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Language content objectives


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Published in: Technology, Education

Language content objectives

  1. 1. A case for academic language or why sheltered instruction is not enough Presentation by Ruslana Westerlund
  2. 3. Rate your school (1-4*) Our school… Adapted from the LAB at Brown University *1 – never, 2 – rarely, 3 – sometimes, 4 - always
  3. 4. Rate your school (1-4*) In our school… * 1 – never, 2 – rarely, 3 – sometimes, 4 - always Adapted from the LAB at Brown University
  4. 5. why all the fuss about academic language?
  5. 6. Photo from Facebook Page English Whirled Wide
  6. 7. How do YOU view language?
  7. 8. Common misconceptions
  8. 9. What is Academic Language?
  9. 10. Bloom’s Taxonomy Paired with Typical Language Functions Kramer, D., Lundgren, C., Mabbott, A, S. (2011)
  10. 11. Curriculum development process for ELs
  11. 12. Characteristics of Effective Instructional Objectives
  12. 13. Students don’t thrive on vague objectives Can you can which one are vague?
  13. 14. Is it Language or is it Content?
  14. 16. Water cycle <ul><li>Water journeys through a cycle. It's a cycle that's never done. </li></ul><ul><li>Water changes to a gas when it is heated by the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporation's what we call this. Now the cycle has begun. </li></ul><ul><li>When the gas gets where it's cooler higher up in the sky. </li></ul><ul><li>Then it changes back to water forming many clouds nearby. </li></ul><ul><li>Condensation's what we call this when tiny water droplets form </li></ul><ul><li>Then we call it precipitation when it falls down in a storm. </li></ul><ul><li>Collection's when it lands in puddles, oceans, rivers, lakes, and streams </li></ul><ul><li>Then the cycle starts all over never-ending so it seems. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Content Objectives Bloom’s Skill and Language Function Mortar words Bricks How water changes as it goes through the cycle Describe, identify, analyze Is caused by Even though However The next stage … After that Eventually Water condenses Water evaporates Water collects Precipitation happens when…
  16. 18. Examples <ul><li>1. Students will use the phrase is caused by to describe each stage of the water cycle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation is caused by the heating of the earth’s surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Students will use the verb happens to describe the water cycle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation happens when the clouds get full of water and they burst. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Task Analysis What conversational language vs. academic language do students need to be able to discuss the Water Cycle?
  18. 25. The Language-Concept Connection Instructional Model (Jill Mora, 2010) Domain Language Concept Learning A Unknown Unknown Limited: modify instruction B Known Unknown Concept Development C Unknown Known Language Development D Known Known Concept & Language Development
  19. 26. Academic expressions for persuading in Language Arts* <ul><li>Based on the evidence in the story so far, we believe… because… </li></ul><ul><li>I understand what you are saying, but I would like to emphasize… </li></ul><ul><li>This is a good point, but I think the evidence shows that… </li></ul><ul><li>Although some people claim that… </li></ul><ul><li>The advantages of …. Outweigh the disadvantages of … </li></ul>Zwiers, J. (2007) Building Academic Language: Essential Practices for Content Classrooms
  20. 27. Academic expressions for Cause-and-Effect Thinking in History* <ul><li>I believe that one reason for their … was… </li></ul><ul><li>There were political, social, and cultural motives for… </li></ul><ul><li>Even though the textbook says the cause was…, I believe it was… </li></ul><ul><li>The most likely reason for … was… </li></ul><ul><li>Had a significant influence on… </li></ul><ul><li>That was a result of… </li></ul>*Zwiers, J. (2007) Building Academic Language: Essential Practices for Content Classrooms, Grades 5-12
  21. 28. Language Used to Describe Steps of Scientific Inquiry* *Zwiers, J. (2007) Building Academic Language: Essential Practices for Content Classrooms, Grades 5-12 Steps of Scientific Inquiry Language for This Step Observe aspect of the physical or natural universe I notice that… I observed that… Look at the way that… Ask questions about the nature of the observations I wonder why… What kind of reaction could cause that? Generate a hypothesis and use it to make predictions What if we…? If we add…, then maybe I hypothesize that… because… Perform an experiment We need to measure the As the … increases, the … decreases Make conclusions The data show that.. We discovered that… Our research has demonstrated that…
  22. 29. Expressions Used in Problem Solving in Math <ul><li>We need to figure out exactly what they want. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s break it down into parts. First… </li></ul><ul><li>Information that I need is… because… </li></ul><ul><li>There are different ways to solve it. </li></ul><ul><li>The best solution is… because… </li></ul><ul><li>I predict that… </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t think this information is </li></ul><ul><li>important because… </li></ul>
  23. 30. Common Terms with Specialized Meanings in Math Balance Interest Difference Coordinate Power Terms Even Similar Radical Imaginary Irrational Improper Plane Axis Chance Product Mixed Expression Round Cube Principal Scale Value Factor Square Find Function Positive Field Real
  24. 31. <ul><li>Time alone, simply being exposed to English at school, does not ensure academic English learning. English learners need explicit scaffolding support , language differentiation , and explicit language teaching . </li></ul>
  25. 32. Practices that Foster Success Adapted from Nieto (2003)
  26. 33. References <ul><li>Cooper, J.M. (Ed.) (1994).Classroom Teaching Skills, 5 th Edition. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath & Co. </li></ul><ul><li>Echevarr ía, J., Vogt, M. & Short, D.J. (2010). Making content comprehensible for secondary English learners: The SIOP model. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Zwiers, J. (2007) Building academic language. Jossey-Bass </li></ul>