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Hierarchy of
UrbanOpenSpaces in
Cities
Project Guide-
Ar. Puneet Sharma
Ravtej Singh
12641, 7th Sem
Aim and
Objectives
 Aim of the research is to study the hierarchy of open spaces in
cities and develop a relationship bet...
UrbanGreenSpaces
 Urban Green spaces refer to those land uses and land cover that
are covered with natural or man-made ve...
UrbanOpenSpaces
 Urban Open Spaces are – open areas for public use that are situated
within the urban fabric of a city.
...
UrbanOpenSpace
Typologies
 City-Wide Parks: Large, flat and open expanses of land that
accommodate events and celebration...
 Downtown Neighbourhood Parks: Family-focused, with
playgrounds, picnicking, swimming, tennis or basketball, as well as
u...
BenefitsOf
UrbanGreen
Spaces
Green spaces provide linkage between people and nature. Urban green
spaces are important as f...
Environmental benefits
 Ecological Benefits
1. Maintenance of biodiversity to the regulation of urban climate.
2. Greens...
Economic and aesthetic benefits
• Energy Savings
1. Using vegetation to reduce the energy costs of cooling buildings has ...
CaseStudy-Chandigarh:
TheCity Beautiful
 Chandigarh, is perhaps one of the few cities of the world of the 20th
century, w...
 Le Corbusier conceived the master plan of Chandigarh
as analogous to human body, with a clearly defined-
1. Head (the Ca...
Salient FeaturesOf The
Chandigarh Plan
 The function of Living occupies primary place and has been organised
into a cellu...
 The main principle of the sector is that never a door will open on the surrounding of fast vehicular road.
 Schools alo...
HierarchyOf
GreenAreas
 City Level Public Green Space
with ArtificialWater Body
 Free- FlowingGreen Space,
connecting th...
The Leisure
Valley
 The LeisureValley is a continuous 8 km
parkland with various theme gardens,
extending from the north ...
MajorOpen
Spaces In the
City
ROSE GARDEN
 The Rose Garden is the largest of its kind in Asia and is spread over
an area ...
RAJENDRA PARK
 Spread over a sprawling area of 400 acres, the
Rajendra Park adjacent to the Secretariat
building is desi...
FITNESSTRAILS
 The Physical FitnessTrails have been developed
with a view to enjoying physical exercises amidst
the beau...
AnalysisOf
OpenSpaces
InChandigarh
AVAILABILITYOF GREEN/OPEN SPACES
 Green area available within the sectoral grid = 234...
Canberra-AGardenCity
 Canberra, the NationalCapital of Australia, grew out of an intermix of
political necessity, economi...
Griffin’s Plan
 Griffin’s plan for Canberra used the natural hilly topography and
the flood plain of the Molonglo River t...
PLANNING APPROACH
The central basin of the lake separated the
Government Group on the south and the
Recreation Group in front of the Municip...
GOVERNMENT GROUP
HIERARCHY OF DIFFERENT SPACES WITHINTHE CITY
HIERARCHY OF DIFFERENT SPACES WITHINTHE CITY
RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES INSTITUTIONAL- ARTS & PROFESSIONS
The National
Triangle
 The NationalTriangle, which is referred to as the Parliamentary
Triangle, is the ceremonial precin...
 The apices of the triangle are Parliament House, the seat of government;
the Defence Headquarters at Russell; and City H...
Lake Burley
Griffin
 At the heart of Griffin’s composition was the Lake Burley Griffin—
a formal segmental lake with two ...
CreativeAspects
of Lake Burley
Griffin
 The link between the axes and landscape
 The relationship between formal and inf...
 ANZAC Parade, a significant road and thoroughfare in the Australian capitalCanberra, is
used for ceremonial occasions an...
THE CARILLON
HIGH COURT
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA
MUSEUM COMMONWEALTH PLACE FORECOURT
OpenSpace
Typologies In
Canberra
Level 1 Spaces
 Civic and market squares, and other hard-surfaced areas
designed for pe...
 Civic Spaces are hard spaces including civic and market squares, and other hard surfaced areas
designed for pedestrians....
The very basic fundamental of integrating green spaces in urban areas is belief that the
green element is critical to the ...
