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IBM Software
IBM executive brief:
social business behavior
The changing nature of culture, etiquette and
personal interact...
2 IBM executive brief: social business behavior
The changing business landscape
Much has been made of the need for new rul...
3IBM Software
This executive brief avoids discussions that cover other
enterprise collaboration modalities:
●● Employee co...
4 IBM executive brief: social business behavior
Etiquette: conventional requirements as to social behavior; customary
5IBM Software
There is a growing body of discussion on the nature of trust in
online social networks. This includes busine...
6 IBM executive brief: social business behavior
Etiquette in building relationships
Assuming your organization is open to ...
7IBM Software
Etiquette in interactions: tooling and communication types
In addition to the tools and data that identify r...
8 IBM executive brief: social business behavior
Etiquette in including and acknowledging others
One of the more important ...
9IBM Software
Social business etiquette also takes advantage of rapid iteration
to accommodate changing definitions of suc...
10 IBM executive brief: social business behavior
For example, those who have been exposed to more traditional
11IBM Software
Clear policies, training and feedback mechanisms help employ-
ees understand how best to interact, and how ...
3. Engage in the conversation. Follow IBM and other thought
leaders as we discuss social business transformation in all it...
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IBM Executive Brief: Social Business Behavior


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A paper from IBM on guidelines for behavior in social networks. Published: Jan 2012

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IBM Executive Brief: Social Business Behavior

  1. 1. IBM Software IBM executive brief: social business behavior The changing nature of culture, etiquette and personal interaction in the workplace
  2. 2. 2 IBM executive brief: social business behavior The changing business landscape Much has been made of the need for new rules of behavior in the age of social business. The discussion has focused greatly on how corporate spokespersons and the general employee population behave when communicating and interacting with clients, prospects, colleagues and other audiences through online social environments. There has been much less discussion about business communication and professional interactions inside the firewall. Social collaboration affects the way workers interact with not only external stakeholders, but also one another. Just consider the environmental changes seen in the past four years alone: ●● The increasingly porous nature of the corporate firewall ●● Geographically distributed teams ●● Increased insourcing, outsourcing and cosourcing and more contractual team members ●● The growing impact of informal networks in team decision making ●● Employees’ behavior in circumventing standard policies and tools to “get the job done”—especially as the consumerization of IT creates new expectations for corporate IT services Extensive communications over online social networks often means that entire business conversations—and even deals—may be carried out online. But human behavior is a rich interplay of visual cues, body language, facial expressions, voice tone and other “meta-senses” that are not yet fully realized in online conversations. The risk is that, without understanding the new rules of etiquette for social business, we may now misunder- stand, stall or break down vital business communications. With these conditions in mind, we need to ask ourselves a fundamental question: What are the norms for employee com- munication in a social business? In this IBM executive brief, we frame our response to this question as social business etiquette. The role of social business etiquette in social business transformation Internal social transformation is often the first step toward a broader transformation. The IBM 2011 Tech Trends Report, which surveyed more than 4,000 IT professionals in 93 coun- tries, shows the importance of social collaboration to overall strategies: “Many of the survey respondents noted that their companies are implementing social from the inside out—that is, they are testing the waters by deploying intranet-based social systems. The top three drivers for such deployments are employee collaboration, efficiency in locating people and resources, and idea generation, according to the report.”—InformationWeek1 Without a firm grasp of the technology itself or the human behavior related to the use of the technology, any project or strategy looking to harness the power of social collaboration will not be nearly as successful. By testing the waters internally, companies can understand how technology affects existing employees’ behavioral patterns. They can then use that cultural knowledge to encourage and enable successful adoption. This IBM executive brief is for enterprise leaders who seek to understand the critical role that social business etiquette plays in workforce transformation and in adoption of social business programs. It explores professional interactions among colleagues over online social networks inside the firewall, with particular emphasis on colleagues who do not have an established profes- sional relationship.
