Author:
 Samuel Mehairjan MSc
 Co-Author:
 Ravish P.Y. Mehairjan BSc


Developments & Future Expansions
Potential in the E...
Maatschappij (N.I.G.M). In 1928 concession was granted to N.I.G.M. for the supply of power in Paramaribo over a period
of ...
Developments in the past 7 years
Conversion from Diesel to Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO)
In 2004, EBS decided to convert several di...
supported for a given network configuration without voltage collapse. This result will provide important information from
...
The Jai-Tapanahony Hydro Diversion plan
The Jai-Tapanahony is a multifaceted project of which the main
intention is to dev...
industrial developments and refrigeration of meat and agricultural products. The existing diesel gen-sets can be used as
b...
Biography                                                                          [10]      Caribbean Regional Electricit...
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Developments And Future Expansions Potential In The Electric Power System Of Suriname By S. Mehairjan & R. Mehairjan 2010

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For Caribbean countries it is an important condition for their economic development to assure a secure and reliable supply of electricity. EBS is fully aware of the important role that the electric power sector plays for the development for Suriname. As utility member of
CARILEC, EBS has better chances to benefit from the
important changes Caribbean power sectors are witnessing. This first contribution has shared knowledge and experience of proven and practical solution in the Suriname electrical sector. Added to this it highlights the developments that the Suriname power sector has undergone, and additionally gives a glimpse of expansions potentials. EBS is continually planning and implementing projects in order to improve and create supply and transportation capacity to meet Suriname’s economic growth requirements and at the same time
fulfilling the need for security of supply. The growth rate in demand for power is high (8 to 10 %) in the last 3
years and expected to progress with this pace, which is the highest compared to several other Caribbean
countries. The coming year’s developments in the power sector of Suriname will be promising and
inevitable.

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Developments And Future Expansions Potential In The Electric Power System Of Suriname By S. Mehairjan & R. Mehairjan 2010

  1. 1. Author: Samuel Mehairjan MSc Co-Author: Ravish P.Y. Mehairjan BSc Developments & Future Expansions Potential in the Electric Power System of Suriname -Abstract- Copyright © Karel Donk E nergy use in developing countries has risen more than fourfold over the past three decades and is expected to continue increasing in the future. Electricity is one of the most important ingredients for social and economic development in Suriname. The electric power growth rate in Suriname is approximately 10% annually, and is higher than in other countries in the region, which have typical values between 3% and 7%. There is a strong relationship between economic growth and energy usage. Therefore electric utility’s duty is to facilitate future growth by assuring a reliable and secured supply of electric power. In this context there are interesting developments realized and forthcoming in the electricity sector in Suriname. In this first contribution an overview of the main characteristics of the utility company in Suriname, N.V. E.B.S., is given, followed by developments that took place over the past 7 years and expansion potentials for the future. This technical article shares knowledge and experience for practical and proven solutions in the electricity power sector of Suriname. The business sectors are given opportunities to explore the possibilities in the demand and supply business of the electric power industry in Suriname. Introduction The N.V. Energie Bedrijven Suriname (EBS), the Dutch translation for Energy Companies of Suriname, is since 3 years a utility member of CARILEC. The EBS is a 100% government owned company responsible for the delivery of electricity and gas in the coastal areas and for electricity in some interior areas of Suriname. The districts in Suriname, typically in the coastal areas, are provided with electricity by EBS with independently operated power systems. Furthermore, small power systems exist in the interior of Suriname that is providing electric power to local villages, which are owned and operated by the Department for Rural Energy of the Ministry of Natural Resources (DEV). The operating frequency is 60Hz and typical voltage ratings are 161kV and 33kV for transmission purpose and 12kV and 6kV for distribution purpose, whereas the customers are provided with low voltage levels of 127/220V. A summary of the main power systems are given below and depicted geographically in figure 1 [1], [2], [5]: The EPAR system (red circle) for Paramaribo and surroundings. The EPAR system has by far the highest consumption of electric power in Suriname (consumption of 1000 GWh/a); The ENIC