Network infrastructure - TCP/IP

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  • brief explanation helps to freshers like viewing a story of TCP/IP...
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  • Network infrastructure - TCP/IP

    1. 1. Network Infrastructure Session 1 The TCP/IP Model:How data is packaged and sent
    2. 2. Overview• What are we going to see?• Jargon, Acronyms and Keywords• Brief history of network models, the Internet and Al Gore’s involvement• Networking Models/Frameworks• The TCP/IP Model - How your data is packaged and prepared to be sent over a network
    3. 3. So what are we going to see? Data Encapsulation Process How data is prepared to be sent Layer “Data”Encapsulation “Segment” aka “TCP Segment” or “Datagram” “Packet” * IP Layer * Network Layer “Frame” * Network Interface Layer * Data Link Layer * Network Link Layer
    4. 4. Tell it to me in “FedEX” =
    5. 5. Jargon, Acronyms and Keywords• Protocol• Network Model Architecture (NM/A)• TCP - Transmission Control Protocol• IP - Internet Protocol• TCP/IP Model = Internet Model = Internet Protocol Suite = the list goes on• Encapsulation
    6. 6. TCP/IP Model Terminology / Key Concepts• (Data) Encapsulation • Process of modifying or “packaging” data
    7. 7. TCP/IP Model Terminology / Key Concepts• Same Layer Interaction • Interaction between 2 computers at same layer • Headers at that layer hold the information that they want to communicate
    8. 8. TCP/IP Model Terminology / Key Concepts• Adjacent Layer Interaction • higher layers request to the next lower- layer protocol to perform a service, and the next lower-layer performs the service for the higher layer
    9. 9. TCP & IP two parts of a whole• TCP facilitates the exchange of data (the “message”) directly between two computers (hosts/clients) on a network• IP handles the addressing and routing of the data (“message”) across network(s)
    10. 10. FedEX Analogy• TCP is the service that boxes up, packs, ships/receives your message (e.g. UPS/ Fed-EX/Canada Post/USPS)• IP is the Mailing Addresses (From/To) and Directions (Send through YYZ to get to SFO) involved in getting your message delivered
    11. 11. So Where does this all happen? (in the context of this class)
    12. 12. On client devices
    13. 13. On servers
    14. 14. So Where does this all happen?• From a birds view: client devices & servers• Under a microscope: • it is an interactive process between the operating system (Windows, OS X, Linux) and the network card (Wired/Wireless) • is both a hardware and software interaction • Occurs before leaving your computer (device)
    15. 15. Context• 1970’s each company (IBM, Apple, Bell etc.) had their own closed standards• no open standardized model(s) between companies• computers/devices from different vendors were unable to speak to each other even if physically connected
    16. 16. Network Model / Architecture “NM/A”• they are a set of functions and protocols for both Hardware and Software• each NM/A takes a layered approach• layered approach makes it: • efficient • easier • granularity for troubleshooting
    17. 17. Network Model /Architecture “NM/A”
    18. 18. NM/A - Standardization• There are two well known models:• 1. OSI Model (Open Standards Interconnection?) - Created by the ISO • This is used primarily as a reference model now for most NM/A• 2. TCP/IP Model - Created for/by the US-DoD (ARPANET / DARPA) • It is the internet
    19. 19. Special Note• “Layer #” device - This most often refers to a corresponding layer in the OSI Model not the TCP/IP model• Layers are not numbered in TCP/IP model
    20. 20. OSI vs. TCP/IPLayer 7Layer 6Layer 5Layer 4Layer 3Layer 2Layer 1
    21. 21. Then came Al Gore
    22. 22. Then came Al Gore• Al Gore and the Internet http://pro.ps/UMYVk• As a Senator, Gore began to craft the High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991 (commonly referred to as "The Gore Bill")• Gore continued his involvement with the computer industry and new technologies after he left the White House in 2001. He is a member of the Board of Directors of Apple Inc. and a Senior Advisor to Google.
    23. 23. Without Al Gore therewould be no internet
    24. 24. Again...Tell it to me in “FedEX” =
    25. 25. What’s the big deal about TCP/IP?