  3. 3. 3IBM Software This executive brief avoids discussions that cover other enterprise collaboration modalities: ●● Employee communication and collaboration with external stakeholders. As already mentioned, this is covered by a large and growing body of work. IBM has contributed to that discussion with reports such as the 2011 IBM Institute for Business Value’s Global Chief Marketing Officer Study.2 ●● The basics of being a “good businessperson.” These basics are already extensively covered by management tomes, the Harvard Business Review, human resource communities such as the Institute for Corporate Productivity and many more. ●● Organizations with rigidly hierarchical structures. In addition to the challenges described in this executive brief, these organizations may face additional change management, regulatory and other organizational behavior requirements before fully incorporating social business strategies in their business model. This executive brief can, however, certainly benefit organizations that allow, or are experimenting with, informal and formal online networks of collaboration. Why etiquette plays a role in internal social business adoption Most organizations have professional norms: the written and unwritten rules and behaviors that govern working with colleagues across formal organizational structures. The nature of social collaboration, however, elevates the importance of the informal networks within the organization, whereas the newness of interacting in this manner creates a fog of uncertainty on how to behave. It is important to understand the organization’s cul- ture, the rules of etiquette that fit and how these factors enable employee engagement in such social networks. As always, a good set of definitions will help frame the problem: Culture: the shared values, behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular group of people4 “Culture eats strategy for lunch.” —Coffman Organization, 20093
  4. 4. 4 IBM executive brief: social business behavior Etiquette: conventional requirements as to social behavior; customary conduct as established in any class or community or for any occasion5 In other words, etiquette can be thought of as best practices (good or acceptable) or best behaviors to avoid (improper or unacceptable) for specific interactions. Organizational cultures can then encourage specific rules of etiquette to facilitate harmony and productivity across the environment. This customization is important. There is no one single “right way” to behave, because appropriate behavior is culturally and organizationally determined, depending on several factors: ●● “Up-down” etiquette: interacting with a direct report or an up-line manager ●● “Sideways” etiquette: interacting with a peer coworker in your immediate group, a coworker on your extended team or a coworker in a different division ●● Asymmetric social knowledge: interacting with a coworker who is more familiar with your work than you are with his or hers (or vice versa) ●● Media being used: email, instant messaging (IM), telephone call, social networks or a combination thereof ●● Number of participants: one to one (face to face, telephone and instant message), one to many (weekly team meetings, videoconferences and microblog posts) or many to many (town halls, community discussions and ideation blogs) ●● Influence of geographic cultural norms: participants are culturally homogeneous or participants are from multiple cultures ●● Level of experience of participants: younger workers interact- ing with older workers—or newer workers interacting with more-experienced workers Because of the subjective nature of etiquette, many business leaders are understandably uncomfortable with the subject. It is easier to focus on more quantifiable business outcomes and key performance indicators. But etiquette is important, increasingly so, as social business strategies become a key source of competi- tive differentiation: ●● Etiquette is a normalizing practice that helps align your people to the principles that your organization values, which in turn shape your business strategies. ●● Etiquette informs employees how to operate in common situations, and culture guides them in uncommon ones. ●● Etiquette and cultural values can be a strong competitive differentiator, especially when well communicated to custom- ers, colleagues and communities. Consider the employees and fans of Harley-Davidson motorcycles: They have their own unique rules of etiquette. The well-defined culture of Harley-Davidson appeals to its constituents and has enabled the company to succeed over the long term. ●● Trust is critical for successful business relationships, and it’s a key differentiator for social businesses, because, ultimately, we are likely to do more business with those we trust. The small interactions we have every day are as important as the outcomes of major transactions when developing trusted relationships. Etiquette helps new employees understand what is and is not considered trustworthy behavior, and therefore it helps them map out the boundaries. It also helps experienced employees share wisdom about successful as opposed to unsuccessful interpersonal behavior.
  5. 5. 5IBM Software There is a growing body of discussion on the nature of trust in online social networks. This includes business versus personal and the effect of anonymity (or personas) versus true identifica- tion. Just one recent example: Bertrand Duperrin, a prominent French blogger on Enterprise 2.0, recently wrote a blog post on the unforeseen consequences of how these basic structures affect behavior (“sincerity is impacted by transparency”) and business outcomes.6 Although this is beyond the scope of our executive brief, it helps to illuminate the complexity of the issue. The changing rules of etiquette in an online social world Social business etiquette is not built in a vacuum. As with other cultural artifacts, social business etiquette builds on the rules that have already been established in other contexts: telephone interactions, email exchanges, elevator chats, formal face-to-face meetings and so on. For example, the emoticon (“smiley face”) was developed to impart facial emotional content, such as amusement or boredom, within an email conversation. Emoticons later carried forward into instant messaging and are now a fixture in newer online social communications like blogs, microblogs and more. “Culture isn’t just one aspect of the game ... it IS the game.” —Lou Gerstner7 Social business etiquette therefore builds on norms honed over years of experience in the shared tools of interaction, and it evolves as the tools evolve. Another example: It is generally considered improper to use all capital letters in a text-based message, including email, microblogs and blog comments, because it suggests that one is yelling at another person. When the Internet first started, however, “all caps” was not as unusual because there were still devices that did not have lower-case letters on keyboards. This is similar to telegraph messages of a century ago, where that limitation implied no negative sentiment toward “all caps.” However, because it is almost unheard of now to have devices without lowercase letters, “all caps” is now considered improper. The specific application of etiquette to the particular media in use is also important. As Marshall McLuhan said, “The medium is the message.”8 What is considered acceptable in one medium may not be in another. For example, some social network tools such as Twitter do not require the permission of people to build connections, while others such as LinkedIn do. The etiquette on Twitter therefore forgoes the need to give a reason for people to connect, while LinkedIn connections are most successful when users provide a good reason why they wish to connect with someone. What follows are some of the more common scenarios that should be considered in any social business transformation.
