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Insect as food

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Insect as food

  1. 1. to Ravi. Y. PALB 2219
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Consumption status 3. Nutritional value of insects 4. Entomophagy 5. Applications 6. Insect products 7. Advantages and disadvantages 8. Reviews 9. Summary 10.Conclusion 11.References 09-10-13 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • Entomophagy is the term used to describe the practice of consumption of insects as food. • FAO estimates that insects already form part of the traditional diets of at least 2 billion people. • World population is increasing, it is expected to hit 9 billion people by 2050. • Current food production will need to almost double but land is scarce will have profound implications on food production • therefore UN’s has formulated eight Millennium Development Goals among them 2 are important - Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, and Reducing child mortality. FAO, 2013 09-10-13 3
  4. 4. Cont………. • FAO is interested in the use of insects as an alternative food sources. • Edible insects contribute to the diet of a part of the world population such as those living in Africa, Asia, and Latin America,(Banjo et al., 2006). • The most commonly consumed insects globally are beetles, caterpillars, bees, wasps and ants, but in some societies there is a degree of distaste for their consumption. • Insect are rich in protein, amino acids, fat, CHO, various vitamins and trace elements. (Chen and Feng 1999 ). • 09-10-13 4
  5. 5. • Insects also have a high feed conversion ratio: on average insects use 2 kg of feed to produce 1 kg of meat compared to cattle that require 8 kg for every 1 kg of meat produced. • Insects are cheap and nutritious food for the vulnerable groups. (DeFoliart, 1999). • Eating insects is very sustainable and healthy for the environment since raising them does not require large amounts of land or other resources. • FAO is looking at insects as a food source for the future. 09-10-13 5
  6. 6. 09-05-09 6 WHY NOT EAT INSECTS?  In many countries, beef, chicken, and fish are not easy to procure .  Insects are cheap, sustainable, tasty protein source  Lots of vitamins and minerals  Low in fat and cholesterol  Many other insect are also eaten  Lobsters, crabs, and shrimp  Scorpions  Spiders. (Mary Hall , 2013)
  7. 7. 7 •Human population increases in Geometric Progression •Food Production increases in Arithmetic Progression Human population V/S Food production
  8. 8. 09-10-13 32% Africa 26% Asia 20% America 12% 10% Insects population and consumption status in the world 8 (Ramel, 2010)
  9. 9. Entomophagy • Is the practice of eating insects - including arachnids (tarantulas) and myriapods (centipedes).The word “entomophagy” derives from the Greek term éntomos, or éntomon, meaning, “insect(ed),” literally meaning “cut in two,” referring to an insect’s segmented body, and phăgein, “to eat.” Combined, the two terms mean, “insect eating. 09-10-13 9
  10. 10. 09-10-13 10 Grasshoppers Crickets Termites Ants Beetle larvae (grubs) Moth caterpillar pupa Commonly Eaten Insects
  11. 11. 09-10-13 11 Spider Scorpions Wasp Butterfly Cicadas Beetles
  12. 12. Consumption of Insect in Different Countries 09-10-13 1 2 Country Consumption of Insect South America Butterfly ,Grasshoppers, crickets, Cicadas, Ants, Flies, Bees and Wasps. Colombia Giant queen ants, Palm grubs and Caterpillars. Asia Grasshoppers, Crickets, Silk worm pupa, Dragonflies, Termites, and Beetles . Thailand Giant water beetle. Africa Caterpillars , Mopane worm, Termites and Locusts. Pacific Islands Papua, Palm grubs, Grasshoppers, Crickets, Stick insects, Mantids and Locust. Australia Honey ants, Grubs, Moth, Bardi grubs and Cerambycid beetle. China Silkworm pupa, Fly larvae, Cricket, Blattaria,Termites and Locusts. India Termite, Dragonfly, Grasshopper, Ants,Eri and Mulberry silkworm, Honey bee, Cricket. ,Shantibala,2012Insects Cambridge World History of Food
  13. 13. Consumption of insect in India 09-10-13 13
  14. 14. Common edible insects in India Scientific name Common name Order Edible form Cybister confuses Diving beetle Coleoptera Roasted fried and curry Hydrophilus olivaceus Fab. Water scavenger Coleoptera RoastForms of larva and adult Anoplophora glabripennis Mot. Asian long horned beetle Odonata Roasted and fried forms Acisoma panorpoides Ram. Dragonflies Odonata Roasted or fried body 14 Belostoma indica Giant water bug Hemiptera With edible herbs and spices Oecophylla smaragdina Red Ant Hymenoptera Chatni Laccotrephes maculatus Fabr. Nepa Hemiptera Fried body Oxya hyla hyla Grasshopper Orthoptera fried and edible with herbs Odentotermies sp. Termite Isoptera Consumed live Shantibala et al , 2012
  15. 15. Types of Insects Eaten Approximately 1,417 species can be eaten. insects are eaten in their adult or larva stage,  234 species of butterflies and moths,  344 species of edible beetles,  314 species of wasps, ants, and bees are being eaten.  There are 239 species of grasshoppers, crickets and cockroaches, as well as other insects (Wikipedia). Silk worm pupa 09-10-13 15