system (purple circle) for New Nickerie in West Suriname, and the surroundings (consumption of 50 GWh/a); The District Power Systems (black circles) each operating as an isolated power system with one or more Diesel Generator Sets in a local power house (total consumption together is around 24 GWh/a); The Rosebel Gold Mines (green circle) where the Gold Mine operations of IAMGOLD in the Brokopondo district are supplied with electric power coming from Afobaka Hydro power Plant (consumption 170 GWh/a); The Brokopondo Distribution system (blue circle) feeding some villages in the Brokopondo district from the 13.8/33 kV system at the Afobaka Hydro Power Plant of about 7 GWh/a; Figure 1: Overview of different Short History of EBS power system of EBS [1] EBS has its root back 100 years ago, established by the Dutch. Similar power and gas companies are found in the Dutch Antilles, Curacao, Aruba, St. Martin, Bonaire etc. Suriname was provided with gas fired lamps for the first time in the year 1909. The company was named the Nederlansch-Indische Gas 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference Copyright © Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish, 2010
  2. 2. Maatschappij (N.I.G.M). In 1928 concession was granted to N.I.G.M. for the supply of power in Paramaribo over a period of 50 years and in 1929 they started to build a power station containing 3 diesel generators with a total capacity of roughly 1.19MW. In the year 1953 the name was changed in Overzeese Gas en Energie Maatschappij (OGEM). In 1972 the Government became the biggest stake holder and the name was changed to NV Energie Bedrijven Suriname (N.V. E.B.S). Growth of Electricity Demand in Suriname In the past 4 years the demand has been growing towards approximately 10% per year. Such growth rate is higher than other Caribbean countries, which have typical growth rates between the 3% and 7% [10]. The high growth rate in Suriname is a result of the fast economical development witnessed since 2000. This is due to the development of the oil industry, refinery process, and growth in the mining sector especially the gold sector (IAMGOLD). Added to this the fast growth of new housing schemes, the installation of air-conditioners, the tourist industry (e.g. Berg en Dal Resort), the hotel sector in development (Royal Torarica Hotel, Best Western Hotel and Marriot Hotel) and other commercial developments are demanding more power. In figure 2 the electricity growth in the EPAR power system for the period 1966-2009 is shown. The fast growth is Figure 2: Peak demand trend for the EPAR system [5] experienced in the Paramaribo (EPAR) and Brokopondo grid, while the Nickerie grid (ENICK) is growing with 6% per year. In the period of 1982 to 2006 load-shedding became an inevitable practice due to frequent shortage of supply in the EPAR grid. This created inconvenience for business, industry and households. Since 2006 the load-shedding has stopped as a consequence of the rehabilitation and expansion of the power plant of EBS, the commissioning of the 161kV transmission infrastructures from Paranam to Paramaribo and the erection of a new IPP owned by the State Oil Company (Staatsolie). Supply of Electricity in Suriname The supply of electricity is generated by premium diesel with diesel driven generators and nowadays a substantial part is fuelled with Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO). However, the majority of electricity in Suriname is delivered by hydro power from the Afobaka Hydro Power Plant (HPP). Since 1999 the contribution of hydro power to the grid is at least 700 GWh, and in extra raining seasons this amount is increased with 15-20% contractually. Suriname is a fortunate CARILEC utility member that is blessed with many rivers and plenty of fresh water. Due to this gift Suriname is covering more than 80 % of her electricity demand with this renewable energy source for years. In 2006 there were some extra dry months in Suriname. The Brokopondo hydro lake could therefore not acquire enough water from the streams that resulted in serious shortage of power. The government had to lease about 30MW of rental power from a foreign contractor for 3 months to cope with this inferior situation. It should be noted that since August 2009 till April 2010 a long dry season is afflicting Suriname and the hydro lake is slinking rapidly. Since August 2009 extra thermal power of average 60MW is generated in the thermal power station of EBS and backed up by SPCS (Staatolie Power Company Suriname). SPCS is an IPP which is in operation since 2006 and is owned by the State Oil Company of Suriname (Staatsolie). Although hydro power is cheaper and a renewable source, it should be kept in mind that dry years can come unexpectedly so the utility should always have reserve thermal Location Inst. Cap. 2009 (MW) Peak demand 2009 (MW) Consumption (GWh) capacity installed to meet the power EPAR 73 170 1000 demand for the less wet years. In the table 1 the installed capacity, peak 16 10 50 ENICK demand and consumption for 2009 are listed. District 18 4 31 Table 1: Main characteristics of different power Others 303 80 650 systems in Suriname [5] 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference Copyright © Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish, 2010
