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Usability... -Ravishyam.S
Looks ok to me! Are we sure ? $*! Not done! Change the font We’ve already wasted 2 months! OMG! $!!! ^*> Wow! Also the language Brainstorming – 1st  cut!	 Suggestions, creative inputs from everybody! – 2nd cut! Design by Committee – 3rd  cut!	 Finally, final cut! A day in the life of Product Development… In hindsight Time cost? Overheads? OMG! Let's get this straight. Is it making business sense?! It was fun. But can we cut it short? There has to be a better way!
$!!! $!!! $!!! While the team fights and freezes on the design, this guy stands at the corner  Who is this guy?! And what does HE/SHE want?! Where is the actual user?
Poor User Experience Unsatisfied Customer Lost Market/Revenue Impacts… = =
User CenteredDesign
What is User Centered Design? User-centered design (UCD) is a process in which the needs, wants and limitations of the end user of any product are systematically researched and incorporated into each stage of the design process.  ISO definition of Usability – 	Usability is the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which a specified set of users can achieve a specified set of tasks in a particular environment.
End User Focus on End User-the often neglected…
Integration, Testing, Training, Implementation UCD- Design Activities Requirements and Analysis Design Development Legend Legend UX Research UI Design and Development Usability Testing Usability Analysis Product Management
UCD- Usability validation steps
Benefits (ROI?) Listen from horse’s mouth Eliminate “you know, I think this works..” “Let me tell you…” “as far as I know…” Fix potential road blocks Track back potential business enhancers into the road map Match tone, pitch to highlight most liked features.  Cover up lesser rated and or irritating aspects.  Understand hidden behavioral aspects, cultural issues, computer literacy levels etc., Cite the reports to defend your product usability and likeability Clients listen when they know you care, be better informed before going to the client
Some questions you may have…
We have UI designers, is this not enough? Usability is an end result of entire product phases and not a by-product of UI design Good UI design can provide aesthetic value. when not backed up by research based data and validations, can become a hindrance on its own due to individual perceptions and bias Usability should not be skin deep. Usability should be intervened into the product and business culture by being user focused and business goals oriented, cannot be just at surface level Similar to other practice areas and skill sets, UI designers can ensure that they bring in their previous experience of what worked before. This no way guarantees that it will work now. Validating your product with end users is an industry standard across all major product development firms
This seems to be more trouble than help, will it not delay the product… Choose between unforeseen factors resulting in failure or some additional effort and cost Usability findings gives us visibility into potential issues  Can help in fine tuning product vision in current or future versions Understand and be prepared for potential issues than surprises Utilize positive findings from validation process towards better pitches
We have guidelines and best practices, what else can end user suggest? Go beyond listening to end users, observe them work, use similar tools or technologies in their natural environments. Helps in uncovering hidden issues or unspoken needs validation process is not just about listening to the whims and fancies of end user. It is a skill and measure to ensure what we think works or otherwise Guidelines, best practices, internal validations definitely help but cannot be definitive methods or modes of ensuring what works
Help and Training will take care of Ease of Use…!