  6. 6. 6 IBM executive brief: social business behavior Etiquette in building relationships Assuming your organization is open to employees viewing organization charts using internal social network profiles and other resources (see sidebar), anyone can quickly understand an individual’s place within the formal relationship: job titles, reporting chain, etc. In addition, most enterprise profile systems also provide data about employees’ social graphs: their informal relationships, including shared communities, current projects, publications and informal networks. Understanding the formal and informal relationships between individuals can be used to find expertise and get information from others; for example, to find a product development expert or to request data for a specific project. Building networks is therefore not necessarily as straightforward as it may seem. For example, when inviting someone you don’t already know to join your network, it is often appropriate to include a short message explaining your reason for the invitation and why you think the connection will be mutually beneficial. In other instances, it may be more appropriate to “follow” a person rather than invite them to join your network. This is often the case when individuals want to keep up with managers or executives outside of the normal reporting structure. Network connections imply a level of connectedness and an established, or prior, working relationship. The effect on etiquette is significant. In such open information systems, it is perfectly acceptable to research and bring up in open discussion our colleagues’ documented relationships. It is not considered inappropriate (i.e., “stalking”). On the contrary, it is considered to be less than thoughtful when entering a new conversation without first having done some prior research into your colleagues’ formal and informal networks. In the case of organizations that need to maintain more control over such information, the opposite norms of behavior may apply. For example, in highly regulated financial services, collaboration between stock trading and investment banking divisions are often sharply proscribed. Etiquette reinforces that necessity by ascribing concern or confusion to individuals approached outside the tightly controlled norm. The availability of formal reporting structures Like most organizations, IBM has a clearly defined hierarchy of reporting relationships. However, IBM also provides universal and easy access to this information in an online company directory. Employees are actively encouraged to search through the profile database. Many organizations today have not yet made this change: some because of inertia, others because it is culturally inappropriate to publicly share organizational structures outside of one’s immediate reporting chain, still others because there is a business need such as secrecy or legal compartmentalization among organizational units.
  7. 7. 7IBM Software Etiquette in interactions: tooling and communication types In addition to the tools and data that identify relationships, IBM has a culture of interaction that enables social business. Email, conference calls, instant messaging, discussion forums, web meetings, blogging, microblogging and more are acceptable ways to meet, explain, invent, argue and listen. The ease with which people interact and the meaningful ways people can participate enable the work we need to do together. In fact, low or even no interaction, when not explicitly requesting a response or direct engagement, is also acceptable. According to Forrester Research’s Social Technographics profile, a significant portion of the population are not, nor will be, vocal contributors.9 When called “lurking,” the term unnecessarily denigrates an important and valid type of interaction where responses are not required: researching a new topic or expert in the field of interest, broadcast cascades from senior executives (announcements, policy), informal peer-to-peer information sharing (tips, Q&As) and more. Etiquette in responding to others In social spaces, responsiveness is visible. The IBM culture of professionalism means that IBM employees expect responses in a reasonable time, and social pressure can prompt action. IBM has capabilities in our internal social network tools that aid in understanding how to respond to others. The “Do Not Disturb” status on instant messaging, for example, may make clear a current inability to respond. The tool can also provide exception building. For example: One can set a preference that immediate managers can override a Do Not Disturb status. In the case of IBM, because of the highly geographically dispersed workforce and the use of customizable status messages, “Out of Office” notifications on email, or “away” status on instant mes- saging, are not just acceptable, but are socially recommended when employees are away for a significant amount of time (e.g., for email, more than a day; for IM, more than an hour). Setting “Preferred Contact” information in the employee online profile, which can then be surfaced in a digital business card, tells colleagues the best way to connect with one another, and sets an expectation that if one tries to connect in that manner, a response will be provided. The functions in the tools give clues to the rules for starting interactions with one another, and for knowing when to stop. The response etiquette applies to nega- tive situations as well, such as providing the ability to indicate inappropriate content. Lurking behavior can be perceived as inappropriate when it seems to be a means to ignore a direct request. For example, someone posting a question to an IBM employee’s Profile Board (similar to the Facebook wall) has a reasonable expectation that his or her question will eventually be answered as if it had been posed in an email or a voicemail, if not with the same sense of urgency.