  3. 3. Developments in the past 7 years Conversion from Diesel to Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) In 2004, EBS decided to convert several diesel engines to HFO fueled engines. The savings would pay back the new conversion cost in less than 2 years. Together with the innovative fuel conversion, and additional fuel treatment units the whole EBS power plant was automated with a state-of-the art monitoring system, the Power Data System. This system is helping the plant operators and engineers to manage engine performance better and operate the engines more reliably, with less damage especially to cylinder heads. Expansion of the Generation Capacity EBS has decided to retrofit bigger and more efficient diesel generator sets in its power plants. Foundations on piles that were more than 40 years old were partly excavated and new concrete was casted and engines of triple capacity was installed and are operated. This was a costly, however efficient action in short time to increase the generation capacity. In the ENIC system 15.6MW is installed, while in the EPAR system 44 MW has been installed by EBS. Three years ago the SPCS has installed 14MW and is now expanding with an additional 14 MW of generation capacity. High Voltage Transmission Line & Substation (161kV) In 2004 the EBS signed a contract with L & T (Larsen & Toubro) from India to build 2 substations and a 27 km double circuit 16 kV transmission line of 150MW capacity to increase the transport of hydro energy from Paranam to municipal city of Paramaribo, reducing transmission losses with 8% over this route, and increasing reliability and flexibility for the overall EPAR grid. Expansion of 36 kV network, EVP projects The driving forces for system modernization in Suriname are load growth, equipments no longer compatible with the changing requirements (short circuit capabilities), ageing of the system and technological developments. In this context EBS has upgraded, expanded, retrofitted and installed a number of 36kV infrastructures. EBS is making more than 4000 new electric connection to customers each year. To do this EBS is expanding its distribution network of 12kV overhead lines and 6 kV underground cables. Subsequently 50% of the substations of the EPAR power system are automated for control and command purpose with SCADA applications. This substation automation is helping the engineers in the command centre to control, take decisions and operate the system much better and faster. Disturbances are detected sooner and where possible switching of circuit breakers is operated remotely. This practice is contributing to reduce the duration of failures and improve the availability of power. The EBS Reliability Tool EBS has recently developed a reliability program with a consultant to measure its reliability performances. This new outage reporting program has been delivered in 2009. Starting in 2010 this tool will be used and as a result EBS will be able to follow the trend analysis of the SAIDI, CAIDI and SAIFI reliability indices. As a consequence EBS can start strategic reliability improvement programs. At the same time EBS will have the possibility to compare reliability statistics and to benchmark against other utilities in the region. EBS Dispatch Centre EBS has performed a technical study with a consultant to design a dispatch centre for the complete EPAR power system, the IPP’s and eventually for other districts. In 2011 this new dispatch centre with the latest SCADA monitoring and control application of 25 substations and 5 generation station should be into operation. Together with this modernization of the control and monitoring applications additional new networks, radio and fiber-optic communication links will be installed. The main goal is to coordinate with all IPP’s and to monitor the transmission and distribution for control of frequency, reserve spinning, voltage profiles, power flows and outage handling. Improve Dynamic & Voltage stability in the EPAR grid Because of some recent large disturbances and the fluctuations in the lake levels at the Afobaka Hydro Power Plant EBS became more aware of the importance of ensuring the stability of the system during critical contingencies in the system. Consequently, EBS is performing a system wide stability study together with a consultant for the prediction and improvements of frequency load-shedding settings. These studies and analysis are performed using the ETAP engineering analysis software to create models and simulations. With the implementation of the new SCADA the EBS wants to go for fast load-shedding based on frequency decay [5]. Added to this study, a similar approach with the ETAP software will be conducted for a voltage stability analysis. A P-V analysis will be performed to determine the maximum load that could be 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference Copyright © Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish, 2010
