Ar. Puneet Sharma
12641, 7th Sem
Aim of the research is to study the hierarchy of open spaces in
cities and develop a relationship between urban greens and the
urban city structure, ecology and character.
Define ‘urban green’ in the context of urbanizing India and highlight
Identify scope and limitations to green space growth, integration
and management in an urban area.
Discuss integration of greens at 4 scale levels: city, neighbourhood,
streets and buildings.
Analyze case studies at the 4 hierarchical levels.
Compare the existing scenario with standards and conclude with
inferences from the literature and case studies.
Urban Green spaces refer to those land uses and land cover that
are covered with natural or man-made vegetation in the city and
planning areas which are directly or indirectly available for users.
Sometimes referred to as “Green infrastructure”, that serve roles
such as improving air quality, flood protection and pollution
Evaluation of green spaces-
One of the main factors in determining the nature of green spaces is
their quantity in the city.
Existing qualities like activities and experiences, and perceived
benefits to the users determine the utilization of green spaces.
The functionality of those green spaces is equally influenced by the
location and distribution (accessibility) in the whole city.
Urban Open Spaces are – open areas for public use that are situated
within the urban fabric of a city.
Traditionally, public places are thought to include city squares,
sidewalks, markets, and transportation hubs.
The three dimensions of access, control, and ownership are what truly
determine the distinction between private and public space. .
City-Wide Parks: Large, flat and open expanses of land that
accommodate events and celebrations that attract people living in
all parts of the city
Linear Greenways: Characterized by pathways that provide
recreational, health and social opportunities, as well as
transportation linkages.They are the “lungs” of the city and serve
to connect people to nature.
Downtown Neighbourhood Parks: Family-focused, with
playgrounds, picnicking, swimming, tennis or basketball, as well as
un-programmed open space areas which provide recreational
opportunities for a neighbourhood.
Public Sitting Area in a PedestrianWalkway: Sitting areas on a
sidewalk of a pedestrian-oriented street
Non-PermanentGreen Spaces: Unused streets and public rights-
of-way that are quickly and inexpensively turned into new public
plazas and parks for a temporarily period of time in order to
provide some open space and often additional outdoor seating
Plaza: They are primarily hard-surface spaces which often provide
retail space, often food service, in a portion of the area, and
function as a place to gather or sit outside.
Green spaces provide linkage between people and nature. Urban green
spaces are important as functions and meanings for:
oUrban climate, noise moderation, air cleaning and handle of surface
oAs an indicator of environmental changes
oAs a part of the circulation of nutritive substances
oCultivation of energy plants
oBiodiversity; to save valuable urban species, as refuges for species from
rural biotopes and as spreading corridors.
oSocial and cultural values; for health, recovering and rehabilitation, to
give beauty and comfort, to give room for passivity and activity, as a
cultural heritage, as an arena for citizenship, for education.
oGardening and allotments; as history of urban landscapes, as a social
function, for life quality and beauty, providing a reserve.
oUrban design; to give the city an understandable structure, to connect
different scales and parts of the urban landscape.
1. Maintenance of biodiversity to the regulation of urban climate.
2. Greenspaces that feature good connectivity and act as
‘wildlifecorridors’ or function as ‘urban forests’, can maintain
viable populations of species that would otherwise disappear
from built environments
1. Dynamic form of urban expanding to manage effective urban
green spaces which will contribute to reduce the overall CO2 by
maintaining or even increasing the ability of CO2 absorption via
Biodiversity and nature conservation
• Green spaces function as protection centre for reproduction of
species and conservation of plants, soil and water quality.They
provide visual relief, seasonal change and link with natural world.
• Maintenance of ecological aspects of sustainable urban
landscape, with greenways and use of plant species adapted to
the local condition with low maintenance cost, self-sufficient and
Economic and aesthetic benefits
• Energy Savings
1. Using vegetation to reduce the energy costs of cooling buildings has been increasingly
recognized as a cost effective reason for increasing green space and tree planting in temperate
2. Plants improve air circulation, provide shade and they transpire.This provides a cooling effect
and contributes to lower air temperatures.