THANKYOU
Hierarchy Of Open Spaces
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Hierarchy Of Open Spaces

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Discusses open spaces in cities taking examples from Chandigarh and Canberra

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Hierarchy Of Open Spaces

  1. 1. Hierarchy of UrbanOpenSpaces in Cities Project Guide- Ar. Puneet Sharma Ravtej Singh 12641, 7th Sem
  2. 2. Aim and Objectives  Aim of the research is to study the hierarchy of open spaces in cities and develop a relationship between urban greens and the urban city structure, ecology and character.  Objective-  Define ‘urban green’ in the context of urbanizing India and highlight its benefits.  Identify scope and limitations to green space growth, integration and management in an urban area.  Discuss integration of greens at 4 scale levels: city, neighbourhood, streets and buildings.  Analyze case studies at the 4 hierarchical levels.  Compare the existing scenario with standards and conclude with inferences from the literature and case studies.
  3. 3. UrbanGreenSpaces  Urban Green spaces refer to those land uses and land cover that are covered with natural or man-made vegetation in the city and planning areas which are directly or indirectly available for users.  Sometimes referred to as “Green infrastructure”, that serve roles such as improving air quality, flood protection and pollution control .  Evaluation of green spaces-  One of the main factors in determining the nature of green spaces is their quantity in the city.  Existing qualities like activities and experiences, and perceived benefits to the users determine the utilization of green spaces.  The functionality of those green spaces is equally influenced by the location and distribution (accessibility) in the whole city.
  4. 4. UrbanOpenSpaces  Urban Open Spaces are – open areas for public use that are situated within the urban fabric of a city.  Traditionally, public places are thought to include city squares, sidewalks, markets, and transportation hubs.  The three dimensions of access, control, and ownership are what truly determine the distinction between private and public space. .
  5. 5. UrbanOpenSpace Typologies  City-Wide Parks: Large, flat and open expanses of land that accommodate events and celebrations that attract people living in all parts of the city  Linear Greenways: Characterized by pathways that provide recreational, health and social opportunities, as well as transportation linkages.They are the “lungs” of the city and serve to connect people to nature.
  6. 6.  Downtown Neighbourhood Parks: Family-focused, with playgrounds, picnicking, swimming, tennis or basketball, as well as un-programmed open space areas which provide recreational opportunities for a neighbourhood.  Public Sitting Area in a PedestrianWalkway: Sitting areas on a sidewalk of a pedestrian-oriented street  Non-PermanentGreen Spaces: Unused streets and public rights- of-way that are quickly and inexpensively turned into new public plazas and parks for a temporarily period of time in order to provide some open space and often additional outdoor seating  Plaza: They are primarily hard-surface spaces which often provide retail space, often food service, in a portion of the area, and function as a place to gather or sit outside.
  7. 7. BenefitsOf UrbanGreen Spaces Green spaces provide linkage between people and nature. Urban green spaces are important as functions and meanings for: oUrban climate, noise moderation, air cleaning and handle of surface water oAs an indicator of environmental changes oAs a part of the circulation of nutritive substances oCultivation of energy plants oBiodiversity; to save valuable urban species, as refuges for species from rural biotopes and as spreading corridors. oSocial and cultural values; for health, recovering and rehabilitation, to give beauty and comfort, to give room for passivity and activity, as a cultural heritage, as an arena for citizenship, for education. oGardening and allotments; as history of urban landscapes, as a social function, for life quality and beauty, providing a reserve. oUrban design; to give the city an understandable structure, to connect different scales and parts of the urban landscape.
  8. 8. Environmental benefits  Ecological Benefits 1. Maintenance of biodiversity to the regulation of urban climate. 2. Greenspaces that feature good connectivity and act as ‘wildlifecorridors’ or function as ‘urban forests’, can maintain viable populations of species that would otherwise disappear from built environments  Pollution Control 1. Dynamic form of urban expanding to manage effective urban green spaces which will contribute to reduce the overall CO2 by maintaining or even increasing the ability of CO2 absorption via natural eco-system. Biodiversity and nature conservation • Green spaces function as protection centre for reproduction of species and conservation of plants, soil and water quality.They provide visual relief, seasonal change and link with natural world. • Maintenance of ecological aspects of sustainable urban landscape, with greenways and use of plant species adapted to the local condition with low maintenance cost, self-sufficient and sustainable.
