Control in management means setting
standards, measuring actual performance
and taking corrective action.
It is important function because it help to
check errors and to take the corrective
action so that deviation from standard are
minimized and stated goals of the
organization are achieved in desired manner
“Controlling is the measurement and correction of
performance in order to make sure that enterprise objectives
and the plans devised to attain them are accomplished”
By Harold Koontz
Control is a continuous process
Control is a management process
Control is embedded in each level of organizational
Control is forward looking
Control is closely linked with planning
Control is a tool for achieving organizational activities
To maximize the use of scarce resources.
To achieve purposeful behavior of
Improves efficiency and effectiveness.
Make plan effective.
Control aid in decision making.
TYPES OF CONTROL
Feed forward controls :
Employed before a work activity begins.
Ensures that :
Objectives are clear.
Proper directions are established.
Right resources are available.
Focuses on quality of resources.
Concurrent controls :
Focus on what happens during work process.
Monitor ongoing operations to make
sure they are being done according to
Can reduce waste in unacceptable
finished products or services.
Feedback controls :
Take place after work
Focus on quality of end results.
Provide useful information for improving
Internal and external controls:
Allows motivated individuals and groups to exercise selfdiscipline in fulfilling job expectations.
Occurs through personal supervision and the use of
formal administrative systems.
Influences behavior through
authority, policies, procedures, job
descriptions, budgets, and day-to-day
Influences behavior through norms and
expectations set by the organizational culture.