3. Increasing tree cover in the city by 10% may reduce total energy for heating and cooling by 5
1. Areas of the city with enough greenery are aesthetically pleasing and attractive to both
residents and investors.
Social and psychological benefits
Recreation andWell-being- Urban green spaces serve as a near resource for relaxation; provide
Human Health- People exposed to natural environment, the level of stress decreased rapidly as
compared to people who were exposed to urban environment. Improvements in air quality due to
vegetation have a positive impact on physical health such as decrease in respiratory illnesses.
Chandigarh, is perhaps one of the few cities of the world of the 20th
century, whose original layout plan has a meticulously planned,
hierarchy of open spaces, landscaped areas, recreational areas and
tree-lined roads, avenues and gardens spread all over the city.
The Intent– the new city would be a place where the buildings and the
built form would nestle in close communion to the elements of
nature, and the residents of the city would enjoy direct and
immediate access to natural settings.
Le Corbusier conceived the master plan of Chandigarh
as analogous to human body, with a clearly defined-
1. Head (the Capitol Complex, Sector 1),
2. Heart (the City Centre Sector-17),
3. Lungs (the leisure valley, innumerable open
spaces and sector greens)
4. Intellect (the cultural and educational
5. Circulatory system (the network of roads, the
6. Viscera (the Industrial Area)
Working Areas – The Capitol Complex Sector 17,
commercial belts along Jan Marg, Madhya Marg,
Himalaya Marg , Udyog Path, Dakshin Marg.
Living -The Sectors
Care of body and spirit – LeisureValley, Sukhna Lake,
parks, green belts, cultural belts and the educational
Circulation –The 7v network of roads on a modular
grid iron pattern .
The seeds of extensive landscaping and verdure were
embedded in the city layout plan by its architect-
planner Le Corbusier right at the beginning, with the
provision of large number of open spaces, green belts,
city parks and neighborhood parks.
Salient FeaturesOf The
The function of Living occupies primary place and has been organised
into a cellular system of sectors based on the concept of a
Each sector has a size of 800m x 1200m which was determined on the
parameter of providing all amenities i.e. shops, schools, health centres
and places of recreation and worship within a 10-minute walking
distance of the residents.
Every sector is introvert in character and permits only four vehicular
entries into its interior to provide a tranquil and serene environment
conducive to the enrichment of life.
The main principle of the sector is that never a door will open on the surrounding of fast vehicular road.
Schools along green belts safe for children, dispensaries, shopping, community centres, centrally located in
10 minutes walk and bus stops on main road within walking distance.
Parks have been provided within 300m of residential areas.
The sectors surrounded by high speed roads
Bus Stops at every 400m.
City Level Public Green Space
with ArtificialWater Body
Free- FlowingGreen Space,
connecting the entire site
Semi-Private Green Areas for
Private Green Areas for
The LeisureValley is a continuous 8 km
parkland with various theme gardens,
extending from the north eastern tip of
the city to its south-western tip.
This parkland was developed as one of
the original landscape features of the
Plan by Le Corbusier converting an
existing eroded valley along the
seasonal rivulet of N-Choe.
On one hand it ensured the
preservation of an existing ecological
feature of the site, and on the other
provided an opportunity enabling the
city residents to move through the
heart of the city in a continuous band of
various theme gardens.
Also this provided an un-obstructed
vista of the Shivalik foothills and Kasauli
peaks to even the residents of the
south-western end of the city.
Spaces In the
The Rose Garden is the largest of its kind in Asia and is spread over
an area of 27 acres. Built as a part of the green belt, the garden has
a large variety of roses and a fountain to relax the soul.
In order to safeguard Le Corbusier’s concept of green parkland on
the north of the Uttar Marg, the area between the High Court and
the Sukhna Lake, the Memory Park was created. It was felt that
institutionalising the area was necessary to keep it green and free
Spread over a sprawling area of 400 acres, the
Rajendra Park adjacent to the Secretariat
building is designed by Le Corbusier himself as
part of the Capitol.Trees with round canopies
and evergreen foliage have been planted here.
