is ENP 409.Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS)scores 0.47 Ecopoints, while Portland cement scores 4.6 Ecopoints. This classes GGBS as having only one tenth of the environmental impact of Portland cement.
ManagementCategory overviewCategory weighting: 12%Minimum standards : NoneSummaryThe management section covers issues that aim to ensure the home owner is able to operate their home efficiently and effectively as well as being able to live in a home that is safe and secure. The category also covers issues relating to effective project management and sustainable site practices, to providing a framework that encourages refurbishment projects to be managed in an environmentally, socially considerate and accountable manner. This includes the following aspects during refurbishment:Providing a home users guideImproving or implementing responsible construction practicesImproving construction site impacts in categories such as CO2 production, water consumption and the sourcing of construction materialsImproving security on the dwelling/s to reach minimum standardsProtecting and enhancing the site ecologyEncouraging efficient project management by assigning responsibilities and project planningTesting that may be required to establish any remediation that may be necessaryCarrying out handover and aftercare with the occupant
Health and WellbeingCategory overviewCategory weighting: 17%Minimum standards: Hea 05 Ventilation, Hea 06 SafetySummaryThe Health and Wellbeing category aims to improve the quality of life in homes by recognising refurbishments that encourage a healthy and safe internal environment for occupants including the following aspects during refurbishment:Minimising impacts on daylighting and encouraging enhanced daylightingImproving sound insulation values for separating walls and floors to Part E standards and beyondThe specification of finishes which avoid the use of Volatile Organic CompoundsImproving accessibility to the home and allowing for future adaptabilityProviding sufficient ventilationProviding fire and carbon monoxide detection
Category overviewCategory weighting: 43%Minimum standards: Ene 02 Energy Efficiency Rating Post RefurbishmentSummaryThe energy category assesses measures to improve the energy efficiency of the home through refurbishment. 65% of the available score relates the energy targets, based upon SAP or the EPC. These targets bring a balanced assessment of the impact that the refurbishment has on improving the dwellings energy performance including:How much the Energy Efficiency Rating has been improved as a result of refurbishment,The Energy Efficiency Rating that is achieved post refurbishmentThe dwellings energy demand post refurbishmentThe % of the dwelling's demand that is met by renewable technologies35% of remaining credits relate to additional measures that save energy that are not covered under SAP or measures that provide occupants with opportunities to reduce their energy use or their impact on transport energy use, thus reducing CO2 emissions including:Providing energy efficient white goodsProviding a reduced energy means of drying clothesEncouraging the provision of energy efficient lightingProviding a device for occupants to monitor energy useEncouraging occupants to cycle by providing adequate and secure cycle storage facilitiesReducing the need to commute to work by ensuring residents have the necessary space and services to be able to work from home
WaterCategory overviewCategory weighting: 11%Minimum standards: Wat 01 Internal Water UseSummaryThe water category is focused on identifying means of reducing water consumption in the home including internal water use and external water use. The assessment covers all sanitary fittings in the home and the targets provide recognition for both small changes in the home (e.g. installing a low flow shower) all the way up to a complete replacement of sanitary fittings. Where sanitary fittings are replaced (e.g. a new bathroom), credits can be gained through use of fittings that meet the appropriate fittings standards, or through use of the water calculator. The water calculator looks at the impact that a fitting has on reducing water use, indicating whether a target has been met and the number of credits that can be awarded (subject to the provision of appropriate evidence).An additional credit is also available for reducing outdoor water use, through the specification of a water butt or a similar device to collect rainwater rather than use mains potable water. Whilst all these measures are designed to reduce water use, it is up to the occupants to use water appropriately therefore an additional credit is gained for providing a water meter, to let occupants monitor their water use. Overall, the following aspects are covered in the water category:Fitting low use water fittings for sanitary applicationsProviding a water collection system for external water useProviding water metering systems including smart water meters or AMRs.MaterialsCategory overviewCategory weighting: 8%Minimum standards:Mat 02 Responsible Sourcing of MaterialsSummaryThe materials category focuses on the procurement of materials that are sourced in a responsible way and have a low embodied impact over their life including how they have been extracted and manufactured. Overall it aims to encourage the retention of existing materials and where new materials are procured that they have they the lowest environmental impact and the greatest potential impact on reducing the dwellings operational energy demand including the following aspects during refurbishment:Using thermal insulation which has a low embodied environmental impact relative to its thermal propertiesSourcing responsible sourced materials with appropriate certification e.g. FSC, ISO14001 etc.Sourcing materials with a high Green Guide rating
