Cement bone

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Anatomy of the periodontium (Dentistry)

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Cement bone

  1. 1. ANATOMY OF THE PERIODONTIUM Dr. Fatin Awartani
  2. 2. Part II Cementum and Alveolar bone Dr. Fatin Awartani Associate Professor Periodontal division King Saud university Dr. Fatin Awartani
  3. 3. Cementum Dr. Fatin Awartani
  4. 4. Calcified mesenchymal tissue that forms the outer covering of the anatomic root Dr. Fatin Awartani
  5. 5. • Cementum: is calcified tissue that covers the root of the tooth and provides a means of attachments for the periodontal ligament fibers to the tooth. • It consists of calcified collagen fibers and interfibriller ground substance. • It is made up of 45% to 50% inorganic material and 50% to 55% organic matter and water. Dr. Fatin Awartani
  6. 6. • Width varies from 16 to 60 microns in the coronal half of the root and 150 to 200 microns in the apical third of the root. • Width increases with age, 95 microns at age 20 and 215 microns at age 60. Dr. Fatin Awartani
  7. 7. Cementum What are the sources of collagen fibers in cementum? Extrinsic sharpeys fibers formed by Fibroblasts. Intrinsic Fibers of the cementum matrix formed by cement oblasts. Dr. Fatin Awartani
  8. 8. • Two types of cementum acellular and cellular – acellular cementum is found on the coronal areas of the root. – cellular cementum is found in the apical areas of the roots and in the furcation areas of multirooted teeth. Dr. Fatin Awartani
  9. 9. TWO MAIN FORMS OF CEMENTUM ACELLULAR - first to be formed • covers approximately the cervical third of half of the root • does not contain cells • formed before the tooth reaches occlusal plane • sharpey’s fibers make up most of the structure of acellular cmentum Dr. Fatin Awartani
  10. 10. CELLULAR • formed after tooth reaches occlusal plane • contains cells in lacunae • less calcified than acellular • more common on apical half of tooth • greatest increase with age is cellular type in apical half of root Dr. Fatin Awartani
  11. 11. Types of Cementum Schroeder's Classification Acellular Afibrillar Cementum Acellular Extrinsic Fiber Cellular intrinsic Fiber cementum. Cellular mixed stratified cementum Intermediate Cementum Dr. Fatin Awartani
  12. 12. • Cementoenamel junction: the area where enamel and cementum meet at the cervical region of the tooth. • Three different relationships among the enamel and cementum: – 60% to 65% of the cases the cementum overlaps the enamel – 30% of the cases edge to edge – 5% to 10% cementum fails to meet enamel resulting in exposed dentin Dr. Fatin Awartani
  13. 13. CEMENTOENAMEL JUNCTION Dr. Fatin Awartani
  14. 14. Alveolar Bone Dr. Fatin Awartani
  15. 15. • Alveolar bone: are the parts of the maxilla and mandible providing the housing for the roots of the teeth. • Bone that forms and support tooth sockets Dr. Fatin Awartani
  16. 16. • Alveolar bone: 1- alveolar bone proper (lamina dura in radiographs) 2- trabecular bone 3- compact bone Dr. Fatin Awartani
  17. 17. 1)Alveoli: The space in the alveolar bone that accommodate the roots of the teeth (tooth socket). Dr. Fatin Awartani
  18. 18. Alveoli: covered lined with a layer of bone know as alveolar bone proper or the cribriform plate. This layer of bone shows as a white line on radiographs and called lamina dura. This layer also covers the crest of interproximal bone and called crestal lamina dura. Dr. Fatin Awartani
  19. 19. 2)Supporting alveolar bone: cancellous and cortical bone that surrounds the alveolar bone proper Dr. Fatin Awartani
  20. 20. 3)Interproximal bone (interdental septum): bone located between the roots of adjacent teeth. 4)Interradicular bone: bone located between the roots of multirooted teeth Dr. Fatin Awartani
  21. 21. 5)Radicular bone: alveolar process located on the facial or lingual surfaces of the roots of teeth Dr. Fatin Awartani
  22. 22. CELLS OF ALVEOLAR BONE Calcified matrix with osteocytes enclosed in lacunae Constantly changing Osteoblasts deposit Osteoclasts resorb Matrix deposited by osteoblasts is not mineralized and is termed osteoid. As new osteoid is deposited the old osteoid mineralizes. Osteoclasts are large multinucleated cells that are often on surface or in Howship’s lacunae. Main function is resorption of bone. Dr. Fatin Awartani
  23. 23. FENESTRATION - isolated areas which the root is denuded of bone and root surface is covered only by periosteum and overlying gingiva DEHISCENCE - denuded areas extend through the marginal bone Dr. Fatin Awartani
  24. 24. Fenestration: Dehiscence: some bone present in the bone coverage the most coronal portion is missing at the coronal portion of the roots Dr. Fatin Awartani
  25. 25. • Summary: – Periodontium consists of 4 different tissues: • Gingiva • Cementum • PDL • Alveolar bone – They are anatomically separate, but functionally , they all depends on another in maintaining a viable, healthy supporting structure for the tooth. Dr. Fatin Awartani

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