THE ROCK GARDEN
Spread over several acres, this fantasy land
designed by Padam Shri Nek Chand is a vast
open-air museum that showcases a vast array of
natural rock forms and stones.
The layout of the garden is based on the fantasy
of the lost kingdom.
Rock Garden, by its organic forms and non-
geometric layout, offers an apt counterpoint to
Chandigarh’s stylised architecture and has also
been recommended for heritage status.
The Physical FitnessTrails have been developed
with a view to enjoying physical exercises amidst
the beauty of Nature.To the south of Fitness
Trails is located the Flower Garden where
seasonal flowers have been planted in one
portion and the remaining portion is punctuated
with sculptures by renowned artists. Some area
has been left vacant for organizing various
The lake was created by Le Corbusier and the
Chief Engineer P LVerma to preserve its
tranquillity.Corbusier insisted that it be
forbidden to motor boats and the top of the dam
(promenade) prohibited to vehicular traffic.The
lake is fringed by a golf course to the south, and
the Rock Garden to its west.
AVAILABILITYOF GREEN/OPEN SPACES
Green area available within the sectoral grid = 2342 acres.
Green area available in Manimajra = 71 acres.
Botanical Garden = 180 acres.
Total planned green area = 2593 acres.
Forest Area in U.T. Chandigarh=3436Ha.
Total Green Area including Forest = 3828 Ha. (9455 acres).
Green/Open Spaces (percentage) = 33.5% of the total area
Average green available(sqm/person)=17sqm/person.
Canberra, the NationalCapital of Australia, grew out of an intermix of
political necessity, economic and social development, and the need to
decentralize the major population centres of the State Capitals.
The area selected and the subsequent construction of Canberra over
some 60 years were influenced by the natural topography and
landscape qualities, as well as an awareness of a need to create and
maintain beautiful landscapes within the city.
Since Canberra was being established soon after the birth of the
concept of the Garden City Movement, its planning and construction
embodied many of the then world philosophies about creating
healthy and attractive living conditions.
In particular, this included the need to establish an integrated
parkland and public open space system, easy access to open space,
and different recreation facilities.
Griffin’s plan for Canberra used the natural hilly topography and
the flood plain of the Molonglo River to organise the structure of
The flood plain became a chain of lakes designed as an integrated
expression in landscape with both symbolic and practical
The centre of composition—the LandAxis—is an imaginary line
drawn from Mount Ainslie to Mount Bimberi in the distance
passing through Capital Hill.
TheWater Axis intersects the LandAxis at right angles on an
imaginary line drawn from Black Mountain and crossing the flood
A key innovation of Griffin was the use of landscape features as
reference points in what would otherwise be a City Beautiful plan
of axial avenues and vistas terminating on public buildings
The central basin of the lake separated the
Government Group on the south and the
Recreation Group in front of the Municipal
Axis, now ConstitutionAvenue.
Griffin saw the Recreation Group on the north
side of central basin as the most popular part
of the public domain and filled with national
It was to be connected to the commercial
‘throng’ and tramway on ConstitutionAvenue,
and linked by public walks flowing down to the
lake side promenades.
HIERARCHY OF DIFFERENT SPACES WITHINTHE CITY
HIERARCHY OF DIFFERENT SPACES WITHINTHE CITY
RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES INSTITUTIONAL- ARTS & PROFESSIONS
The NationalTriangle, which is referred to as the Parliamentary
Triangle, is the ceremonial precinct ofCanberra, containing some
of Australia's most significant buildings.The NationalTriangle is
formed by Commonwealth, Kings and ConstitutionAvenues.
Buildings within the NationalTriangle have been located and
designed intentionally for visual effect.
Consistent withWalter Burley Griffin’s Garden City design, the
NationalTriangle is characterised by streets lined with large
deciduous trees, and buildings set in expanses of grassed
parkland.Consequently, it has a very open feel and buildings are
located several minutes walk away from one another. It was
Griffin's original intention for more grand government buildings to
be located within the precinct, however these have not
eventuated as yet.
The apices of the triangle are Parliament House, the seat of government;
the Defence Headquarters at Russell; and City Hill, representing the
civilian part of Canberra.