PollutionCategory overviewCategory weighting: 8%Minimum standards: Pol 03 FloodingSummaryThe pollution category covers issues that aim to reduce the homes impact on pollution as well as reducing risk from flooding. This includes the following aspects being considered during refurbishment:The use of low NOx space heating and hot water systemsHaving a neutral impact on runoff or reducing or eliminating runoff from the dwelling as a result of refurbishmentProviding flood resistance and resilience strategies, where dwellings are in a medium or high flood risk zoneRewarding dwellings which are located in a low flood risk zoneWasteCategory overviewCategory weighting: 5%Minimum standards: noneSummaryThe waste category covers issues that aim to reduce the waste arising from refurbishment work and from the operation of the home, encouraging waste to be diverted from landfill including the following:Providing recycling storage facilitiesProviding composting facilitiesImplementing a site wide waste management plan (SWMP) to reduce refurbishment wasteInnovationCategory overviewCategory weighting: 10%Minimum standards: noneSummaryThe innovation category provides opportunities for exemplary performance and innovation to be recognised that are not included within, or go beyond the requirements of the credit criteria. This includes both exemplary performance credits, for where the refurbishment meets the exemplary performance levels of a particular issue. It also includes innovative products and processes for which an innovation credit can be claimed, where they have been approved by BRE Global.
The primary goal of BREEAM Refurbishment Domestic Buildings is to advance the environmental performance and longevity of existing dwellings in a robust and cost effective manner. BREEAM has adapted a number of its schemes to other countries which would take account of existing National schemes and requirements. When assessing this project the author found that the Metric requires contractors be members of UK Schemes or materials being assessed against UK measurement protocols and these do not translate directly to an Irish Context. For example the Considerate Constructors Scheme (CCS) in the UK .To achieve the exemplary credit the contractor must be registered with the UK Considerate Constructors Scheme and although the CCS is in talks with the Construction Industry Federation it has not been extended to include Ireland.'Secured by Design' initiative This UK initiative by the Association of Chief Police Officers involves the services of a Police architectural design liaison to offer expert design advice to inform design from a security and crime prevention aspect. From a Public Sector aspect this type of initiative would result in massive savings in crime prevention and vandalism of their property and ensuring a safer environment for their tennants.Under the Materials subsection a number of calculators are required to assess the credit rating but these calculators are not accessible by the public. This subsection is worth a total 45 credits and thus will have a major impact on the projects overall scoring.The Energy subsection includes a section for home office. In the authors opinion this is an under rated part of the Metric. Although it may not be always possible but additional credits should be awarded for providing a separate room for a home office as opposed to space in the main bedroom. Work from home initiatives reduce traffic congestion and associated pollution, improve a workers work life balance by allowing the time usually spent travelling to work to be used for family, and it reduces expenditure for the worker. The proposed refurbishment involved the inclusion of a communal office area where residents could get out of their homes and walk a short distance to a fully equipped work environment. Under the BREEAM Domestic Refurbishment metric no credits are awarded for such an initiative. Similarly with communal services such as laundry etc. No credits are awarded.The Management section and Protection and Enhancement of Ecological Features sub section relate to the protection of ecological features that have been identified during a site survey and the implementation of recommendations made by a suitably qualified ecologist to enhance the site ecology with only two credits being awarded. The author feels that this section is being undervalued by BREEAM.The first Management subsection, the Home Users Guide is an initiative which should be considered here. The traditional among tenants is to let them fend for themselves and even though the dwelling occupier must now be handed information relating to the operating and maintenance of the systems in the dwelling the author believes that the BREEAM Home Users Guide would be beneficial in an Irish and Public Sector context. The BREEAM User Guide dosen't just deal with the dwellings systems operation and maintenance but take a more holostic view of the dwelling within its surrounds and seeks to raise awareness of and integrate the occupant into the local area through established sustainable amenities and facilities locally. Although there is no guarantee the occupant will appreciate the value of the User Guide the awareness and educational aspect of same provides the occupant with choice.In Summary the author believes certain aspects of this Metric appear to have been developed around a single residence and then expanded to include multi unit refurbishment developments.Not enough credit has been given to communal CHP systems on the basis that they reduce overall emissions and cost on the occupier. The adaption of the BREEAM Domestic Refurbishment Metric to Ireland would provide a robust and established assessment methodology for assessing our buildings performance.