  9. 9. Economic and aesthetic benefits • Energy Savings 1. Using vegetation to reduce the energy costs of cooling buildings has been increasingly recognized as a cost effective reason for increasing green space and tree planting in temperate climate cities. 2. Plants improve air circulation, provide shade and they transpire.This provides a cooling effect and contributes to lower air temperatures. 3. Increasing tree cover in the city by 10% may reduce total energy for heating and cooling by 5 to 10%. • PropertyValue 1. Areas of the city with enough greenery are aesthetically pleasing and attractive to both residents and investors. Social and psychological benefits  Recreation andWell-being- Urban green spaces serve as a near resource for relaxation; provide emotional warmth  Human Health- People exposed to natural environment, the level of stress decreased rapidly as compared to people who were exposed to urban environment. Improvements in air quality due to vegetation have a positive impact on physical health such as decrease in respiratory illnesses.
  10. 10. CaseStudy-Chandigarh: TheCity Beautiful  Chandigarh, is perhaps one of the few cities of the world of the 20th century, whose original layout plan has a meticulously planned, hierarchy of open spaces, landscaped areas, recreational areas and tree-lined roads, avenues and gardens spread all over the city.  The Intent– the new city would be a place where the buildings and the built form would nestle in close communion to the elements of nature, and the residents of the city would enjoy direct and immediate access to natural settings.
  11. 11.  Le Corbusier conceived the master plan of Chandigarh as analogous to human body, with a clearly defined- 1. Head (the Capitol Complex, Sector 1), 2. Heart (the City Centre Sector-17), 3. Lungs (the leisure valley, innumerable open spaces and sector greens) 4. Intellect (the cultural and educational institutions), 5. Circulatory system (the network of roads, the 7Vs) 6. Viscera (the Industrial Area)  Working Areas – The Capitol Complex Sector 17, commercial belts along Jan Marg, Madhya Marg, Himalaya Marg , Udyog Path, Dakshin Marg.  Living -The Sectors  Care of body and spirit – LeisureValley, Sukhna Lake, parks, green belts, cultural belts and the educational belts  Circulation –The 7v network of roads on a modular grid iron pattern .  The seeds of extensive landscaping and verdure were embedded in the city layout plan by its architect- planner Le Corbusier right at the beginning, with the provision of large number of open spaces, green belts, city parks and neighborhood parks.
  12. 12. Salient FeaturesOf The Chandigarh Plan  The function of Living occupies primary place and has been organised into a cellular system of sectors based on the concept of a neighbourhood unit.  Each sector has a size of 800m x 1200m which was determined on the parameter of providing all amenities i.e. shops, schools, health centres and places of recreation and worship within a 10-minute walking distance of the residents.  Every sector is introvert in character and permits only four vehicular entries into its interior to provide a tranquil and serene environment conducive to the enrichment of life.
  13. 13.  The main principle of the sector is that never a door will open on the surrounding of fast vehicular road.  Schools along green belts safe for children, dispensaries, shopping, community centres, centrally located in 10 minutes walk and bus stops on main road within walking distance.  Parks have been provided within 300m of residential areas.  The sectors surrounded by high speed roads  Bus Stops at every 400m.
  14. 14. HierarchyOf GreenAreas  City Level Public Green Space with ArtificialWater Body  Free- FlowingGreen Space, connecting the entire site  Semi-Private Green Areas for neighbourhood pockets  Private Green Areas for Residential Units
  15. 15. The Leisure Valley  The LeisureValley is a continuous 8 km parkland with various theme gardens, extending from the north eastern tip of the city to its south-western tip.  This parkland was developed as one of the original landscape features of the Plan by Le Corbusier converting an existing eroded valley along the seasonal rivulet of N-Choe.  On one hand it ensured the preservation of an existing ecological feature of the site, and on the other provided an opportunity enabling the city residents to move through the heart of the city in a continuous band of various theme gardens.  Also this provided an un-obstructed vista of the Shivalik foothills and Kasauli peaks to even the residents of the south-western end of the city.
  16. 16. MajorOpen Spaces In the City ROSE GARDEN  The Rose Garden is the largest of its kind in Asia and is spread over an area of 27 acres. Built as a part of the green belt, the garden has a large variety of roses and a fountain to relax the soul. MEMORY PARK  In order to safeguard Le Corbusier’s concept of green parkland on the north of the Uttar Marg, the area between the High Court and the Sukhna Lake, the Memory Park was created. It was felt that institutionalising the area was necessary to keep it green and free from encroachments.
