THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: FACTORS LEADING TO REBELLION AGAINST ENGLAND By: Neda Hefzi Katelyn White Kirsten Pearson Angel Ordaz Tim Dimayuga Alec Noble
Major Events 1764-1765 <ul><li>Navigation Act passed by Parliament – Strongly enforced </li></ul><ul><li>Stamp and Quartering Acts-Stamp Act congress convenes in New York </li></ul>
<ul><li>Parliament repeals the Stamp Act, but passes the Declaratory Act </li></ul><ul><li>Townshed Acts impose duties on goods, suspend the New York assembly </li></ul>Major Events 1766-1767
Major Events: 1768-1770 <ul><li>British troops occupied Austin </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament repeals all Townshend Act duties except for the tax on tea </li></ul>
BOSTON MASSACRE: MARCH 5 TH 1770 <ul><li>Provoked shootings of five American Colonist by British troops </li></ul><ul><li>Caused deepening distrust of British military presence in American colonies </li></ul>
<ul><li>Sons of Liberty disguised as Mohawk Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Boarded three British ships in the Boston harbor </li></ul><ul><li>Dumped over three hundred crates of British Tea into the ocean </li></ul><ul><li>This provoked the Intolerable Acts later on </li></ul>1773: Boston Tea Party
Major Events: 1772-1774 <ul><li>Samuel Adams creates first Committee of Correspondence </li></ul><ul><li>First Continental Congress convenes in Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><li>Boycott of British goods begins </li></ul>
<ul><li>British march to Lexington to take over a store of patriot ammunition </li></ul><ul><li>Fight breaks out between British and Minutemen stationed in Lexington </li></ul><ul><li>British marched to Concord, but are met by a larger army of men </li></ul><ul><li>British forced to retreat </li></ul>Battle of Lexington and Concord
Major Events: 1776 <ul><li>Thomas Paine writes Common Sense </li></ul>
<ul><li>Analyze the justifications of the American revolution/rebellion against England. Was it truly a revolution, or was it more evolutionary? Take account of the colonial view point and the view point of people living in England . </li></ul>DBQ Question
<ul><li>Analyze the justifications of the American revolution/rebellion against England. Was it truly a revolution, or was it more evolutionary? Take account of the colonial view point and the view point of people living in England. </li></ul>DBQ Question <ul><li>While the majority of conflicts directly leading to American Independence materialized in the thirteen years just before 1776, the American revolution was an evolutionary drift away from Britain and can be justified through the economic and political benefits of separation. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salutary Neglect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercantilism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ways to divide the essay: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern colonies, Southern colonies, people in England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political benefits for the colonies, political benefits for the colonies, social difference between the colonists and those in England </li></ul></ul>
Document A Source: Proclamation of 1763. And we do further declare it to be our royal will and pleasure to reserve under our sovereignty, protection, and dominion, for the use of the said Indians, all the land and territories not included within the limits of our said three new governments, or within the limits of the territory granted to the Hudson's Bay Company; as also all the land and territories lying to the westward of the sources of the rivers which fall into the seas from the west northwest as aforesaid. And we do hereby strictly forbid, on pain of our displeasure, all our loving subjects from making any purchases or settlements whatever, or taking possession of any of the lands above reserved, without our special leave and license for that purpose first obtained.
Document B Source: Currency Act, 1764. Whereas great quantities of paper bills of credit have been created and issued in his Majesty's colonies or plantations in America, . . . and whereas such bills of credit have greatly depreciated in their value, by means whereof debts have been discharged with a much less value than was contracted for, to the great discouragement and prejudice of the trade and commerce of his Majesty's subjects, by occasioning confusion in dealings, and lessening credit in the said colonies or plantations: for remedy whereof, may it please your most excellent Majesty, that it may be enacted; . . . That from and after the first day of September, 1764, no act, order, resolution, or vote of assembly, in any of his Majesty's colonies or plantations in America, shall be made, for creating or issuing any paper bills, or bills of credit of any kind or denomination whatsoever, declaring such paper bills, or bills of credit, to be legal tender in payment of any bargains, contracts, debts, dues, or demands whatsoever; and every clause or provision which shall hereafter be inserted in any act, order, resolution, or vote of assembly, contrary to this act, shall be null and void.