    26. 26. What’s the big deal about TCP/IP? How data is prepared to be sent Layer “Data”Encapsulation “Segment” aka “TCP Segment” or “Datagram” “Packet” * IP Layer * Network Layer “Frame” * Network Interface Layer * Data Link Layer * Network Link Layer
    27. 27. TCP/IP Model as FedEx Data Encapsulation is How data is packaged and sentEncapsulation
    28. 28. TCP/IP Model• 4 Layers • Application • Transport • Internet • Link
    29. 29. Note• the naming of these is inconsistent across literature by different authors/ companies• see: http://pro.ps/qJ6ET
    30. 30. TCP/IP Model Application Layer• “Top” / “Upper Most” / “First” Layer• Provides services to software applications (i.e. Firefox etc.) • Actual ‘Software’ “sits on top” of this layer - Firefox is “above” this layer• Examples of protocols at this layer - FTP, HTTP, SMTP• Each protocol has its own port e.g. http port 80 - FTP port 21
    31. 31. TCP/IP Model Application Layer• At this layer data comes in coded according to application layer protocols (i.e. http, ftp, IMAP etc.)• Data is sent off to the next lower layer (Transport Layer) to be encapsulated with a ‘lower layer’ protocol (e.g. TCP or UDP) to start actual data transfer
    32. 32. TCP/IP Model Application Layer• Joe from Accounting has a document to send (data) -> Joe is the Web Browser (Application)• You are the Mailroom Boy (A.K.A. The Application Layer)• Joe hands gives you his document to FedEX
    33. 33. Application Layer to Transport Layer Application Layer Joe’s Document “Data”Encapsulation (e.g.http) From Accounting Transport Layer
    34. 34. Application Layer to Transport Layer Application Layer Joe’s Document “Data” (e.g.http) From AccountingEncapsulation You arrive at
    35. 35. TCP/IP Model Transport Layer• Home to “TCP” in TCP/IP• TCP = Transmission Control Protocol
    36. 36. TCP/IP Model Transport Layer• “Second” Layer• Uses two categories of protocols to “transport” / encapsulate the data(a.k.a. datagrams, TCP Segments) • Reliable (i.e. TCP - Transmission Control Protocol) • Unreliable (i.e. UDP - User Datagram Protocol)
    37. 37. Reliable Transport (i.e. TCP)• Acknowledgement of data received by the destination device• Retransmission of data if not received - no missing data in reliable transport• Timeout if it takes too long for a message to arrive
    38. 38. Reliable Transport (i.e. TCP)• Ordered - puts messages in proper sequence - buffers out of order messages and then properly re-orders before sending to application• Think valuable info - Financial data!
    39. 39. Unreliable Transport (i.e. UDP)• No concept of Acknowledgement, Retransmission or Timeout• No Re-Ordering of the message sent - if two messages sent - the order they arrive can’t be predicted• Data integrity is checked IF the message arrives• Meant for speed/burst transmission (i.e. voice)
    40. 40. Transport Layer Responsibilities• Flow Control - “Windowing”• Multiplexing - “Sockets” - Example: Web Browsers and Multiple Tabbed Pages• Segmentation - Breaks data into smaller chunks when sending• Clump - reassembles data when receiving (Reverse of Segmentation)
    41. 41. TCP/IP Model Transport Layer• A Transport Layer HEADER is added to the Application Layer Data• This Transport Layer (“Protocol”) Header *plus* Application Layer Data is referred to as a SEGMENT (aka TCP Segment or Datagram)
    42. 42. Reliable transport - Analogy• Using the mail analogy: Reliable transport is like sending registered/ courier mail • you get confirmation of when the package arrives at its destination • you also are told if it’s lost and can track where it gets lost (in theory...)