  17. 17. RAJENDRA PARK  Spread over a sprawling area of 400 acres, the Rajendra Park adjacent to the Secretariat building is designed by Le Corbusier himself as part of the Capitol.Trees with round canopies and evergreen foliage have been planted here. THE ROCK GARDEN  Spread over several acres, this fantasy land designed by Padam Shri Nek Chand is a vast open-air museum that showcases a vast array of natural rock forms and stones.  The layout of the garden is based on the fantasy of the lost kingdom.  Rock Garden, by its organic forms and non- geometric layout, offers an apt counterpoint to Chandigarh’s stylised architecture and has also been recommended for heritage status.
  18. 18. FITNESSTRAILS  The Physical FitnessTrails have been developed with a view to enjoying physical exercises amidst the beauty of Nature.To the south of Fitness Trails is located the Flower Garden where seasonal flowers have been planted in one portion and the remaining portion is punctuated with sculptures by renowned artists. Some area has been left vacant for organizing various cultural activities. SUKHNA LAKE  The lake was created by Le Corbusier and the Chief Engineer P LVerma to preserve its tranquillity.Corbusier insisted that it be forbidden to motor boats and the top of the dam (promenade) prohibited to vehicular traffic.The lake is fringed by a golf course to the south, and the Rock Garden to its west.
  19. 19. AnalysisOf OpenSpaces InChandigarh AVAILABILITYOF GREEN/OPEN SPACES  Green area available within the sectoral grid = 2342 acres.  Green area available in Manimajra = 71 acres.  Botanical Garden = 180 acres.  Total planned green area = 2593 acres.  Forest Area in U.T. Chandigarh=3436Ha.  Total Green Area including Forest = 3828 Ha. (9455 acres).  Green/Open Spaces (percentage) = 33.5% of the total area  Average green available(sqm/person)=17sqm/person.
  20. 20. Canberra-AGardenCity  Canberra, the NationalCapital of Australia, grew out of an intermix of political necessity, economic and social development, and the need to decentralize the major population centres of the State Capitals.  The area selected and the subsequent construction of Canberra over some 60 years were influenced by the natural topography and landscape qualities, as well as an awareness of a need to create and maintain beautiful landscapes within the city.  Since Canberra was being established soon after the birth of the concept of the Garden City Movement, its planning and construction embodied many of the then world philosophies about creating healthy and attractive living conditions.  In particular, this included the need to establish an integrated parkland and public open space system, easy access to open space, and different recreation facilities. CaseStudy
  21. 21. Griffin’s Plan  Griffin’s plan for Canberra used the natural hilly topography and the flood plain of the Molonglo River to organise the structure of the city.  The flood plain became a chain of lakes designed as an integrated expression in landscape with both symbolic and practical considerations.  The centre of composition—the LandAxis—is an imaginary line drawn from Mount Ainslie to Mount Bimberi in the distance passing through Capital Hill.  TheWater Axis intersects the LandAxis at right angles on an imaginary line drawn from Black Mountain and crossing the flood plain  A key innovation of Griffin was the use of landscape features as reference points in what would otherwise be a City Beautiful plan of axial avenues and vistas terminating on public buildings
  22. 22. PLANNING APPROACH
  23. 23. The central basin of the lake separated the Government Group on the south and the Recreation Group in front of the Municipal Axis, now ConstitutionAvenue. Griffin saw the Recreation Group on the north side of central basin as the most popular part of the public domain and filled with national cultural attractions It was to be connected to the commercial ‘throng’ and tramway on ConstitutionAvenue, and linked by public walks flowing down to the lake side promenades. N
  24. 24. GOVERNMENT GROUP HIERARCHY OF DIFFERENT SPACES WITHINTHE CITY
  25. 25. HIERARCHY OF DIFFERENT SPACES WITHINTHE CITY RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES INSTITUTIONAL- ARTS & PROFESSIONS
  26. 26. The National Triangle  The NationalTriangle, which is referred to as the Parliamentary Triangle, is the ceremonial precinct ofCanberra, containing some of Australia's most significant buildings.The NationalTriangle is formed by Commonwealth, Kings and ConstitutionAvenues. Buildings within the NationalTriangle have been located and designed intentionally for visual effect.  Consistent withWalter Burley Griffin’s Garden City design, the NationalTriangle is characterised by streets lined with large deciduous trees, and buildings set in expanses of grassed parkland.Consequently, it has a very open feel and buildings are located several minutes walk away from one another. It was Griffin's original intention for more grand government buildings to be located within the precinct, however these have not eventuated as yet.