  8. 8. 8 IBM executive brief: social business behavior Etiquette in including and acknowledging others One of the more important aspects of social business etiquette is the ability to include and acknowledge others, especially when face-to-face inclusion and acknowledgement are impossible. As is often taught in school, never underestimate the value of a thank you. Social tools can provide undeniable benefit by mak- ing it easy to make those thank you notes public by including others in your work: share links to your successes and lessons learned, reshare the interesting work of others, acknowledge a colleague’s contributions and trace contributions in the network. The tools themselves can assist in setting up the right etiquette for the response. If it is unclear whether a file can be shared with others, the poster can easily set limits on who can see the file (“only share with John, Jeanne and Jacques”) and what level of participation each is provided: “read only” versus “editor.” If a recipient thinks that additional access or privileges are required, a request back to the document owner is acceptable (as is a “no” reply). Another example: In a microblog exchange, acknowledging comments shows attention is being paid. It is good practice to address comments to a specific individual using his or her name, or the “@username” style that is popular on networks such as Twitter. While this approach is sometimes used, referring to individual comments by comment number is often considered less personal and does not engender the same level of trust. Human resources professionals are always wrestling with recog- nition and reward strategies in their organization. A year-end bonus or a private year-end review result is not worth as much when the norm is no longer “employee for life”. Professional value is increasingly measured by the public acknowledgment of one’s accomplishments to extended networks, inside as well as outside the organization. IBM, for example, is experimenting with BlueThx, a virtual “thank you” and reward system where peers can publicly acknowledge colleagues’ positive contribu- tions. Those acknowledgments are in turn communicated to managers, posted to the recipient’s online profile board and tagged to enhance expertise searches. At IBM, etiquette dictates that negative criticisms and outcome- based criticisms are generally kept inside private email strings. Sharing these thoughts via public forums, status updates, profile boards or public comments to a blog, is considered inappropriate. Defining etiquette helps us to understand our responsibilities for adhering to the code of behavior. In particular, it is the responsi- bility of every employee to understand differences in perspective and context when crafting responses and sharing others’ work. Etiquette of mass communications over social networks versus spamming As more people move to social networks within an organization, new audiences emerge. Often, online communities may have membership lists that others can see. However, this does not necessarily impart permission to broadcast messages to all members of a particular group. Social business tools allow better ways to drive attention to a topic, event or other subject such as through a blog or wiki. One recent example within IBM: when Virginia (Ginni) Rometty assumed the role as CEO of IBM on January 1, 2012, her first major communiqué was via a short video outlining her priorities as leader, which she posted to the IBM internal social network.10
  9. 9. 9IBM Software Social business etiquette also takes advantage of rapid iteration to accommodate changing definitions of success (what works and what doesn’t). For example: Where previously it may have been considered bragging to overcommunicate one’s successes, online social networks actually respond better when subject matter experts (humbly) communicate their successes to the broader community. Over time, as subject matter experts develop suffi- cient social trust, senior leaders may actually send organizational messages through such thought leaders instead of themselves or other more formal communiqués; they know that a thought leader’s message will likely draw more attention than one sent through more formal—and unsolicited—channels. Most recipi- ents may equate unsolicited messages, even those coming from the senior leadership team, as spam and ignore them, whereas they may be much more interested in hearing what a trusted subject matter expert has to say about the same topic. Understanding differences in perspective People violate codes of behaviors all the time, of course, and need help understanding expectations. Melissa Sader, one of the contributors to this executive brief, writes a monthly column about corporate etiquette to encourage employees to be mindful of how they communicate and interact with others. Her column is “about IBMers practicing our values with special regard to effective business communication and building strong professional relationships in a global enterprise.” Her focus is similar to