OK, what are some metrics/measurement criteria? * Metrics derived from NISTIR 7741 - NIST Guide to the Processes Approach for Improving the Usability of Electronic Health Records  Performance metrics (quantitative measures, often used for summative testing)  Task success (whether the participant can complete the task in the allotted time without assistance from the administrator)  Time on task (the length of time in seconds required for participants to complete the task)  Errors (may include clicking on an incorrect menu item, incorrect link, or interacting incorrectly with an on-screen control)  Efficiency (e.g. task time, and errors)  Learn ability Issues-based metrics (primarily used for formative testing)  Usability issues (# issues found, % of participants who found an issue)  Severity ratings (rating assigned to usability issues that reflects the impact of each issue on the user‘s satisfaction and ability to complete tasks)
OK, what are some metrics/measurement criteria? (Continued…) * Metrics derived from NISTIR 7741 - NIST Guide to the Processes Approach for Improving the Usability of Electronic Health Records  Self-reported metrics (both quantitative and qualitative measures which provide insights about participant satisfaction)  Post-task ratings (may be a Likert scale from 1 to 5 where, for example, 1 is very difficult and 5 is very easy).  Post-session ratings (may be a Likert scale from 1 to 5 where, for example, 1 is very dissatisfied and 5 is very satisfied).  System Usability Scale (Participants rate statements on a five-point scale where ―1 - Strongly Disagree‖ to ―5 - Strongly Agree. The SUS survey yields a single number that represents a composite measure of the overall usability of the system).  NASA TLX (subjective workload assessment tool that asks users to rate how demanding particular tasks are to perform).  Specific attribute questions (e.g,. Rate: Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree for the question ―Overall, I am satisfied with how well this application supported this task‖).  Semantic differentials (e.g., ―This task was ―Easy ―Difficult).  Answers to open-ended questions (For example, ―What did you find to be the most difficult or frustrating aspect of this application?‖).  Behavioral metrics (often add context to performance, issues-based, and self-report metrics)  Verbal (positive / negative) comments and non-verbal behavior. For example, a long pause or a confused look might indicate lack of understanding.
Where do we find some Healthcare usability documentation? * References quoted from some of the influential usability bodies http://www.nist.gov/itl/hit/upload/Guide_Final_Publication_Version.pdf www.himss.org/content/files/himss_definingandtestingemrusability http://www.humanfactors.com/downloads/whitepapersrequest.asp?whitepaper=UXandHealthcare http://healthit.ahrq.gov/portal/server.pt/document/907504/09%2810%29-0091-1-ef_pdf?qid=80974149&rank=5 http://www.usercentric.com/hit-usability http://www.himss.org/ASP/topics_FocusDynamic.asp?faid=358 http://isvcommunity.com/profiles/blogs/meaningful-usability-in http://www.slideshare.net/jinnes/repositioning-user-experience?src=related_normal&rel=13728
Blabbering…
Some comments from a previous test and redesign Help Desk : ‘Finally this looks like a software” “I would feel more comfortable is providing support to this than the previous (product name removed).  Training Team “ Tasks flows are very clear, there won’t be huge learning curve” “ I think it will reduce my training time” “ This restricted navigation works perfect! we will be able to control users task flows, which was not possible with (product name removed).  Account Manager “I thought the demonstration showed major improvement. I appreciate the opportunity to see what is coming and how it would affect the process of flow from a site perspective.”  Regional Vice President I thought the flow change was excellent. The pages do not look as busy as before. I think the changes are definitely more easier and user friendly.  Implementation Manager I have never seen Jimmy and Tina appreciating so much  about (product name removed). The fact that they are positive gives me a huge confidence
Some “quotes”… Usability cost-benefit data shows that including usability in product development actually cuts the time to market and increases sales because usability and ease of use build quality into products and catch many expensive problems early on in the cycle when they can be addressed at lower cost. Finally, working with users from the beginning of a product cycle ensures that the product is being designed so that users will be satisfied.   -- Claire Marie Karat, human-computer interface researcher at IBM What most separates firms with a disciplined approach to customer-experience management from their peers? The use of primary user research. 68% of the disciplined firms report using primary research to understand customers compared to only 21% of the undisciplined firms�the largest [gap] that we found.- Forrester Research Usability cost-benefit data shows that including usability in product development actually cuts the time to market and increases sales because usability and ease of use build quality into products and catch many expensive problems early on in the cycle when they can be addressed at lower cost. Finally, working with users from the beginning of a product cycle ensures that the product is being designed so that users will be satisfied.   -- Claire Marie Karat, human-computer interface researcher at IBM Most websites today fail basic tests of usability.   -- Forrester Research Over the last year online banking has attracted 6.3 million users, but a massive 3.1 million of those have closed their accounts already due to poor website design and inefficient service.- Internet Money Issue 4
What is not Usability Usability is not UI Design/Development. UI Design/Development is more a discipline focusing on the technical aspects of front End development Aesthetics and Visual Design does not ensure Usability, Usability is a result of research , domain expertise, technology and aesthetics. Asking users what they want and laundry lists do not ensure usability. A usability process that is solely dependant on asking what users want is prone to failures as users cannot precisely articulate what the core issues are. Observe users than ask. Marketing research can provide direction and base for Usability Analysis but is not entirety in itself for lack of ingrained end user focus. Common sense is not usability, Common sense based approach towards Usability tends to fail miserably as common sense differs from person to person and is often biased.  22
Why Usability Validation? Don’t we know enough? We do know our domain in our context and experience, but we are not our users, why risk?  Target users likes and dislikes are influenced by the similar experiences they had before from various software, gadgets and even from what their neighbor had or has. What is usable for me may not be for you, same applies to a group of end users from a particular domain and or demographic. Usable is often a very subjective feeling stemming from the difference between utility and usability of an  app. With no alternative in sight, users will adopt to the available. with more options, they pick and choose! Usability when not measured, subjected  and defended against metrics, can hurt negatively due to varied feedbacks from external market voices.