Document C Source: Benjamin Franklin, Pennsylvania Gazette , May 9, 1754.
Document D Source: The Stamp Act, March 22, 1765. Whereas by an act made in the last session of parliament, several duties were granted, continued, and appropriated, towards defraying the expences of defending, protecting, and securing, the British colonies and plantations in America . . . For every skin or piece of vellum or parchment, or sheet or piece of paper, on which shall be ingrossed, written or printed, any declaration, plea, replication, rejoinder, demurrer, or other pleading, or any copy thereof, in any court of law within the British colonies and plantations in America, a stamp duty of three pence . . .
Document E Source: Quartering Act, April 1765. Be it enacted. . . That for and during the continuance of this act, . . . , it shall and may be lawful to and for the constables, tithing men, magistrates, and other civil officers . . . , are hereby required to billet and quarter the officers and soldiers, in his Majesty's service, in the barracks provided by the colonies; . . . as shall be necessary, to quarter therein the residue of such officers and soldiers for whom there should not be room in such barracks and public houses . . .
Document F Source: The Stamp Act Resolutions, 1765. . . . His Majesty's subjects in these colonies owe the same allegiance to the Crown of Great Britain that is owing from his subjects born within the realm, and all due subordination to that august body the Parliament of Great Britain. . . . His Majesty's liege subjects in these colonies are intitled to all the inherent rights and liberties of his natural born subjects within the kingdom of Great Britain. . . . it is inseparably essential to the freedom of a people, and the undoubted right of Englishmen, that no taxes be imposed on them but with their own consent, given personally or by their representatives. . . . the people of these colonies are not, and from their local circumstances cannot be, represented in the House of Commons in Great Britain. . . . That the restrictions imposed by several late Acts of Parliament on the trade of these colonies will render them unable to purchase the manufactures of Great Britain.
Document G Source: The Pennsylvania Journal and Advertiser, 1765.
Document H Townshend Revenue Act, 1767. Here it shall be found necessary; and towards further defraying the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing the said dominions... be it enacted... That from and after . . . [November 20, 1767,] . . . there shall be raised, levied, collected, and paid, unto his Majesty, his heirs, and successors, for and upon the respective Goods herein after mentioned, which shall be imported from Great Britain into any colony or plantation in America which now is, or hereafter may be, under the dominion of his Majesty. . . For . . . plate, flint, and white glass, . . . green glass, . . . red lead . . ., white lead, . . . painters colours, . . . tea, . . . paper . . . . . . That his Majesty's royal predecessors, for this reason, were graciously pleased to form a subordinate legislature here, that their subjects might enjoy the unalienable right of a representation. . .
Document I Source: Paul Revere, The Boston Massacre , March 26, 1770.
Document J Source: Instructions by the Virginia Convention to Their Delegates in Congress, August 1-6, 1774. “ It cannot admit of a Doubt but that British Subjects in America are entitled to the same Rights and Privileges as their Fellow Subjects possess in Britain; and therefore, that the Power assumed by the British Parliament to bind America by their Statutes, in all Cases whatsoever, is unconstitutional, and the Source of these unhappy Differences.”
Document K Source: Patrick Henry , Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Death, March 23, 1775. It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry, Peace, Peace-- but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!
Document L Source: Thomas Paine, Common Sense , 1776 There is something exceedingly ridiculous in the composition of Monarchy; it first excludes a man from the means of information, yet empowers him to act in cases where the highest judgment is required. The state of a king shuts him from the World, yet the business of a king requires him to know it thoroughly; wherefore the different parts, by unnaturally opposing and destroying each other, prove the whole character to be absurd and useless. The prejudice of Englishmen, in favour of their own government, by King, Lords and Commons, arises as much or more from national pride than reason. Individuals. I have heard it asserted by some, that as America has flourished under her former connection with Great Britain, the same connection is necessary towards her future happiness, and will always have the same effect. Nothing can be more fallacious than this kind of argument. Alas! we have been long led away by ancient prejudices and made large sacrifices to superstition. We have boasted the protection of Great Britain, without considering, that her motive was interest not attachment; and that she did not protect us from our enemies on our account; but from her enemies on her own account.