that of The Emily Post Institute Etipedia, the online etiquette encyclopedia where the great grandchildren of Emily Post are using the framework of Wikipedia to update her classic rulebook with social networking etiquette.11 The IBM Social Computing Guidelines advise all IBM employees to be respectful and factual.12 The expectations are described clearly. Problems occur because social interaction crosses borders, flattens hierarchies, involves multiple generations and practically moves at the speed of light. Many breaches of eti- quette are not deliberate, but often are failures to understand perspectives, cultural norms and expectations: “I didn’t know— I haven’t had a chance to read the guidelines yet.” Other transgressions occur because the interactions are happen- ing so fast that people do not have access to all the facts. In some cases, the original interaction is acceptable, but the feedback is subsequently handled inappropriately. With a corporate culture that has publicly valued diversity, IBM employees have the clear responsibility to understand the differences in perspective that other contributors bring, and the blind spots that we may have ourselves.13 Recognizing context Understanding differing perspectives is only part of the responsibility. Professional social collaboration also engenders a responsibility to understand context: of the content, the people and the exposure. Content always has a context: draft versus final version, vacation photo versus team dinner photo, informal remarks versus official press release. Just consider the pitfalls in the use—and misunderstanding of—humor used in a business context. People also have a context relative to you, depending on such factors as their history, their relationship to you, their position in the organization and more. And finally, there is the context of exposure: a “for your eyes only” versus wider-but- still-controlled-distribution communications versus public communications.
  10. 10. 10 IBM executive brief: social business behavior For example, those who have been exposed to more traditional brainstorming workshops know that spirited discussions are encouraged to drive innovative idea generation. But because the discussions remained behind closed doors, the etiquette of the caucus applied: Any disagreements are kept behind closed doors; when in public, everyone is on the same page. But newer tools allow for much more distributed brainstorming, such as ideation blogs or IBM InnovationJam® sessions. This more public context requires a different etiquette, such as discussion forum comments that are kept more factual and less emotional than a closed-door discussion. Context is a very strong governor of etiquette. The transforma- tion to social business creates an added responsibility in workers and leaders to understand that online social environments bring a transparency to context that doesn’t exist in other realms of interaction. Risk and governance Open communication in social spaces makes managers worry that they have less control over employee behavior. IBM and other companies have addressed risk by relying on existing codes of behavior (such as the IBM Business Conduct Guidelines) and forming new policies where needed (see the index of social media governance guidelines from 176 companies compiled by Chris Boudreaux).14 Many companies form new governance models in their organizations, with representation from business units, legal and HR, to assess risk, educate employees and report progress on the impact of social business. But etiquette breaches can still occur, even with new policies and programs in place—just like they did before the transformation to a social business takes place. The most effective means of etiquette control rely less on rules and sanctions, and more on norms, values and the influence of peers. In a social business, the desired end state is one where employees help each other govern and enforce social business etiquette according to the policies and values of the company. The game changers that make governing etiquette in a social business different are issues of access and identity, expectations for participation, and the impact that a breach can have across the organization. For example, social spaces enable access to information as well as many channels for distributing informa- tion, which can mean faster communication—or inappropriate dissemination. Employees can manage identity in social spaces so they create digital eminence and avoid a digital disaster. The vast spectrum of participation in a social network (from content creators to commenters and observers) means that employees can influence others by their presence—or their absence. IBM BlueIQ The IBM BlueIQ program educates employees on social tasks and behaviors, and it taps into thousands of volunteer BlueIQ ambassadors across the company to help teach and model usage scenarios. At the management level, IBM established its Social Business Management Council to help ensure alignment with corporate strategy and handle policy issues.
