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What a CLIL course looks like

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Cathrine-Mette MorkMiyazaki International College

2019 Teachers Helping Teachers presentation in Kyrgyzstan, Sept, 2019 CLIL (Content and Integrated Language Learning) is a form of instruction that attempts to emphasize both English language and content to non-native English speakers. It serves as the model of instruction for many courses taught in the liberal arts program of a small college in southern Japan, where the presenter is employed. This presentation explained CLIL through comparison with its cousins: EMI (English Medium Instruction) and CBI (Content Based Instruction). Some of the benefits of the CLIL model will be outlined. An overview of a 15-week freshman political science course meeting twice per week was presented in order to exemplify what a team-taught CLIL course might look like. Participants received a multiple-lesson plan and student materials for one of this course’s 10+ readings to see the how content and language can be integrated, and provided ideas to teachers interested in this instructional model.

What a CLIL course looks like

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THT
2019
Cathrine-Mette Mork
cmork@sky.miyazaki-mic.ac.jp
WHAT A
CLIL
COURSE
LOOKS
LIKE
THT
2019
1) EMI vs CBI vs CLIL
a) Quotes from scholars
b) Distinguishing criteria
2) Example CLIL lesson plan
3) Best CLIL practices
CONTENTS
THT
2019
1) EMI vs CBI vs CLIL
a) Quotes from scholars
b) Distinguishing criteria
2) Example CLIL lesson plan
3) Best CLIL practices
CONTENTS
THT
2019
4 for EMI
4 for CBI
4 for CLIL
QUOTES
“The central focus is on
students’ content mastery
and no language aims are
specified.”
(Unterberger & Wilhelmer, 2011, p.96)
EMI
ENGLISH-MEDIUM INSTRUCTION
EMI
“an umbrella term for
academic subjects taught
through English, one
making no direct reference
to the aim of improving
students’ English.”
(Dearden & Macaro, 2016, p.456)
ENGLISH-MEDIUM INSTRUCTION

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What a CLIL course looks like

