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Grammar book


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SP2H Grammar Book

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Grammar book

  1. 1. Grammar Book
  2. 2. Table of Content Nacionalidad Stem changing Indirect/Direct Objects Gustar Negative words/Affirmatives Los superlatives Reflexives Affirmative commands Irregular Negative Sequencing
  3. 3. Nacionalidad Cuba CubanoNicaragua Nicaraguense Uruguayo UruguayCosta Rica Costarricense Paraguay ParaguayoEstados Unidos Norteamericanos Puerto Rico Puertorriquno Estdounidense Panama PanamenoVenezuela venezolanoPeru peruano El Salvador SalvadorenoChile chileano Honduras HondurenoColombia colombiano Espana EspanolBolivia Boliviano Guatemala GuatemaltecoEcuador Ecuatoriano Guinea GuineanoArgentina Argentino Ecuatorial La Republica DominicanoMexico Mexicano Dominicana
  4. 4. Stem Changinge>i o > ue e > iePedir Almorzar PensarPido Almuerzo PiensoPides Almuerzas PiensasPide Almuerza PiensaPedimos Almorzamos PensamosPedis Almorzais PensaisPiden Almuerzan Piensan
  5. 5. Indirect/ Direct ObjectsSingular Pluralme nosMe Uste osYou (familiar) You (familiar)le lesYou (formal), him, her You, then
  6. 6. When you want to talk about things that peopleGustar like, change the form or gustar to match the singular or plural nouns for those things.Singular Pluralme gusta me gustante gusta te gustanle gusta le gustannos gusta nos gustanos gusta os gustanles gusta les gustan
  7. 7. Negative Words/ AffirmativesAffirmatives Negative Wordsalgo - something Nada - nothingAlguien - someone Nadie - no onealgun / alguno - same ningun / nunguno – none, not anySiempre - always Nunca - neverTambien - also Tampoco - neither, either
  8. 8. To express extremes with most adjectives, drop the final vowel and add the ending –isimo(a).Los Superlatives The adjective must agree in gender and number with the noun it modifiesisimo isimosmalo > malisimo caliente > calientisimosisima isimaslarga > larguisima muchas > muchisimasc > qu *When the last consonant is c, g, or z, spelling changes are requiredg > guz>c
  9. 9. ReflexivesMe Te Selavo lavas lavaNos Os Selavamos laváis lavan
  10. 10. Affirmative Commands Give instructions or commands to someone by using the Affirmative tu commands of regular verbs. *Notice it is a tú command, but ends like a 3 rd house form.* Caminar : ¡Camina! ¡Camina en el parque! Comer : ¡Come! ¡Come toda la hamburguesa! Abrir : Abre! ¡Abre la puerta, quiero entrar!
  11. 11. IrregularInfinitive Affirmative tú CommandDecir DiHacer HazIr VePoner PonSalir SalSer SéTener TenVenir Ven
  12. 12. Negative tú Commands When you tell someone what not to do, use a negative commands. Negative tú commands are formed by taking you form of the present tense, dropping the – o, and adding the appropriate ending. Hablo  -es for –ar verbs Vuelvo  -as for –er and –ir verbsInfinitive Yo Form Negative tú Commandhablar hablo ¡No Hables!volver vuelvo ¡No vuelvas!
  13. 13. SequencingPrimero FirstEntonces ThenLuego/después Then / afterPor Fin FinallyAntes de/ después de Before / afterPor la mañana/ tarde/ In the morning/noche afternoon/ night