  4. 4. supported for a given network configuration without voltage collapse. This result will provide important information from an operational and planning perspective. Future Expansions Potential in Suriname Summary of Some Business Opportunities New 200 MW Electric Power Plant To meet the demand that is at a rate of 10% per year and to replace outdated generators EBS has identified a new location in South- West of Paramaribo to build a new power plant. Environmental, geo-structural, technical requirements and financial studies are performed. A 200MW station with reciprocating engines of 15 - 20MW will be installed. The first stage is to have 60MW in 2 years Figure 3: Artist impression of the proposed power plant of EBS [5] connected to the grid. And in following years more generators and electrical installations will be installed. Rice Husk Power Plant in District Nickerie This district is the Western border of Suriname with Guyana and the main provider of rice in Suriname. About 90% of rice cultivation of Suriname is in the district Nickerie. Currently approximately 160.000 tons of rice is harvested annually. This will result in about 50.000 tons rice-husk (the hard protecting coverings of grains of rice) is produced annually; this rice husk is presently considered as waste and being dumped in the rivers or burned in open air. While oil prices keep rising and to mitigate the severe environmental problems, EBS wants to built a power plant using the rice husk biomass to fuel the production of electricity [4], [7]. Figure 4: Burning of rice husk in the open air in District Nickerie [7] International Interconnection between Suriname en French-Guiana, EDB-bank 1 During 1998-1999 the EBS and EDF of French Guiana had intensified technical relations on cooperation and knowledge exchange between the two electrical power companies [1]. From this relation, a plan had been developed to perform an Interconnection Study for the Suriname/French-Guiana power system. This was performed in the period 2005- 2006. If at least 30MW of power, preferably hydro power, would be reserved from Suriname to be delivered to French-Guiana, this interconnection and related investment costs would become feasible. There would be additional technical, reliability and availability benefits arising from this interconnection. EBS and EDF would need less installed and operated spinning reserves if interconnected. With the converter system a very Figure 5: Sketch of the Suriname/French-Guiana precise VAR control (reactive power interconnection scheme [5] compensation) and voltage regulation can be performed. In time of calamity on one side, the neighboring side can deliver power from its reserves through the tie-lines and vice versa. Technical provisions to be built in this project are: A 150 km of 161 kV transmission line from Paramaribo to Albina, a converter station 60/50 Hz at the border and a 90 kV link to the French Guyana power system, 2 river crossing of the Suriname river and the Marowijne river with submarine cables. 1 Électricité de France 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference Copyright © Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish, 2010
  5. 5. The Jai-Tapanahony Hydro Diversion plan The Jai-Tapanahony is a multifaceted project of which the main intention is to develop extra hydro power capacity. This plan is envisaged in the South-Eastern part of Suriname and comprises a group of dams and hydro power plants which diverts part of the waters of Tapanahony River and Jai Creek into the existing Afobaka Hydro Lake and generates energy by this procedure and increases the capacity in the Afobaka Hydro Power Plant. Diversion systems and Dams will be constructed; generators in the dams and transmission lines will be erected and connected to the Afobaka HPP to transport the power to the Paramaribo grid [1], [3], [11]. All weather roads will be constructed to connect the Jai-Tapanahony expansion project. Together with the HPP at the Tapanahony dam, 4 HPP at the other locations, Jai 1, Marowijne 1, 2, 3 will have a capacity of 305MW (see figure 6). At Afobaka a second HPP will be constructed with a capacity of 116MW thus increasing the installed capacity at Afobaka HPP to 305MW. In rain season the 5 Jai-Tapanahony-Marowijne creeks HPP’s will produce 305MW of power, and the water will be collected in the Afobaka reservoir. In the dry season there will be no diversion of water from Jai- Tapanahony and the lake levels will be high enough for the 2 Afobaka HPP’s to produce 189MW + 116MW = 305MW [1]. The cost of these projects is about 800 million USD. The cost of electricity around USD 0.09 will be less than power produced from thermal generation. The construction time can be 6 to 8 years [1], [3]. This project illustrates the immense potential for developing hydro power even further in Suriname. If realized, this project will secure Suriname of sustainable energy for many years. As stated by [11] this project should shift from a Figure 6: Schematic overview of projected dams desk study performed by a Brazilian