  11. 11. 11IBM Software Clear policies, training and feedback mechanisms help employ- ees understand how best to interact, and how best to help each other. Social businesses must establish clear policy tied to roles: who is authorized to speak for the company and how employees can convey when they are not. Policy must also be tied to ownership: who has decision-making ability and which organiza- tions take responsibility for what issues. Training programs should stress the behaviors and tasks, and not just the tools. And feedback mechanisms are essential for formal and informal community dialogue about questions, concerns, ideas and compliments. The viral, social aspects of a social business are an advantage in communicating desired etiquette. Practices are observed by all, both good and bad. And both can be addressed quickly in an appropriate way. The informal networks that form so quickly and easily in social spaces can be used for reinforcement, train- ing and feedback. Skilled people who have respect in their own networks can spread desired practices faster, achieving the influ- ence of good etiquette that a social business needs to reach its maximum potential. Next steps Social business etiquette is not about a “feel good” approach to business. It is rooted in the deepest levels of how businesses cre- ate and engender trust, which is increasingly the most critical capital an organization has. It is ultimately about driving profes- sional and organizational success through reduced friction and increased transparency. As organizations embark upon a social business transformation, they should consider these next three steps critical in helping ensure that the transformation is not about tools but about what will drive strategic success for the business. 1. Consider your own organization’s culture and behavioral norms when rolling out social business tools. A social business strategy that does not take into account the current culture will likely stall or even fail in the face of rejection by the social body. Specific, existing, written and, just as important, unwritten rules of conduct must be considered when deploying social collaboration technologies in the enterprise. 2. Walk before you run. Because social business etiquette is tied so closely to the complexities of your organizational culture, it is important for both individuals and groups to experiment and rapidly iterate. Individuals should be encouraged and empow- ered to try public social media to collaborate on non-confi- dential projects and tasks. Although not behind the firewall, public social collaboration can give employees and groups an excellent feel for how these tools will work internally. Designate moderators and coaches to keep an eye on progress and capture lessons learned before rolling out similar tools internally.
  12. 12. 3. Engage in the conversation. Follow IBM and other thought leaders as we discuss social business transformation in all its richness, including best practices, tips, tricks, traps and tools for success. Follow #ibmsocialbiz on Twitter and read The Social Business on Tumblr. We also encourage you to engage this executive brief’s authors in an ongoing dialogue about the nature of social business etiquette: Jeanne Murray: IBM Software Group Social Software Adoption, BlueIQ Program. Twitter: @jeanne_murray Jennifer Okimoto: associate partner—IBM Strategy and Transformation Center of Competence, Social Business Lead. Twitter: @jenokimoto Jacques Pavlenyi: market segment manager, IBM Collaboration Solutions. Twitter: @mediamutt John Rooney: program lead, Innovation and Collaboration, IBM CIO Software Integration Team. Twitter: @roonoid Melissa Sader: IBM Executive & Workforce Communications. Twitter: @meezies Rawn Shah: social business strategist. Twitter: @rawn For more information To learn more about social business, please contact your IBM representative or IBM Business Partner, or visit The Social Business on Tumblr. Please Recycle © Copyright IBM Corporation 2012 Lotus Software IBM Software Group One Rogers Street Cambridge, MA 02142 U.S.A. Produced in the United States of America January 2012 IBM, the IBM logo, and are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries or both. If these and other IBM trademarked terms are marked on their first occurrence in this information with a trademark symbol (® or ™), these symbols indicate U.S. registered or common law trademarks owned by IBM at the time this information was published. Such trademarks may also be registered or common law trademarks in other countries. Other product, company or service names may be trademarks or service marks of others. A current list of IBM trademarks is available on the web at “Copyright and trademark information” at This document is current as of the initial date of publication and may be changed by IBM at any time. Not all offerings are available in every country in which IBM operates. THE INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED “AS IS” WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND ANY WARRANTY OR CONDITION OF NON-INFRINGEMENT. IBM products are warranted according to the terms and conditions of the agreements under which they are provided. 1 InformationWeek, “Internal Social Networks Now Important Proving Ground,” Debra Donston-Miller, November 17, 2011. 2 IBM, From Stretched to Strengthened: Insights from the Global Chief Marketing Officer Study, October 2011 3 YouTube video, Culture Eats Strategy for Lunch produced by the Organization, 2009, 4 Organizational Culture and Leadership, MIT Professor Emeritus Edgar Schein 5 6 Bertrand Duperrin’s Notepad, Does transparency harm sincerity in business social networking, November 28, 2011 english/2011/11/28/does-transparency-harms-sincerity-in-business- social-networking/?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter 7 Gerstner, Louis V., Who Says Elephants Can't Dance? Inside IBM's Historic Turnaround, Collins, 2002. 8 McLuhan, Marshall, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, McGraw Hill, NY, 1964. 9 Forrester, What’s the Social Technographics Profile of Your Customers?, 10 Robert McMillan, “Ginni Rometty Says Hello to IBM (Without E-Mail),” Wired Enterprise, January 2012, 2012/01/ginni-rometty-says-hello 11 The Emily Post Institute Etipedia, 12 IBM, Social Computing Guidelines, 13 IBM, Diversity 3.0, 14 Social Media Governance website, Chris Boudreaux, EPW14014-USEN-00