This project involved the Deep Retrofit design for a1970’s apartment complex and the application of theBREEAM Refurbishment Domestic Buildings (DB)sustainability metric to same It explored the relevance of the BREEAM Refurbishment(DB) sustainability metric Assessed the likely future influence of the metric on thefinal design3
Deep retrofit of an early 1970s apartment complex Raise the average BER rating from E1 to A2 Analyse the buildings existing construction to facilitateinformed suitable retrofit solutions. Full compliance with Irish Building Regulations as if it were a new building Conformity with the 2007 DoEHLG Design Standards for New Apartments A design lifetime expectancy for the retrofit to be a minimum 60 to 100years A design stage sustainability assessment using LEED, BREEAM or DGNB.4
A wellinsulatedthermal bridgefree envelopewill preventheat loss, thissaving energySedum roof andplanter boxes at rooftop level providedresidents access tofresh, locally grownproduce and helpsfoster ideas abouthealthy andsustainable foodproduction.
The balanced mechanicalventilation system with heatrecovery helps to ensureexcellent indoor air qualitywhile making use of wasteheat and saving energy. Freshair is drawn into thebuilding, filtered and warmedwith heat recovery from thebiomass CHP unit beforebeing distributed to the livingspaces.Evacuated tubesolar collectorsharness the energyof the sun tosupplement the hotwater generated bythe biomass CHPBiomass CHP isused to generatehot water ondemand andelectricity. Hotwater heating issupplemented bysolar collectorsSedum roof and planterboxes at roof top levelprovided residentsaccess to fresh, locallygrown produce and helpsfoster ideas abouthealthy and sustainablefood production.
“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs ofthe present without compromising the ability of future generations tomeet their own needs” (Brundtland,1987)“The construction industry accounts for 30% of raw materialconsumption, 35% of carbon dioxide and 40% of municipal solid wastesent to landfill” (R. A. Fenner & Ryce, 2007)8
The British Research Establishment Environmental AssessmentMethod (BREEAM) is the world’s longest established and mostwidely used environmental assessment method for buildingsIt was created in 1988 and launched in 1990Over 116,000 buildings certified, over 714,000 buildings registeredNetwork of over 2200 independent licensed assessors across theworldThe BREEAM Refurbishment DB was launched in 2012Source: www.breeam.org9
DGNBOf DGNB’s wide range of assessment schemes the most suited tothis project would be the ‘Existing Residential Buildings Scheme’.However this scheme is still under development. LEEDLEED’s ‘Existing Buildings’ scheme only appears to target singlebuildings, whether owner occupied, multitenant, or multiple-buildingcampus projects and assesses the operation and performance ofthe buildings. It does not appear to consider wider sustainableaspects such as the economics of the proposed solution, pollutionor social aspects.10
The 6 Themes Approach under which Dublin CityCouncil formulated and implemented theirsustainable development policy are as follows: 1. Economic 2. Social 3. Cultural 4. Urban Form and Spatial 5. Movement 6. EnvironmentalBREEAM Refurbishment (DB) in the majority appears to address the sixthemes and also includes a number of worthwhile initiatives which couldbe considered for adoption here11
Management01 Home Users Guide02 ResponsibleConstruction Practices03 Construction Site impacts04 Security05 Protection andEnhancement of EcologicalFeatures06 Project ManagementHealth & Well Being01 Daylighting02 Sound Insulation03 Volatile OrganicCompounds04 Inclusive Design05 Ventilation06 SafetyEnergy01 Improvement in EnergyEfficiency Rating02 Energy Efficiency Rating PostRefurbishment03 Primary Energy Demand04 Renewable Technologies05 Energy Labelled White Goods06 Drying Space07 Lighting08 Display Energy Devices09 Cycle Storage10 Home OfficeWater01 Internal water use02 External Water Use03 Water meterMaterials01 Environmental Impact ofMaterials02 Responsible Sourcing ofMaterials03 InsulationPollution01 Nitrogen Oxide Emissions02 Surface water runoff03 FloodingWaste01 Household waste02 Refurbishment Site WasteManagementInnovation01 InnovationIssues covered within BREEAM Refurbishment Domestic Buildings12
“We begin to make human systems and industries fitting when werecognise that all sustainability (just like all politics) is local. Weconnect them to local material and energy flows, and to local customs,needs, and tastes, from the level of the molecule to the level of theregion itself” (Braungart & Donough, 2008).20MSc. Energy Retrofit Technology,Dublin School of Architecture,Bolton Street, Dublin 1.