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IP Addressing

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IP Addressing

  1. 1. IP Addressing Chapter 2
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives Explain TCP/IP protocol stack Explain IP addressing Discuss IP subnetting Plan IP addressingChapter 2 2
  3. 3. Recall Physical and the Logical topology are the two types of topologies LAN, MAN and WAN are the different types of networks used Hierarchical model includes three layers, core layer, distribution layer and the access layer Application layer, presentation layer, session layer, transport layer, network layer, data link layer and the physical layer are the different layers of the OSI modelChapter 2 3
  4. 4. TCP/IP Stack TCP/IP stack has four layers TCP/IP Network Application Interface Transport InternetChapter 2 4
  5. 5. Application Layer Application layer clubs the functionality of application, presentation, and session layers of the OSI model Protocols that function at the application layer include  Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)  Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)  File Transfer Protocol (FTP)  TelnetChapter 2 5
  6. 6. Transport Layer Layer is responsible for source-to-destination delivery of the entire message Ensures that the entire message arrives at the destination computer Protocols that function in the transport layer include  TCP  User Datagram Protocol (UDP)Chapter 2 6
  7. 7. Internet Layer Layer allows routing of data over the network Protocols that function in the network layer include  Address Resolution protocol (ARP) - ARP provides a method for finding the Media Access Control (MAC) address of the host computer from its IP address  Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) - RARP provides a method for finding the IP address of the host computer from the MAC addressChapter 2 7
  8. 8. Internet Control Message Protocol(ICMP) ICMP functions at the network layer of Internet Protocol The protocol reports errors related to the delivery of IP packets within a network ICMPs generate the following four messages  Destination Unreachable message  Echo request message  Redirect message  Time exceeded messageChapter 2 8
  9. 9. IP Addressing IP address is a 32-bit binary number that is unique for each device IP address is converted to a decimal format to make them readable for the humans Within the network, the IP address is interpreted in a binary format consisting of 0 and 1 IP address of 10010100101000101001010010101011, it is split into 4 octets such as  10010100  10100010  10010100  10101011Chapter 2 9
  10. 10. IP Addressing To convert the bits to a decimal format, right most bit in the octet has the least value of 20. This value goes on increasing towards the left Bits 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 Values 27 = 128 26 = 64 25 = 32 24 = 16 23 = 8 22 = 4 21 = 2 20 = 1Chapter 2 10
  11. 11. IP Addressing You need to multiply the bits with its corresponding value in the table Bits 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 Values 27 = 128 26 = 64 25 = 32 24 = 16 23 = 8 22 = 4 21 = 2 20 = 1Multiplied 128 0 0 16 0 4 0 0 ValuesChapter 2 11
  12. 12. IP Addressing The equivalent decimal value for the octet will be the addition of all the multiplied values For the octet 10010100, the decimal value will be 128+0+0+16+0+4+0+0 = 148 So the IP address of the machine will be 148.162.148.171Chapter 2 12
  13. 13. Classification of IP Addresses CLASSES Class A Class B Class C Class D Class E 1-126 128 - 191 192 -223 224-239 240 - 255Chapter 2 13
  14. 14. IP Address Components A network number denotes the network segment to which the device is connected A host number specifies the address of the device in the network segment. Host numbers are the numbers between the network number and the directed broadcast numberChapter 2 14
  15. 15. Subnet Mask Subnet mask is used to identify the network bits and host bits in the IP address A subnet mask always has a series of consecutive 1s followed by consecutive 0s A subnet mask cannot start with the bit 0 or ending with the bit 1Chapter 2 15
  16. 16. IP SubnettingChapter 2 16
  17. 17. Algorithm to determine the number ofhosts and subnets Identify the IP address structure Determine the number of network bits based on the class of the IP address Determine the number of host bits based on the number of 0s in the mask Determine the number of host bits using the formula, 32 – (network bits + host bits) Calculate the number of subnets using the formula, 2subnet bits – 2 Calculate the number of hosts in each subnet using the formula, 2host bits – 2Chapter 2 17
  18. 18. Case Study The Blue Diamond Steel organization located in Gujarat is granted an IP address 220.56.64.0 by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). The company requires five different subnets for its Finance, Business Development, Software Management, Project Management and Detailing departments. The network administrator Robert needs to design the subnets for the company.Chapter 2 18
  19. 19. Problem Finding IP address range for each subnetChapter 2 19
  20. 20. Suggested Solution Find IP address range for each subnetChapter 2 20
  21. 21. Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) VLSM allows you to use different masks for each subnet Classful protocols such as Routing Information Protocol version 1 (RIPv1) and IGRP do not support VLSM Advantages of VLSM include  Efficient use of IP addressing  Route summarizationChapter 2 21
  22. 22. Route Summarization Advantages of route summarization include:  Reduction in the size of routing table, memory requirement and time for processing  Reduction in the size of updates and bandwidth requirement  Detection of networking problems that ensures proper routing of the packets to the destinationChapter 2 22
  23. 23. VLSM Design A VLSM design ensures efficient use of available IP addresses as well as more-efficient routing update communication using hierarchical IP addressing Design criteria that affect the functioning of the VLSM technology include  Total subnets required currently  Total subnets that may be required in the future  Number hosts on the largest subnet currently  Number of hosts that may be required on the largest subnet in futureChapter 2 23
  24. 24. Planning IP Addressing Planning IP addressing include  Identifying Network and Host Requirements  Calculating Subnet Masks  Identifying Network Addresses  Identifying Directed Broadcast Addresses  Identifying Host AddressesChapter 2 24
  25. 25. Summary - I TCP/IP is a protocol suite that allows data transfer between network devices The Application layer clubs the functionality of application, presentation, and session layers of the OSI model The transport layer is responsible for source-to- destination delivery of the entire message The network layer allows routing of data over the network The data-link layer allows the source computer to add meaningful bits to the data packet so that the destination computer identifies itChapter 2 25
  26. 26. Summary - II Every device that is connected to the network using the TCP/IP protocol requires an IP Address The IP address is a 32-bit number that is unique for each device The IP address is converted to a decimal format to make them readable for the human eye The 32-bit binary IP address is represented as 4 octets, each consisting of 8 bits Every IP address consists of two parts, the network, and the host number The network number identifies the network segment and the host number identifies the actual deviceChapter 2 26
  27. 27. Summary - III Host numbers are the numbers between the network number and the directed broadcast number Subnetting refers to the process of grouping a definite number of devices A subnet mask allows us to identify the network number and the host number of an IP address A subnet mask contains 32 bits similar to IP addresses and is represented in a decimal form separated by periodsChapter 2 27
  28. 28. Summary - IV In a binary format, the bit 1 in the subnet mask represents the network number and the bit 0 represents the host number A subnet mask always has a series of consecutive 1s followed by consecutive 0s The higher order bits are always reserved for subnetting The boolean AND operation enables us to identify the subnet number in an IP address The directed broadcast address specifies all host addresses on the particular networkChapter 2 28
  29. 29. Summary - V You can calculate network and host requirements using the following formulae:  2X = > number of networks, where X refers to number of subnet bits  2Y – 2 = > hosts on largest segment, where Y represents the host bits.  X + Y <= total host bits Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) allows you to use different masks for each subnet to prevent the wastage of address spaceChapter 2 29

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