THESIS 1 UPDATE Ray Mancini | Prof. Tom Klinkowstein
PROBLEM/HYPOTHESISMany modern speech therapies have deﬁciencies, and no single technique works foreveryone suﬀering from disﬂuency. More often, speech therapists emphasizephysiological behaviors and techniques, while not fully confronting or understandinga stutterer’s mental anxieties and personal experiences.In contrast to current stuttering approaches, which often set unrealistic expectationsof perfection, strict guidelines, or focus on only one area for improvement, designthinking examines a problem holistically and promotes experimentation.Using design thinking’s human-centered observation, prototyping, and constantreﬁnement, a robust system of speech disﬂuency evaluation and experimentationcould be created to facilitate self-improvement and augment existing therapy.
1: Introduction1. State that I am a stutterer2. Deﬁne Stuttering3. Use statistics to show it is a signiﬁcant problem4. Discuss speech therapy in general • no miracle cure, many methods/schools of thought, room for improvement5. Mention a bit about design thinking • the ways designers think in order to solve a problem6. State the problem7. State the hypothesis
2: Stuttering and Speech Therapy1. Three main types of Stuttering (repetition, prolongation, blocking)2. How stuttering is generally evaluated3. Stuttering Therapies and Treatment approaches in-depth • General Categories (DAF, Fluency shaping, stuttering modiﬁcation, • Notable Therapies and approaches • Limitations/critiques of speciﬁc and overall therapies/approaches4. Therapy statistics (eﬀectiveness, satisfaction, therapy vs. no therapy)5. Stuttering and Society • Cultural and social relevance • Myths and stigmas that work against stutterersNotes:• Add in personal vignettes• Incorporate research from interviews & discussions with stutterers and therapists
3: Design Thinking1. Deﬁne Design Thinking2. Show an example from the design world that users may understand3. Show that designers and stutterers have similar “issues” or variables that aﬀecthow they operate or achieve success. • Possible Example: John Harrison’s Hexagon & T-Shaped Persons • “Stuttering can be more accurately understood as a system involving the entire person” - John Harrison
4: A new system based on design thinkingDeﬁne the basic idea of my new “system”“I am not creating a new system of therapy. I am creating a method/system ofevaluation, experimentation, and discussion to help stutterers bring new insight totheir stuttering (and to themselves) in an exploratory, incremental way. Only YOU(the stutter) really know every variable and nuance of how your stutter and itseﬀects. This new system will allow you to discover these observable variables anduse these insights to achieve your own goals.”Through a new example, show how design thinking is the basis for this new system,and how it would apply to stuttering.Roger Martin:Designer’s Personal Knowledge System (Stances, Tools, and Experiences)Values validity and exploration. Rather than perpetuate the past, designer creates the future.
4a: How the system could operate1. Personal Stance/BeliefsBe aware of your own decisions, and inquire about the beliefs and assumptions behind them. Beready to embrace the complexity that comes with evaluating your stuttering.“Why am I afraid of the phone? Do I just dismiss it without reason, or is there something I can workon there?”2a. ObservationObserving subjects in action. For stuttering, video taping and posting situations (like phone calls)enables immediate evaluation of my stuttering, as well as getting analysis from others. Look forpatterns/insight.2b. ImaginationBased on the video taping, make an inference to why you are behaving certain ways (abductivereasoning). This can’t be proved in advanced, only through exploration. You are asking if this maybe true.“Do I make calls better after I exercise for 10 minutes? It seems like it...”
4b: How the system could operate2c. Test this inference.Create a prototype/experiment and test your “hunch”. If necessary, reﬁne it each time as youbegin to observe patterns. Can it be reﬁned more?2d. ConﬁgurationMake the results of your inference into a repeatable activity that works for you, as well as ﬁttinginto your current therapy or treatment.3. ExperiencesMaster your tools, but don’t lose sight of originality in approaching new problems. While youcontinue to practice your speech techniques, and may master them within the conﬁnes of certainsituations, you should be prepared to try new situations out and expand your knowledge base.“I speak incredibly well when ordering from this familiar restaurant, but I really should try anunfamiliar one sometime and see what happens.”
5: ConclusionCreate a conclusive ending, as well as greater aspirations for futureimplementation.
John HarrisonHarrison is a copywriter, scriptwriter, and a writer of corporate trainings andbooks. He is also a gifted speaker, speechwriter and presentation coach, aswell as a “former” stutterer.He wrote a 600-page book about it:REDEFINING STUTTERING: What the struggle to speak is really all about“You need a supportive environment where you can practice, experiment,totally let go, and trust your inner self without fear of penalty.”According to John Harrison s Hexagon, stuttering is the by-product of sixHexagon points: physiological responses, behaviors, beliefs, emotions,beliefs, perceptions and intentions. Changing these elements of theHexagon will lead Changing these elements of the Hexagon will lead usautomatically away from stuttering.”Harrison runs public speaking workshops through his “Speaking Freely”organization in San Francisco, where individuals pay to practice their publicspeaking skills with each other, using observation and reﬁnement. Alsodescribes how to do this at home with your own groups. He has outlinedspeciﬁc steps to accomplish this. He doesn’t believe in traditional therapy,and doesn’t feel you should identify as a stutterer. Many stutterers ﬁnd itcontroversial (feels like self-help program).