Engineering Company (Camargo of the Jai-Tapanahony diversion plan [3] Correa) to feasibility studies in short notice. The Kabalebo Hydro Power Project (West Suriname Hydro Power Project) Since 1977 this Hydro Power Project in the Kabalebo River (West of Suriname) is envisaged. The projected capacity will be 350MW to 850MW [1]. In the first stage a dam and a 350MW HPP are planned in the Kabalebo River. In the second stage diversion of water of the Lucy River and the Corantijn River and a dam with HPP at Tijgervallen will extend the power production to 850MW. There is a bright future for renewable power capacity in Suriname, however has to be weighed against other factors as well e.g. the inundation of land, high initial costs and health and risk issues associated with water misuse and degradation. Transmission & Distribution Expansions In the EPAR, ENIC and Rural Areas transmission and distribution infrastructure, substations, transformers, lighting and metering will be purchased and installed in the years to come. These investments, that are necessary, will be implemented to meet the power demand in the rapidly growing community and to ensure the reliability of supply to the customer. It is a yearly investment of more than 15 million USD. Rural Electrification In the interior of Suriname there are about 112 villages that have a diesel generator unit varying from 10 to 500kW. Most of the villages are provided with diesel/gasoline fuel on monthly bases. There is no tariff regime in place and supply to the communities comes free of charge. It is the policy of the government to continue delivering this kind of supply to the isolated people, Maroons and American Indians. It is for their social welfare and benefit to give power a few hours of the night and where possible longer. Transportation of fuel across the rivers with waterfalls far in the interiors is very costly and time consuming [1], [5]. In the past some villages (Kwamalasumutu) were supplied with solar power but did not last for long time due to poor maintenance. In the future further application of solar power to meet the demands for delivery of electrical power should be a priority for environmental and economic reason. The places where villages are near waterfalls the government should install micro and mini HPP. Besides lighting this power can be applied for small scale 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference Copyright © Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish, 2010
  6. 6. industrial developments and refrigeration of meat and agricultural products. The existing diesel gen-sets can be used as back-up system together with the solar power systems in the form of a hybrid connected system. Small wood fired steam generator sets can also be an alternative for the power production for the villages in the interior, since wood is abundantly available and the villagers can collect this by themselves. Challenges Application of power efficient apparatus and lighting Efficiency is a simple concept which can perhaps best be summed up with the formula, “doing more with less.” The focus is to comply with the international commitment to reduce power usage in future and to reduce CO 2 footprint. All customers will have to switch over to the energy efficient lights that are developing rapidly nowadays. Energy saving apparatus and soft starting motor will have to be applied in every building and houses. And by using appropriate enabling technologies to link the above mentioned to the grid their potential can be fully realized [8]. Starting with simple energy efficient apparatus is where EBS wants to initiate the journey towards an intelligent sustainable energy system in the end. Organizational, regulatory and policy issues are the biggest hurdles to overcome in this topic before Suriname can make progress in this area of interest. The term “efficiency” is typically associated with how energy is consumed at the point of end use, but the concept of efficiency can also be applied to how energy is produced and distributed [9]. Using higher voltages in T&D, the application of high efficient distribution transformers and advances monitoring and control system EBS will be able to reduce network losses. This contributes to CO 2 reduction of the power grid. Greater energy efficiency in the T&D system means lower emissions in generation to deliver the same amount of consumed energy. Concluding Remarks For Caribbean countries it is an important condition for Afobaka (Brokopondo) Hydro Power Plant – their economic development to assure a secure and reliable supply of electricity. EBS is fully aware of the important role that the electric power sector plays for the development for Suriname. As utility member of CARILEC, EBS has better chances to benefit from the important changes Caribbean power sectors are witnessing. This first contribution has shared knowledge and experience of proven and practical solution in the Suriname electrical sector. Added to this it highlights the developments that the Suriname power sector has undergone, and additionally gives a glimpse of Energy Supply in