DIRECTED RESEARCH Ray Mancini | Prof. Tom Klinkowstein
WHAT IS THE PROBLEM?Most modern speech therapies have ﬂaws,and no single technique works for everyonesuﬀering from disﬂuency.Can design thinking possibly form the foundationfor a new method of therapy?
HYPOTHESISThis thesis presents the hypothesis that design methodology may oﬀer apartial solution to overarching ﬂaws in modern day speech therapies.In contrast to current stuttering approaches, which often set unrealisticexpectations of perfection or focus on only one area for improvement,design thinking examines a problem from all sides and promotesexperimentation. A concept like the “T-shaped Designer”, emphasizing astrong skill set in conjunction with a larger knowledge base, could oﬀer arobust approach currently not being utilized in the speech therapy ﬁeld.Such research and comparison could bring interdisciplinary insight intounderstanding and circumventing the limited verbal communication ofstutterers.
FLAW / DESIGN COMPARISONSFLAW Expectation of perfection.DESIGN Mistakes are aesthetically desirable.FLAW Narrow treatment focus.DESIGN Look at all aspects of a problem (context, history, environment) to achieve a successful solution.FLAW No streamlining/ﬁltering of spoken content.DESIGN Simplify a larger message to its focused essence.FLAW Many “one-size-ﬁts-all” approaches.DESIGN Every problem needs a unique approach.FLAW Limitations will never allow “normal” communication.DESIGN Limitations force us to be creative and explore diﬀerent techniques to communicate eﬀectively.
INTERDISCIPLINARY INNOVATIONADRIAN HILLARTIST, ART THERAPIST, EDUCATOR (1895-1977) Discovered the therapeutic beneﬁts of drawing and painting while recovering from tuberculosis Coined the term ‘art therapy’ Said the value of art therapy lay in ‘completely engrossing the mind (as well as the ﬁngers) Suggested artistic work to his fellow inpatients, who were documented in 1945 in a book, under the title, “Art Versus Illness”
WIDENING ONE’S KNOWLEDGE BASETIM BROWNCEO AND PRESIDENT OF IDEO Spoke of “T-shaped People, individuals with a deep skill set in their chosen ﬁeld, plus a broader range of interdisciplinary and social skills. Able to explore insights from many diﬀerent perspectives and recognize patterns of behavior.
CONTINUOUS EXPERIMENTATIONMALCOLM FRASERPHILANTHROPIST, BUSINESSMAN, STUTTERER (1903 - 1994) Founded the Stuttering Foundation of America using $10 million of his own money Authored “Self-Therapy for the Stutterer”, providing guidance for stutterers to help themselves without conventional therapy.
OUTLINEMY STORYPROBLEM / HYPOTHESISSPEECH DISFLUENCY • Overview • Types of Available Therapies • Therapy Shortcomings / FlawsDESIGN METHODOLOGY • Overview • Evolution of design methodologies through history • Speciﬁc design thinkers • Speciﬁc design methodologies
VALORIZED DESIGNER #1“The valorized designer should see design for itsmajor potential contribution to making thequality of life richer and more sustainable.”My thesis has the potential to alter the lives ofmany stutterers, including myself. The ﬁnaloutput may be a new and unique addition to theﬁelds of design AND speech therapy.
VALORIZED DESIGNER #2“It is important that (designers) see how theideas they are studying are changing: where theideas have come from, how they have changed,and how they may develop.”By studying historical and contemporary designmethodologies and speech therapies, I can arriveat a well-informed solution for my thesis.
VALORIZED DESIGNER #3“The valorized designer will be able to evaluatedesign as an integral and integrated part of aparticular society.”My thesis may potentially show how designthinking can aid a very large group of peopleaﬄicted with a severe limitation. This placesdesign in direct relation to a stutteringcommunity that may not yet be aware ofdesign’s potential to help them.
RESEARCH SOURCESSPEECH THERAPY• National Stuttering Association (NSA)• Stuttering Foundation of America• British Stammering Association (BSA)• Various Therapists• Speciﬁc therapy cases• My own current experiences and the experiences of othersINNOVATORS IN DESIGN THINKING• IDEO - Tim Brown, David Kelley• Roger MartinDESIGN THEORIES / APPROACHES1. T-shaped Designers2. Transition Theory3. Analytic vs. Intuitive Thinking4. Other interdisciplinary applications of design thinking
ADJACENT APPLICATIONSBesides Speech Therapy, the hypothesis andresearch presented here could possibly beapplied to other physical or mental disabilities.