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What is tuberculosis


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What is tuberculosis

  1. 1. What is Tuberculosis? Tuberculosis is a disease of the lungs caused by germs. This germs are spreading to the air, when an affected personcoughs. How is TB distributed? TB remains a major public health problem in Bangladesh. The country ranks sixth among 22 highest burden TB countries in the world. It is estimated that about 70,000 people die every year due to TB. However in worldwide TB kills 60% of the affected people who are not treated. These amount 3 million deaths every year. Then… What causes TB? You see TB is spread from person to person through the air when coughing or sneezing is a process infected others. it may also be caused by drinking unboiled milk from an infected cow. Which factors may include?  Alchoholism; where excess alchohol weakens the immune system.  Close contact to an infected person.  Smoking.  Overcrowding that is Living in a crowded living conditions.  Malnutrition in children.  And diseases that weakens the immune system such as; HIV AIDS, diabetes mellitus, congenital heart disorder, leukaemia, Hodgkin’s disease, long term corticosteroids or, immunosuppressive drugs. What are the symptoms of TB? Most common symptoms of TB include persistent cough that last long period of time resulting into: 1. Chest pain 2. Malaise 3. Irritability 4. Loss of appetite 5. Pyrexia and tachycardia 6. Increase night sweats 7. Haemoptysis
  2. 2. 8. Less avoid and if untreated TB spread to the body How does TB developin the body? TB develops in the bodywhen an affected persons coughs germs are spreading to the air and breath in by a normal person. This germs trouble through the air and in to the bodythrough the nose and mouth. This germs spread deep inside the lungs to the air sacs when a normal person breaths in. While in the lungs the body’s immune system tries to fight the germs by surrounding and swallowing them. If untreated TB spreads to other parts of the body. How does someone find out that he/she has TB? You cannot know on your own. However a qualified health worker performs a physical exam and takes a health history of the infected personincluding the symptoms. How is TB treated? Tuberculosis is treated when a qualified health worker prescribe medication with needs to be taken exactly as directed to effective in cure TB. It is important to note that one should avoid changing medication. This together with rest is the treatment for curing TB. Drugs used are rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide which are anti-TB and must be taken everyday for up to 18 months. Streptomycin may also be prescribed. Patient should also be monitored to ensure that medicine is taken accordingly and it is not thrown away or else the disease is not cure. When Surgery is needed? This is appropriate only in a very small proportionof patients. If a patient has a resistant tubercle a lobectomy may be performed but the patient must still be on a programme of drugs. Physiotherapy program? This is not usually indicated during the rest stage. Once the patient is ambulant, a graded preogramme of exercise may be required. If it is necessary to give breathing exercises, the physiotherapist should stand behind the patient to avoid droplet infection as the patient coughs. Sputum must be disposed ofvery carefully so that cross-infection is prevented.
  3. 3. How is TB is prevented? First of all a person should cover their mouth while coughing. One should also ensure good nutrition and vaccination is a must. In summary:  TB is a bacterial disease.  It is caused by germs known as Mycobecterium tuberculosis.  A person may test positive with TB but shows no physical symptoms of the disease.  A person with TB exhibits chest pain, fever, sweating in the night, loss of appetite and persistent cough.  TB claims 3 million deaths per year worldwide.  90% of people with TB can be treated and cured provided they take medicine as prescribed by the health personnel.  TB is only confirmed when a qualified health worker takes tests on an individual suspected to have acquired the infection.  People sick with TB are required to take a combination of drugs as prescribed by a qualified health worker for a specified period of time.  TB can be prevented by vaccination, early diagnosis and practicing good hygiene such as covering the mouth while coughing. Note that you should avoid self-medication. Thank you for watching.