  • 2. THT 2019 1) EMI vs CBI vs CLIL a) Quotes from scholars b) Distinguishing criteria 2) Example CLIL lesson plan 3) Best CLIL practices CONTENTS
  • 3. THT 2019 1) EMI vs CBI vs CLIL a) Quotes from scholars b) Distinguishing criteria 2) Example CLIL lesson plan 3) Best CLIL practices CONTENTS
  • 4. THT 2019 4 for EMI 4 for CBI 4 for CLIL QUOTES
  • 5. “The central focus is on students’ content mastery and no language aims are specified.” (Unterberger & Wilhelmer, 2011, p.96) EMI ENGLISH-MEDIUM INSTRUCTION
  • 6. EMI “an umbrella term for academic subjects taught through English, one making no direct reference to the aim of improving students’ English.” (Dearden & Macaro, 2016, p.456) ENGLISH-MEDIUM INSTRUCTION
  • 7. ENGLISH-MEDIUM INSTRUCTION EMI “English-taught degree programs. . . predominately aimed at the acquisition of subject knowledge.” (Unterberger, 2014, p.37)
  • 8. ENGLISH-MEDIUM INSTRUCTION EMI “the use of English to teach academic subjects in countries or jurisdictions where the first language (L1) of the majority of the population is not English.” (Dearden, 2015, p.4)
  • 9. CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION CBI “an effective way to engage students with content sources, while at the same time improving language abilities.” (Mesureur, 2012, p.71)
  • 10. CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION CBI “an integrated approach to language instruction, drawing topics, text, and tasks from content or subject matter classes, but focusing on cognitive, academic language skills.” (Crandall & Tucker, 1990, p.83)
  • 11. CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION CBI “Many language programs endorse [CBI] but only use course content as a vehicle for helping students master language.” (Stoller, 2002, p.112)
  • 12. CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION CBI “concurrent teaching of academic subject matter and second language skills.” (Brinton, Snow, & Wesche, 2003, p.2)
  • 13. CONTENT & LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING CLIL “Diverse methodologies are used which lead to dual- focused education where attention is given to both topic and language.” (Marsh, 2008, p.1986)
  • 14. CONTENT & LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING CLIL “a dual-focused educational approach . . . a fusion” of both subject content and language learning.” (Coyle, Hood, & Marsh, 2010, p.6)
  • 15. CONTENT & LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING CLIL “Parts of the curriculum are delivered through a foreign language. Learners acquire the target language naturalistically.” (Coleman, 2006, p.4)
  • 16. CONTENT & LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING CLIL “Learners are engaged in a joint learning practice of subject matter and foreign language.” (Smit & Dafouz, 2012, p.1)
  • 17. Get into pairs/small groups. Discuss concrete ways in which EMI, CBI, and CLIL are similar/different.
  • 18. THT 2019 1) EMI vs CBI vs CLIL a) Quotes from scholars b) Distinguishing criteria 2) Example CLIL lesson plan 3) Best CLIL practices CONTENTS
  • 19. THT 2019 1) Aims 2) Target groups 3) Teaching staff 4) Pedagogy 5) Role of language 6) Outcomes (Brown & Bradford, 2016) CRITERIA FOR COMPARISON
  • 20. CONTENT MASTERY • L2 learning is often incidental. • There may have implicit language learning aims. CONTENT & LANGUAGE • Language learning aims are explicit. LANGUAGE LEARNING • Learning content is a bonus. EMI CLI L CBI Criteria 1: Aims
  • 21. • Nonnative English speakers • Native English speakers • Nonnative English learners • Nonnative English learners EMI CLIL CBI Criteria 2: Target Groups
  • 22. SUBJECT SPECIALIST • Sometimes subject specialist & language specialist in collaboration LANGUAGE OR SUBJECT SPECIALIST • Language specialist (Britain, Japan, South America) • Subject specialist (Europe) • Team-teaching: content & language specialists LANGUAGE SPECIALIST EMI CLIL CBI Criteria 3: Teaching Staff
  • 23. • Focus on development of subject knowledge • Methods depend on those favored by discipline & instructor • Likely expert- oriented lecture • Multi-modal interactive & learner- centered approaches which support subject content & language learning • Team teaching possible • Language learning tasks • Methods depend on those favored by instructor EMI CLI L CBI Criteria 4: Pedagogy
  • 24. LANGUAGE IS A... • tool LANGUAGE IS A... • tool • subject • mediator (for constructing knowledge & sharing expertise) LANGUAGE IS A... • subject EMI CLI L CBI Criteria 5: Role of Language
  • 25. • Subject knowledge acquisition • Integrated content and language competence development • Focus on L2 productive & interactive skills • Language learning • Learning subject matter is incidental, at a general knowledge level EMI CLIL CBI Criteria 6: Outcomes
  • 26. • Students assessed on subject content knowledge • Students assessed on language proficiency/ performance & subject content knowledge • Students assessed on language proficiency/ performance EMI CLIL CBI Criteria 7: Assessment