Suriname is provided for approximately expansions potentials. EBS is continually planning and 80-85% by Hydro Electric Power. implementing projects in order to improve and create supply and transportation capacity to meet Suriname’s economic growth requirements and at the same time fulfilling the need for security of supply. The growth rate in demand for power is high (8 to 10 %) in the last 3 years and expected to progress with this pace, which is Acknowledgments the highest compared to several other Caribbean The authors would like to acknowledge Ir L. Boksteen, countries. The coming year’s developments in the Dr.ir. V.S. Ajodhia, Eddy Frankel MSc (Power Manager power sector of Suriname will be promising and Staatsolie), Feroz Habib MSc (Power Manager Suralco), inevitable. Proven identified projects like Jai- A. Bipat BSc (Engineer at EBS) and all departments and Tapanahony HPP, Nickerie Rice Husk Power Plant, related engineers of EBS and Staatsolie for their Bruynzeel Diesel/HFO Generating Plant, introduction of contribution and helpful advice, which have been useful photovoltaic energy for remote villages and installation in writing this technical article. of Mini and Micro HPP are business opportunities. The installation of the dispatch centre, installation of SCADA applications, transmission and distribution infrastructure are projects that will have to be realized and create promising opportunities for doing business in Suriname. 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference Copyright © Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish, 2010
  7. 7. Biography [10] Caribbean Regional Electricity Generation, Interconnection, and Fuel Supply Strategy, Interim Report, Nexant & World Bank, Jan 2010. Samuel Mehairjan was born in Nickerie, Suriname, on 4 August 1956. He received a BSc in [11] Interview with Ir. Lothar Boksteen, Engineer developing options for Electrical Power Engineering in hydro power potential in Suriname, Feb 2010. Suriname. In 1991 he received his MSc [12] Elektriciteit: Vraag, Aanbod en Toekomstvooruitzichten, Business degree from Tennessee Technological Seminar, (in Dutch), S. Mehairjan, Feb 2010. University (TTU) USA in Power Engineering. Until now he is for 29 years Abbreviations with the EBS and is currently Director of Generation and Transmission. He has a EBS – Energy Companies of Suriname (Energie Bedrijven Suriname) clear view for the needs of the people SPCS – Staatsolie Power Company Suriname and solutions for the fast development of the Power Industry T&D – Transmission & Distribution in Suriname. At present he is also a lecturer in High Voltage GWh – Gigawatt Hour Engineering at the University of Suriname. He has been a MW – Megawatt kW – Kilowatt member of IEEE for many years. kV – Kilovolt HFO – Heavy Fuel Oil Ravish P.Y. Mehairjan was born in Paramaribo, Suriname, on HPP – Hydro Power Plant April 11, 1987. He graduated Cum IPP - Independent Power Producers Laude as BSc in Electrical Power SCADA – Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Engineering at the Anton de Kom SAIDI – System Average Interruption Duration Index University of Suriname in July 2008, SAIFI – System Average Interruption Frequency Index where he conducted a study for EBS. In CAIDI – Customer Average Interruption Duration Index EDF - Électricité de France this study he looked at alternative EDB – European Development Bank (nowadays Council of European methods to reduce the impact of long- Development Bank (CEB)) lasting outages in the West part of the Paramaribo power system. At present Ravish is working towards an MSc in Electrical Power Engineering with the specialization in High Voltage Technology & Asset Management at the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Ravish is member of the Energy Club of Delft University of Technology, which is a student-led club of academia and industry. References [1] Preliminary Assessment Report, SURINAME POWER SECTOR ASSESSMENT AND ALTERNATIVES FOR ITS MODERNIZATION (ATN/SF-9038-SU), KEMA May 2008. [2] B Sc graduation report, “Find an alternative method to reduce the impact of long lasting outages on the 33/12 kV distribution transformers of substation S/S-D and S/S-K in the Western part of the EPAR network”, Ravish P.Y. Mehairjan, July 2008. [3] Presentation of Suralco L.L.C of the Jai-Tapanahony Hydro Diversion Plan, Mr. Pederson, 2004-2005. [4] Study and presentation on Rice Husk PP, United Engineering Calcutta, R. Gandhi, India. [5] Technical year reports and documents of N.V. E.B.S. [6] Lecture manuscript on Sustainable Power Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Prof. dr. B. Ferreira, 2009. [7] Presentations on Rice Husk PP Nickerie and Power Demand and Supply for the Future, S. Mehairjan, Jan 2008. [8] Smart Grid, the Key Driver for a Sustainable Energy Future, Carilec Industrial Journal, Ravish P.Y. Mehairjan & Evita N. Parabirsing, July 2009. [9] Energy Efficiency in the Power Grid, ABB Inc., 2007. 2010 CARILEC Engineering Conference Copyright © Mehairjan Samuel & Mehairjan Ravish, 2010

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