Measuring Usability Usability is the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which a specified set of users can achieve a specified set of tasks in a particular environment.
Measuring Usability Usability is the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which a specified set of users can achieve a specified set of tasks in a particular environment.
Known proponents of Usability and UCD IBM-http://www-01.ibm.com/software/ucd/ucd.html Apple-http://developer.apple.com/library/mac/#documentation/UserExperience/Conceptual/AppleHIGuidelines/XHIGDesignProcess/XHIGDesignProcess.html#//apple_ref/doc/uid/TP40002718-TPXREF101 Microsoft- http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms997578.aspx Oracle- http://usableapps.oracle.com/getInvolved/labTours.html IDEO- http://www.ideo.com/work/human-centered-design-toolkit/ SAP- http://www.sapdesignguild.org/editions/edition8/measuring_up.asp World Usability Day- http://www.worldusabilityday.org/ UPA- http://www.upassoc.org/ CHI-http://www.chi2011.org/
Thank You…

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Usability in product development

  • 2. Looks ok to me! Are we sure ? $*! Not done! Change the font We’ve already wasted 2 months! OMG! $!!! ^*> Wow! Also the language Brainstorming – 1st cut! Suggestions, creative inputs from everybody! – 2nd cut! Design by Committee – 3rd cut! Finally, final cut! A day in the life of Product Development… In hindsight Time cost? Overheads? OMG! Let's get this straight. Is it making business sense?! It was fun. But can we cut it short? There has to be a better way!
  • 3. $!!! $!!! $!!! While the team fights and freezes on the design, this guy stands at the corner Who is this guy?! And what does HE/SHE want?! Where is the actual user?
  • 4. Poor User Experience Unsatisfied Customer Lost Market/Revenue Impacts… = =
  • 6. What is User Centered Design? User-centered design (UCD) is a process in which the needs, wants and limitations of the end user of any product are systematically researched and incorporated into each stage of the design process. ISO definition of Usability – Usability is the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which a specified set of users can achieve a specified set of tasks in a particular environment.
