DIRECTED RESEARCH Ray Mancini | Prof. Tom Klinkowstein
WHAT IS THE PROBLEM?Most modern speech therapies have deﬁciencies,and no single technique works for everyonesuﬀering from disﬂuency.Can design thinking possibly form the foundationfor a new, holistic method of therapy?
HYPOTHESISThis thesis presents the hypothesis that design thinking may oﬀer a partialsolution to deﬁciencies in modern day speech therapies.In contrast to current stuttering approaches, which often set unrealisticexpectations of perfection or focus on only one area for improvement,design thinking examines a problem holistically and promotesexperimentation. Using human-centered design and a multi-disciplinary,“T-shaped” team, a robust system of speech disﬂuency evaluation andtherapeutic implementation could be created.Such research and comparison could bring interdisciplinary insight intounderstanding and circumventing the limited verbal communication ofstutterers.
DEFICIENCY / DESIGN COMPARISONSDEFICIENCY Expectation of perfection.DESIGN Mistakes are aesthetically desirable.DEFICIENCY Narrow treatment focus.DESIGN Look at all aspects of a problem (context, history, environment) to achieve a successful solution.DEFICIENCY No streamlining/ﬁltering of spoken content.DESIGN Simplify a larger message to its focused essence.DEFICIENCY Many “one-size-ﬁts-all” approaches.DESIGN Every problem needs a unique approach.DEFICIENCY Limitations will never allow “normal” communication.DESIGN Limitations force us to be creative and explore diﬀerent techniques to communicate eﬀectively.
1 : OverviewWhat is adult stuttering and speech disﬂuency? • scientiﬁc deﬁnition • statistics • social and cultural relevance / stigmaMy story as a stutterer • Description of my stutter from childhood until now • Therapies, techniques utilized by me, and their general results • Adapting to a life with an impairment (positives and negatives)My story as a designer • The creative spark - becoming a designer • The need for expression outside of verbal communication
2 : Problem / HypothesisDeﬁne the Problem & Hypothesis
3 : Speech Therapies1. Introduction to & descriptions of the main speech therapy approaches • Delayed Auditory Feedback and Anti-stuttering devices • Medication • Fluency Shaping • Stress / Iowa Therapies / Psychotherapy2. General Deﬁciencies Associated with each therapy approach3. Overall Deﬁciencies in all Therapies
4 : Design Thinking1. What is design thinking? • Deﬁne design thinking (Tim Brown, Roger Martin)2. The three spaces of innovation as deﬁned by Tim Brown • Inspiration, Ideation, Implementation3. Human-centered design • Insight, observation, and empathy4. “Smart Teams” and brainstorming • How multidisciplinary, ”T-shaped” teams can be useful5. Scenarios and creating a narrative “story”5. Getting users to act as “Design Thinkers” • build on behaviors familiar to them • engage users to act as active participants in their own stories
5 : Ideation Phase1. The current state of stuttering evaluation and therapy • Analysis of evaluation models and parameters currently used by therapists • Analysis of other approaches and theories2. Human-centered observation and insight • Interview and discuss approaches with therapists and stutterers, ﬁnding out how they current administer and utilize therapy. • Interview and discuss experiences of adult stutterers, seeking insight into how they react to therapy, and their own stuttering.3. Multi-disciplinary “Smart” team • Form a team of varied individuals to brainstorm the resulting data and observations, searching for meaningful patterns that can be utilized. • Use convergent and divergent thinking to create and eliminate options.4. Prototyping and Testing • Work to create a new system of evaluation, getting feedback and revising until it is satisfactory.
6: ImplementationThis section would illustrate how design thinking can “create” experimentsand exercises that will push stutterers towards improvements in therevised “holistic therapy” categories...and within their owntraditional therapies.
7 : Social Interaction, Community-basedsupport, & Progress TrackingCombine all aspects of this new “holistic therapy”and all relevantexperiments into an interactive community, where individuals canpotentially chart their progress, receive support, and create a self-therapyor augment their own traditional therapy.
RESEARCH SOURCESSPEECH THERAPY• National Stuttering Association (NSA)• Stuttering Foundation of America• British Stammering Association (BSA)• Various Therapists• Speciﬁc therapy cases• My own current experiences and the experiences of othersINNOVATORS IN DESIGN THINKING• IDEO - Tim Brown, David Kelley• Roger MartinDESIGN THEORIES / APPROACHES1. T-shaped Designers2. Transition Theory3. Analytic vs. Intuitive Thinking4. Other interdisciplinary applications of design thinking
INTERDISCIPLINARY INNOVATIONADRIAN HILLARTIST, ART THERAPIST, EDUCATOR (1895-1977) Discovered the therapeutic beneﬁts of drawing and painting while recovering from tuberculosis Coined the term ‘art therapy’ Said the value of art therapy lay in ‘completely engrossing the mind (as well as the ﬁngers) Suggested artistic work to his fellow inpatients, who were documented in 1945 in a book, under the title, “Art Versus Illness”
WIDENING ONE’S KNOWLEDGE BASETIM BROWNCEO AND PRESIDENT OF IDEO Spoke of “T-shaped People, individuals with a deep skill set in their chosen ﬁeld, plus a broader range of interdisciplinary and social skills. Able to explore insights from many diﬀerent perspectives and recognize patterns of behavior.
CONTINUOUS EXPERIMENTATIONMALCOLM FRASERPHILANTHROPIST, BUSINESSMAN, STUTTERER (1903 - 1994) Founded the Stuttering Foundation of America using $10 million of his own money Authored “Self-Therapy for the Stutterer”, providing guidance for stutterers to help themselves without conventional therapy.
VALORIZED DESIGNER #1“The valorized designer should see design for itsmajor potential contribution to making thequality of life richer and more sustainable.”My thesis has the potential to alter the lives ofmany stutterers, including myself. The ﬁnaloutput may be a new and unique addition to theﬁelds of design AND speech therapy.
VALORIZED DESIGNER #2“It is important that (designers) see how theideas they are studying are changing: where theideas have come from, how they have changed,and how they may develop.”By studying historical and contemporary designmethodologies and speech therapies, I can arriveat a well-informed solution for my thesis.
VALORIZED DESIGNER #3“The valorized designer will be able to evaluatedesign as an integral and integrated part of aparticular society.”My thesis may potentially show how designthinking can aid a very large group of peopleaﬄicted with a severe limitation. This placesdesign in direct relation to a stutteringcommunity that may not yet be aware ofdesign’s potential to help them.
ADJACENT APPLICATIONSBesides Speech Therapy, the hypothesis andresearch presented here could possibly beapplied to other physical or mental disabilities.