  • 27. THT 2019 1) EMI vs CBI vs CLIL a) Quotes from scholars b) Distinguishing criteria 2) Example CLIL lesson plan 3) Best CLIL practices CONTENTS
  • 28. INTRODUCTION TOPOLITICAL SCIENCE • Freshman course meeting 2/week for 90 min. (x 30 classes) • Mixed level (350-400 TOEIC average) • 3-4 "lessons" for each of 3 units • 1 lesson = worksheet with a reading + activities • Worksheets focus on vocabulary, writing, reading comprehension, application of knowledge through analysis • 2 classes + homework to complete/lesson • Short tests at end of each unit • Review sessions & group presentations • Final exam during exam week
  • 29. INTRODUCTION TOPOLITICAL SCIENCE 1) before lesson: reading & vocabulary work 2) content class for each lesson: • scaffolded lecturing, reading, peer teaching, Q&A... • homework: complete vocabulary & writing segments of worksheet 3) activity class for each lesson: • pair/group work for homework, task-based speaking practice • review & supplemental lectures • homework: worksheet completion (analysis)
  • 30. INTRODUCTION TOPOLITICAL SCIENCE 1) Read the example lesson plan & reading: “Politics and Collective Action” 2) Review the worksheet activities and answer key. 3) Get into pairs/small groups and discuss possible answers to questions on the last page.
  • 31. THT 2019 1) EMI vs CBI vs CLIL a) Quotes from scholars b) Distinguishing criteria 2) Example CLIL lesson plan 3) Best CLIL practices CONTENTS
  • 33. COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT • Simplifying language • Speaking slower • Repeating (variety of ways) • Using more gestures • Using visuals & props...
  • 34. SCAFFOLDING • Pre-teaching vocabulary • Chunking information • Modeling behavior • Using students' L1 • Using multiple delivery methods • Pausing/questioning in lectures • Sharing lesson goals • Reviewing, building on content…
  • 35. TASK-BASED & COMMUNICATIVE LEARNING (ACTIVE LEARNING!) Getting students to: • share work in pairs & groups • peer teach • paraphrase & summarize • present (in small groups) • role play, play games (ex: kahoot) • discuss (in small groups) • test each other • analyze, think critically, give examples...
  • 36. References • Brinton, D., Snow, M. A., & Wesche, M. B. (2003). Content-based second language Instruction. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. • Coleman, J. A. (2006). English-medium teaching in European higher education. Language Teaching, 39, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1017/S026144480600320X • Coyle, D., Hood, P., & Marsh, D. (2010). CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. • Crandall, J., & Tucker, G. R. (1990). Content-based language instruction in second and foreign languages. In S. Anivan (Ed.), Language teaching methodology for the nineties (pp. 83-96). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. • Brown, H. & Bradfod, A. (2017). EMI, CLIL, & CBI: Differing Approaches and Goals. In P. Clements, A. Crouse, & H. Brown (Eds.), JALT 2016: Transformation in Language Education (pp. 328-334). Tokyo, Japan: Japan Association of Language Teachers. Retrieved from http://jalt- publications.org/node/4/articles/6058-emi-clil-cbi-differing-approaches-and-goals • Dearden, J. (2015). English as a medium of instruction – A growing phenomenon. London, UK: British Council. • Dearden, J., & Macaro, E. (2016). Higher education teachers’ attitudes towards English medium instruction: A three-country comparison. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6, 455-486. https://doi.org/10.14746/sllt.2016.6.3.5 • Marsh, D. (2008). Language Awareness and CLIL. In N. H. Hornberger (Ed.), Encyclopedia of language and education (pp. 1986-1999). Boston, MA: Springer US. • Mesureur, G. (2012). Content-based instruction for all levels of EFL students. Keisen University Bulletin, 24, 71-80. Retrieved from https://keisen.repo.nii.ac.jp/?action=repository_uri&item_id=691&file_id=22&file_no=1 • Stevie, D. (n.d.). 8 Teaching Techniques for the CLIL Teacher’s Soul. Retrieved from https://www.fluentu.com/blog/educator/clil-teaching • Smit, U., & Dafouz, E. (2012). Integrating content and language in higher education: An introduction to English-medium policies, conceptual issues and research practices across Europe. AILA Review, 25, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1075/aila.25.01smi • Stoller, F. L. (2002a, April). Content-based instruction: A shell for language learning or a framework for strategic language and content learning? Paper presented at the TESOL convention, Salt Lake City, UT. Retrieved from http://carla.umn.edu/cobaltt/modules/strategies/stoller2002/stoller.pdf • Unterberger, B. (2014). English-medium degree programmes in Austrian tertiary business studies: Policies and programme design (Doctoral dissertation). University of Vienna, Austria. Retrieved from http://othes.univie.ac.at/33961/ • Unterberger, B., & Wilhelmer, N. (2011). English-medium education in economics and business studies: Capturing the status quo at Austrian universities. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 161, 90-110.