  • 7. End User Focus on End User-the often neglected…
  • 8. Integration, Testing, Training, Implementation UCD- Design Activities Requirements and Analysis Design Development Legend Legend UX Research UI Design and Development Usability Testing Usability Analysis Product Management
  • 10. Benefits (ROI?) Listen from horse’s mouth Eliminate “you know, I think this works..” “Let me tell you…” “as far as I know…” Fix potential road blocks Track back potential business enhancers into the road map Match tone, pitch to highlight most liked features. Cover up lesser rated and or irritating aspects. Understand hidden behavioral aspects, cultural issues, computer literacy levels etc., Cite the reports to defend your product usability and likeability Clients listen when they know you care, be better informed before going to the client
  • 11. Some questions you may have…
  • 12. We have UI designers, is this not enough? Usability is an end result of entire product phases and not a by-product of UI design Good UI design can provide aesthetic value. when not backed up by research based data and validations, can become a hindrance on its own due to individual perceptions and bias Usability should not be skin deep. Usability should be intervened into the product and business culture by being user focused and business goals oriented, cannot be just at surface level Similar to other practice areas and skill sets, UI designers can ensure that they bring in their previous experience of what worked before. This no way guarantees that it will work now. Validating your product with end users is an industry standard across all major product development firms
  • 13. This seems to be more trouble than help, will it not delay the product… Choose between unforeseen factors resulting in failure or some additional effort and cost Usability findings gives us visibility into potential issues Can help in fine tuning product vision in current or future versions Understand and be prepared for potential issues than surprises Utilize positive findings from validation process towards better pitches
  • 14. We have guidelines and best practices, what else can end user suggest? Go beyond listening to end users, observe them work, use similar tools or technologies in their natural environments. Helps in uncovering hidden issues or unspoken needs validation process is not just about listening to the whims and fancies of end user. It is a skill and measure to ensure what we think works or otherwise Guidelines, best practices, internal validations definitely help but cannot be definitive methods or modes of ensuring what works
  • 15. Help and Training will take care of Ease of Use…!
  • 16. OK, what are some metrics/measurement criteria? * Metrics derived from NISTIR 7741 - NIST Guide to the Processes Approach for Improving the Usability of Electronic Health Records Performance metrics (quantitative measures, often used for summative testing) Task success (whether the participant can complete the task in the allotted time without assistance from the administrator) Time on task (the length of time in seconds required for participants to complete the task) Errors (may include clicking on an incorrect menu item, incorrect link, or interacting incorrectly with an on-screen control) Efficiency (e.g. task time, and errors) Learn ability Issues-based metrics (primarily used for formative testing) Usability issues (# issues found, % of participants who found an issue) Severity ratings (rating assigned to usability issues that reflects the impact of each issue on the user‘s satisfaction and ability to complete tasks)
  • 17. OK, what are some metrics/measurement criteria? (Continued…) * Metrics derived from NISTIR 7741 - NIST Guide to the Processes Approach for Improving the Usability of Electronic Health Records Self-reported metrics (both quantitative and qualitative measures which provide insights about participant satisfaction) Post-task ratings (may be a Likert scale from 1 to 5 where, for example, 1 is very difficult and 5 is very easy). Post-session ratings (may be a Likert scale from 1 to 5 where, for example, 1 is very dissatisfied and 5 is very satisfied). System Usability Scale (Participants rate statements on a five-point scale where ―1 - Strongly Disagree‖ to ―5 - Strongly Agree. The SUS survey yields a single number that represents a composite measure of the overall usability of the system). NASA TLX (subjective workload assessment tool that asks users to rate how demanding particular tasks are to perform). Specific attribute questions (e.g,. Rate: Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree for the question ―Overall, I am satisfied with how well this application supported this task‖). Semantic differentials (e.g., ―This task was ―Easy ―Difficult). Answers to open-ended questions (For example, ―What did you find to be the most difficult or frustrating aspect of this application?‖). Behavioral metrics (often add context to performance, issues-based, and self-report metrics) Verbal (positive / negative) comments and non-verbal behavior. For example, a long pause or a confused look might indicate lack of understanding.
