MICROPROCESSORMicroprocessor is an electronic circuit that functions asthe central processing unit (CPU) of a computer,providing computational control. The Microprocessor, (or CPU), is the brain of thecomputer.A microprocessor is “a component that implementsmemory.”Microprocessor is the core of the system.
Operation Types in a MicroprocessorAll of the operations of the microprocessor can beclassified into one of three types: - Microprocessor Initiated Operations - Internal Operations - Peripheral Initiated Operations
Microprocessor ArchitectureThe Microprocessor can be programmed to performfunctions on given data by writing specific instructionsinto its memory. The microprocessor reads one instruction at a time, matches it with its instruction set, and performs the data manipulation specified. The result is either stored back into memory or displayed on an output device.
Necessary Tools For MicroprocessorCPU: Central Processing UnitI/O: Input /OutputBus: Address bus & Data busCU: Timing and Control UnitSpecial And General Purpose RegisterL1 & L2 Cache MemoryBus Interface
TIMING AND CONTROL UNITC.P.U is partitioned into A.L.U & C.U.The function of control unit is to generate the relevanttiming & control signals to all operations in thecomputer.It controls the flow of the data between the processor &memory & peripherals.
ARITHMETIC & LOGIC UNITAn arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is the part of a CPU thatcarries out arithmetic and logic operations onthe operands in computer instruction words.The ALU includes storage places for input operands,operands that are being added, the accumulated result(stored in an accumulator), and shifted results.It performs arithmetic operations like addition,subtraction, increment, decrement etc.It also performs logical operations like AND, OR, X-OR,Complement etc.
L1 & L2 Cache Memory L1 and L2 are levels of cache memory in acomputer.“Level-1" cache memory, usually built onto themicroprocessor chip itself. L2 (that is, level-2) cache memory is on aseparate chip (possibly on an expansion card)that can be accessed more quickly than thelarger "main" memory.
Special & General Purpose RegisterGeneral purpose registers can be used as either data oraddress register.There are 6 general purpose registers namely B, C, D, E,H, L.Each of them is a 8-bit registers.They are used to hold data and results. To hold 16 bit data, combination of two 8-bit registerscan be used.
BUS INTERFACEThe bus interface unit is the part of the processor thatinterfaces with the rest of the PC.It deals with moving information over the processor databus, the primary conduit for the transfer of information toand from the CPU. DATA BUS The bus interface unit is responsible for responding to allsignals that go to the processor, and generating all signalsthat go from the processor to other parts of the system.
DATA BUSA collection of wires in which data is transmitted fromone computer to another external drive. The data bus carries digital information.The data bus is connected to the inputs of several gatesand to the outputs of several gates.This is also called bi-directional bus because informationmay flow on the bus wires in both directions.
ADDRESS BUSAn address bus is a computer bus (a series of linesconnecting two or more devices) that is used to specifya physical address.The width of the address bus determines the amount ofmemory a system can address.It transfers the address of the location.It is called uni-directional because it transfers addressfrom C.P.U to memory only.