  27. 27.  The apices of the triangle are Parliament House, the seat of government; the Defence Headquarters at Russell; and City Hill, representing the civilian part of Canberra.  Griffin planned the city around two axes which converge in the center of the NationalTriangle.The land axis connects Mount Ainslie, Capital Hill and Red Hill and extends off towards Mount Bimberi the Australian CapitalTerritory's highest mountain.The water axis runs at right angles to the land axis along the length of Lake Burley Griffin.  The southern shore of Lake Burley Griffin bisects the NationalTriangle forming a smallerTriangle known as the Parliamentary Zone bounded by Kings and CommonwealthAvenues. The National Triangle
  28. 28. Lake Burley Griffin  At the heart of Griffin’s composition was the Lake Burley Griffin— a formal segmental lake with two adjacent circular basins that complemented the architectural character of centre of city and functioned as an auditorium engage in the theatre of the city. It was to be a place that Griffin saw as a ‘playground for the city’.  It was completed in 1963 after the Molonglo River—which ran between the city centre and ParliamentaryTriangle—was dammed
  29. 29. CreativeAspects of Lake Burley Griffin  The link between the axes and landscape  The relationship between formal and informal parts of the lake;  Strong links with both close and distant topography and features;  The relationship between vertical and horizontal elements (in particular, the modernist elements added at the time of construction);  As a unifying/linking element that also reflects and intensifies (literally mirrors) its surrounding setting of buildings;  The strong landscape character of pre-planted trees in arboretums and later planting schemes of clusters of colour against dark green etc; and  Its ambience as a reflecting pond; a serene place at the physical and spiritual centre of the nation’s capital.
  30. 30.  ANZAC Parade, a significant road and thoroughfare in the Australian capitalCanberra, is used for ceremonial occasions and is the site of many major military memorials.  Named in honour of theAustralian and New ZealandArmy Corps ofWorldWar I, ANZAC Parade joins Lake Burley Griffin in the south and the AustralianWar Memorial to the north, is on the main axis between Parliament House and Mount Ainslie, and is the bisector of ConstitutionAvenue that forms the side of the ParliamentaryTriangle between Civic and Russell Hill.  The Parade is flanked by Eucalyptus trees on gently sloping banks either side of the three- lane, one-way roads centred by a wide parade ground topped with granulated rock with planted boxes of a low bush called Hebe.The Eucalypts are Australian; and the Hebe comes from New Zealand. ANZAC PARADE, CENTRAL AVENUE
  31. 31. THE CARILLON HIGH COURT NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA MUSEUM COMMONWEALTH PLACE FORECOURT
  32. 32. OpenSpace Typologies In Canberra Level 1 Spaces  Civic and market squares, and other hard-surfaced areas designed for pedestrians.  Parks and gardens Level 2 Spaces  Churchyards, cemeteries, disused and other burial grounds.  Allotments, community gardens and urban farms. Level 3 Spaces • Outdoor sports facilities. • Amenity green space • Provision for children and young people. Level 4 Spaces Natural and semi-natural green spaces (including urban woodland) Courtyard and front lawns
  33. 33.  Civic Spaces are hard spaces including civic and market squares, and other hard surfaced areas designed for pedestrians.  Parks and Gardens are sites which provide for accessible, high-quality opportunities for informal recreation and community events and gardens within the City.  Amenity Greenspaces as sites that provide opportunities for informal recreation close to residential areas.These are defined separately from the parks and gardens category in that they consist of open spaces within residential estates or within the curtilage of private buildings, which are either restricted to the use of occupiers, or which are not widely used by visitors to the borough.  Natural and Semi-naturalGreenspaces are designed to promote nature conservation and biodiversity; they include urban woodlands and wild gardens.  Children andYoung People-This includes any spaces designed for recreation by children and young people (aged 19 and under).This therefore includes both equipped playgrounds and ball parks. Playgrounds associated with schools and crèches that are visible from public areas were also surveyed as part of the audit.  Outdoor Sports Facilities includes any space intended for the purpose of outdoor sports including of relevance to the City bowling greens, tennis courts, or sports pitches.
  34. 34. The very basic fundamental of integrating green spaces in urban areas is belief that the green element is critical to the long-term functioning of healthy, successful, livable urban spaces.The integration of green areas, as discussed in the study can be done at four different levels.This can be seen in the case study analysis of Chandigarh and Canberra. CONCLUSION
  35. 35. THANKYOU

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