  • 18. Where do we find some Healthcare usability documentation? * References quoted from some of the influential usability bodies http://www.nist.gov/itl/hit/upload/Guide_Final_Publication_Version.pdf www.himss.org/content/files/himss_definingandtestingemrusability http://www.humanfactors.com/downloads/whitepapersrequest.asp?whitepaper=UXandHealthcare http://healthit.ahrq.gov/portal/server.pt/document/907504/09%2810%29-0091-1-ef_pdf?qid=80974149&rank=5 http://www.usercentric.com/hit-usability http://www.himss.org/ASP/topics_FocusDynamic.asp?faid=358 http://isvcommunity.com/profiles/blogs/meaningful-usability-in http://www.slideshare.net/jinnes/repositioning-user-experience?src=related_normal&rel=13728
  • 20. Some comments from a previous test and redesign Help Desk : ‘Finally this looks like a software” “I would feel more comfortable is providing support to this than the previous (product name removed). Training Team “ Tasks flows are very clear, there won’t be huge learning curve” “ I think it will reduce my training time” “ This restricted navigation works perfect! we will be able to control users task flows, which was not possible with (product name removed). Account Manager “I thought the demonstration showed major improvement. I appreciate the opportunity to see what is coming and how it would affect the process of flow from a site perspective.” Regional Vice President I thought the flow change was excellent. The pages do not look as busy as before. I think the changes are definitely more easier and user friendly. Implementation Manager I have never seen Jimmy and Tina appreciating so much about (product name removed). The fact that they are positive gives me a huge confidence
  • 21. Some “quotes”… Usability cost-benefit data shows that including usability in product development actually cuts the time to market and increases sales because usability and ease of use build quality into products and catch many expensive problems early on in the cycle when they can be addressed at lower cost. Finally, working with users from the beginning of a product cycle ensures that the product is being designed so that users will be satisfied.   -- Claire Marie Karat, human-computer interface researcher at IBM What most separates firms with a disciplined approach to customer-experience management from their peers? The use of primary user research. 68% of the disciplined firms report using primary research to understand customers compared to only 21% of the undisciplined firms�the largest [gap] that we found.- Forrester Research Usability cost-benefit data shows that including usability in product development actually cuts the time to market and increases sales because usability and ease of use build quality into products and catch many expensive problems early on in the cycle when they can be addressed at lower cost. Finally, working with users from the beginning of a product cycle ensures that the product is being designed so that users will be satisfied.   -- Claire Marie Karat, human-computer interface researcher at IBM Most websites today fail basic tests of usability.   -- Forrester Research Over the last year online banking has attracted 6.3 million users, but a massive 3.1 million of those have closed their accounts already due to poor website design and inefficient service.- Internet Money Issue 4
  • 22. What is not Usability Usability is not UI Design/Development. UI Design/Development is more a discipline focusing on the technical aspects of front End development Aesthetics and Visual Design does not ensure Usability, Usability is a result of research , domain expertise, technology and aesthetics. Asking users what they want and laundry lists do not ensure usability. A usability process that is solely dependant on asking what users want is prone to failures as users cannot precisely articulate what the core issues are. Observe users than ask. Marketing research can provide direction and base for Usability Analysis but is not entirety in itself for lack of ingrained end user focus. Common sense is not usability, Common sense based approach towards Usability tends to fail miserably as common sense differs from person to person and is often biased. 22
  • 23. Why Usability Validation? Don’t we know enough? We do know our domain in our context and experience, but we are not our users, why risk? Target users likes and dislikes are influenced by the similar experiences they had before from various software, gadgets and even from what their neighbor had or has. What is usable for me may not be for you, same applies to a group of end users from a particular domain and or demographic. Usable is often a very subjective feeling stemming from the difference between utility and usability of an app. With no alternative in sight, users will adopt to the available. with more options, they pick and choose! Usability when not measured, subjected and defended against metrics, can hurt negatively due to varied feedbacks from external market voices.
  • 24. Measuring Usability Usability is the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which a specified set of users can achieve a specified set of tasks in a particular environment.
  • 25. Measuring Usability Usability is the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which a specified set of users can achieve a specified set of tasks in a particular environment.
  • 26. Known proponents of Usability and UCD IBM-http://www-01.ibm.com/software/ucd/ucd.html Apple-http://developer.apple.com/library/mac/#documentation/UserExperience/Conceptual/AppleHIGuidelines/XHIGDesignProcess/XHIGDesignProcess.html#//apple_ref/doc/uid/TP40002718-TPXREF101 Microsoft- http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms997578.aspx Oracle- http://usableapps.oracle.com/getInvolved/labTours.html IDEO- http://www.ideo.com/work/human-centered-design-toolkit/ SAP- http://www.sapdesignguild.org/editions/edition8/measuring_up.asp World Usability Day- http://www.worldusabilityday.org/ UPA- http://www.upassoc.org/ CHI-http://www.chi2011.org/