    43. 43. Unreliable transport - Analogy• Unreliable is like sending a postcard • no return address - only who you’re sending to • you don’t care if it gets there you just send it and wish it luck
    44. 44. Transport Layer = Weighing, Packaging and Getting a Shipping#1) Weigh your message Fed-Ex Layer
    45. 45. Transport Layer = Weighing, Packaging and Getting a Shipping#1) Weigh your message Fed-Ex Layer 2) Message almost always too big
    46. 46. Transport Layer = Weighing, Packaging and Getting a Shipping#1) Weigh your message Fed-Ex Layer 2) Message almost always too big 3) Split into smaller messages“Segmentation”
    47. 47. Transport Layer = Weighing, Packaging and Getting a Shipping#1) Weigh your message Fed-Ex Layer 2) Message almost Packing Slip for always too big Content Info Only 3) Split into smaller messages“Segmentation”
    48. 48. ~OR~
    49. 49. Transport Layer = Weighing, Packaging and Getting a Shipping# 3) Split into smaller messagesSegmentation
    50. 50. Transport Layer = Weighing, Packaging and Getting a Shipping# 3) Split into 4*) Shipping #s smaller #1 #2 #3 (*optional) messagesSegmentation
    51. 51. Transport Layer = Weighing, Packaging and Getting a Shipping# 3) Split into 4*) Shipping #s smaller #1 #2 #3 (*optional) messagesSegmentation Packing slip with: Content Info & Shipping# #1 #2 #3
    52. 52. With or Without Shipping # What’s the Diff? #1, 2, 3 vs. No #’s
    53. 53. With or Without Shipping # What’s the Diff? #1, 2, 3 vs. No #’s Reliable Unreliable Transport Transport Registered Unregistered Mail Mail Fed-EX Post Card TCP UDP
    54. 54. With or Without Shipping # What’s the Diff? #1, 2, 3 vs. No #’s Reliable Unreliable Transport Transport TCP UDP
    55. 55. Did you notice anything?• No sender address info• No recipient address info• This is handled and passed down to Internet Layer
    56. 56. Break Time
    57. 57. Application Layer to Transport Layer “Data” LayerEncapsulation (e.g.http) “Segment” aka “TCP Segment” or “datagram” Layer Transport Layer Header added to Application Layer Data
    58. 58. Application Layer to Transport Layer Joe’s “Data” Document LayerEncapsulation (e.g.http) “Segment” aka Arrive at local “TCP Segment” or FedEX “datagram” Layer Transport Layer Header added to Application Layer Data
    59. 59. Transport Layer to Internet Layer “Segment” aka “TCP Segment” or “datagram” Layer Encapsulation “Packet” LayerInternet Layer Header added to Transport Layer Segment
    60. 60. Transport Layer to Internet Layer “Segment” aka “TCP Segment” or “datagram” Layer Encapsulation “Packet” LayerInternet Layer Header added to Transport Layer Segment
    61. 61. TCP/IP Model Internet Layer• Home the “IP” of TCP/IP• IP = Internet Protocol• Provides addresses -> e.g. 192.168.1.1 or 46 Hayden Street M4Y 1V8
    62. 62. TCP/IP Model Internet Layer• “Third” Layer• Also known as the “NETWORK (IP) LAYER” - and a whole bunch of names...• Responsible for: • Routing - (Big Topic) • Addressing / Subnetting • Routers operate at this Layer
    63. 63. TCP/IP Model Internet Layer• An Internet Layer HEADER is added to the Transport Layer Segment• This Internet (“IP”) Header *plus* Transport Layer Segment is referred to as a PACKET
    64. 64. Internet Layer - Time to give it a Shipping LabelFrom: To:123 ABC Street 321 BCA AveM2N 4E6 L4R 6Y2 192.168.1.1 10.1.1.1255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0
    65. 65. Transport Layer to Internet Layer “Segment” aka “TCP Segment” or “datagram” Layer Encapsulation “Packet” LayerInternet Layer Header added to Transport Layer Segment
    66. 66. Internet Layer to Link Layer “Packet” LayerEncapsulation “Frame” Link LayerLink Layer Header added to Internet Link Layer Footer added to Internet Layer Layer Packet Packet
    67. 67. TCP/IP Model Link Layer• “Last” / “Bottom” / “Fourth” Layer• Also known as the “DATA LINK, NETWORK LINK LAYER”• Has 2 Components • Software - “Data Link” • LAN (Ethernet) • Hardware - “Physical Link” • Voltages • Pins on a connector (8 for RJ-45)
    68. 68. TCP/IP Model Link Layer• MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) is controlled by this layer• Max MTU over Ethernet is 1500-bytes• HUB & Switch operate at this layer• We use MAC addresses (Media Access Control) here NOT IP addresses
    69. 69. TCP/IP Model Link Layer• A Link Layer HEADER *and* FOOTER is added to the Internet Layer Packet• This Link Layer Header & Footer *plus* Internet Layer Packet is referred to as a FRAME
    70. 70. TCP/IP Model Link Layer• This is where the package makes it to the back of the warehouse• It is then ready to be put on to a shipping truck, van etc.
    71. 71. TCP/IP Model Link Layer• This layer specifies how the data is to leave FedEX store -> Cube Van only? 16 Wheeler?
    72. 72. Transport Layer to Network (IP) Layer “Packet” LayerEncapsulation “Frame” Link LayerLink Layer Header added to Internet Link Layer Footer added to Internet Layer Layer Packet Packet
    73. 73. TCP/IP Model Data Encapsulation Process Layer “Data”Encapsulation “Segment” aka “TCP Segment” or “Datagram” “Packet” “Frame”
    74. 74. TCP/IP:How data is packaged Thanks! Email: Ray@RaymondKao.com Twitter: @RayKao

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