Griffin planned the city around two axes which converge in the center of
the NationalTriangle.The land axis connects Mount Ainslie, Capital
Hill and Red Hill and extends off towards Mount Bimberi the Australian
CapitalTerritory's highest mountain.The water axis runs at right angles
to the land axis along the length of Lake Burley Griffin.
The southern shore of Lake Burley Griffin bisects the NationalTriangle
forming a smallerTriangle known as the Parliamentary Zone bounded by
Kings and CommonwealthAvenues.
At the heart of Griffin’s composition was the Lake Burley Griffin—
a formal segmental lake with two adjacent circular basins that
complemented the architectural character of centre of city and
functioned as an auditorium engage in the theatre of the city. It
was to be a place that Griffin saw as a ‘playground for the city’.
It was completed in 1963 after the Molonglo River—which ran
between the city centre and ParliamentaryTriangle—was
of Lake Burley
The link between the axes and landscape
The relationship between formal and informal parts of the lake;
Strong links with both close and distant topography and features;
The relationship between vertical and horizontal elements (in
particular, the modernist elements added at the time of
As a unifying/linking element that also reflects and intensifies
(literally mirrors) its surrounding setting of buildings;
The strong landscape character of pre-planted trees in arboretums
and later planting schemes of clusters of colour against dark green
Its ambience as a reflecting pond; a serene place at the physical
and spiritual centre of the nation’s capital.
ANZAC Parade, a significant road and thoroughfare in the Australian capitalCanberra, is
used for ceremonial occasions and is the site of many major military memorials.
Named in honour of theAustralian and New ZealandArmy Corps ofWorldWar I, ANZAC
Parade joins Lake Burley Griffin in the south and the AustralianWar Memorial to the north,
is on the main axis between Parliament House and Mount Ainslie, and is the bisector of
ConstitutionAvenue that forms the side of the ParliamentaryTriangle between Civic and
The Parade is flanked by Eucalyptus trees on gently sloping banks either side of the three-
lane, one-way roads centred by a wide parade ground topped with granulated rock with
planted boxes of a low bush called Hebe.The Eucalypts are Australian; and the Hebe comes
from New Zealand.
ANZAC PARADE, CENTRAL AVENUE
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA
MUSEUM COMMONWEALTH PLACE FORECOURT
Level 1 Spaces
Civic and market squares, and other hard-surfaced areas
designed for pedestrians.
Parks and gardens
Level 2 Spaces
Churchyards, cemeteries, disused and other burial grounds.
Allotments, community gardens and urban farms.
Level 3 Spaces
• Outdoor sports facilities.
• Amenity green space
• Provision for children and young people.
Level 4 Spaces
Natural and semi-natural green spaces (including urban
Courtyard and front lawns
Civic Spaces are hard spaces including civic and market squares, and other hard surfaced areas
designed for pedestrians.
Parks and Gardens are sites which provide for accessible, high-quality opportunities for informal
recreation and community events and gardens within the City.
Amenity Greenspaces as sites that provide opportunities for informal recreation close to
residential areas.These are defined separately from the parks and gardens category in that they
consist of open spaces within residential estates or within the curtilage of private buildings, which
are either restricted to the use of occupiers, or which are not widely used by visitors to the
Natural and Semi-naturalGreenspaces are designed to promote nature conservation and
biodiversity; they include urban woodlands and wild gardens.
Children andYoung People-This includes any spaces designed for recreation by children and
young people (aged 19 and under).This therefore includes both equipped playgrounds and ball
parks. Playgrounds associated with schools and crèches that are visible from public areas were
also surveyed as part of the audit.
Outdoor Sports Facilities includes any space intended for the purpose of outdoor sports
including of relevance to the City bowling greens, tennis courts, or sports pitches.
The very basic fundamental of integrating green spaces in urban areas is belief that the
green element is critical to the long-term functioning of healthy, successful, livable urban
spaces.The integration of green areas, as discussed in the study can be done at four different
levels.This can be seen in the case study analysis of Chandigarh and Canberra.