  16. 16. Protein content of common insects on a dry weight basis De-Foliart, 2008 Insects Protein percentage Leafhoppers 56.22 Yellow mealworm beetle larvae 47.76 House fly larvae 54.17 House fly pupae 61.54 June beetle larvae 56.22 Honey bee larvae 42.62 Honey bee pupae 55.56 Water boatmen & backswimmers 41.68 Water boatmen adults 49.30 Stink bugs 63.80 Leafcutting ants 53.80 Paper wasp pupae 44.10 Red legged locusts 58.30 Corn earworms 75.30 White agave worms 41.98 16
  17. 17. Insect Protein (g) Fat (g) CHO (g) Calcium (mg) Iron (mg) Giant water beetle 19.8 8.3 2.1 43.5 13.6 Red ant 13.9 3.5 2.9 47.8 5.7 Silk worm pupae 9.6 5.6 2.3 41.7 1.8 Dung beetle 17.2 4.3 0.2 30.9 7.7 Cricket 12.9 5.5 5.1 75.8 9.5 Large grasshopper 14.3 3.3 2.2 27.5 3.0 Small grasshopper 20.6 6.1 3.9 35.2 5.0 June beetle 13.4 1.4 29 22.6 6.0 Caterpillar 28.2 n/a n/a n/a 35.5 Termite 14.2 n/a n/a n/a 35.5 Weevil 6.7 n/a n/a n/a 13.1 Nutritional Value of Insects per 100 Grams <> 26 Nov. 201009-10-13 17
  18. 18. Nutritional content of insects compared with beef and fish Insect and Animal Energy (Kcal) Protein (g) Iron (mg) Thiamine (mg) Riboflavin (mg) Niacin (mg) Termites (Macrotermes subhyalinus ) 613 14.2 0.75 0.13 1.15 0.95 Caterpillar (Usata terpsichore) 370 28.2 35.5 3.67 1.91 5.2 Weevil (Rhynchophorus phoenicis) 562 6.7 13.1 3.02 2.24 7.8 Beef 219 27.4 3.5 0.09 0.23 6.0 Fish 170 28.5 1.0 0.08 0.11 3.0 18 (Finke, 2012),
  19. 19. Consumption stages of insect 09-10-13 19
  20. 20. 09-05-09 20 Widely available insects for home cooking  Honey bee larvae – excellent suited in butter or deep fat fried. Taste like walnuts, sunflower seeds or rice crispies  Crickets– some recipes: tempura cricket with vegetables, cricket seaweed salad, cricket pot pie, etc.  Wax moth larvae– thin-skinned, tender and succulent; best when fried in hot vegetable oil (taste like potato chips or corn puffs)
  21. 21. Fried grasshoppers (belalang goreng) • Ingredients • 2 cups of grasshoppers • 1 cup of wheat flour,1 egg • salt, pepper, garlic • coconut oil or African palm oil Method • Soak the grasshoppers in boiling water for one minute and then dry them. Mix and stir the egg, salt, pepper, garlic and add a little water; then dip the grasshoppers individually in the mix and fry them in hot coconut oil. Serve with hot coffee or tea. 09-10-13 21
  22. 22. 09-05-09 22 Mealworm chocolate chip cookies 1/2 cup butter 1/2 cup brown sugar 1/2 cup white sugar 1 egg 1/2 teaspoon vanilla 1 cup all purpose flour 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon baking soda 1/2 cup oats 1/2 cup chocolate chips 1/4 cup mealworm flour
  23. 23. 09-05-09 23 Insect Tastes like… Ants Sweet, almost nutty Aquatic insects Fish Leaf-footed bugs Pumpkin Stinkbugs Apple Termites Nutty Wasps Pine nuts Mealworms Nutty, whole wheat bread Flavours of insects
  24. 24. Insect as therapeutic food • Low calories and low protein are the main causes of death for approximately 5 million children annually, insect protein formulated into a ready to use therapeutic Nutriset's Plumpy'Nut could have potential as a relatively inexpensive solution to malnutrition. 09-10-13 24
  25. 25. Applications of insect • Dried and crushed bodies of the female cochineal insect are used to add color to foods (youso). • This red, pink, and purple color is used to color ice cream, yogurts, fruit juices, candies and more (youso). Cochineal Insects On Prickly Pear shellac insect • Shellac insect used in confectioner's glaze, resinous glaze, pure food glaze and natural glaze. This product is used in many candies to make them shiny and keep them from sticking together (Youso). • It’s also used to make fruit, such as apples, shiny again once it has been cleaned (Youso). 09-10-13 25
  26. 26. Tequila flavoured candy with wormCricket Silk worms Giant water beetle Insect commodities sold in the market
  27. 27. Insects food stall in Bangkok, Thailand Fried grasshoppers, wrapped in fresh tortillas.
  28. 28. Nutritional Value of selected Insect serving size 09-10-13 28 Protein 12.9g Protein 19.8g
  29. 29. 29 Preserved weaver ants Silkworms Cicadas Grosshoppers Mole crickets
  30. 30. ADVANTAGES • Insects provide high-quality protein and nutrients compared with meat and fish. • Insects are particularly important as a food supplement for undernourished children because most insect species are high in fatty acids (comparable with fish). • They are also rich in micronutrients. • Insects pose a low risk of transmitting zoonotic diseases • New efforts and standards are required to assure nutritional quality and safety of insect foods. 09-10-13 30
  31. 31. 09-05-09 31 DISADVANTAGES  Pesticide use can make insects unsuitable for human consumption  Herbicides can accumulate in insects through bioaccumulation  Cases of lead poisoning after consumption of chapulines were reported by the California Department of Health Services in November 2003  Adverse allergic reactions are also a possible hazard
  32. 32. 09-10-13 32
  33. 33. Entomophagy practices among the ethnic communities of Manipur, north-east India. Objective To study the entomophagy practices prevalent among ethnic communities of Manipur, North-east India. 09-10-13 33 Shantibala et al., 2012 J. Int sci.
  34. 34. • Surveys were conducted in 25 villages inhabited village of manipur state. • Questionnaire based personal interview from 105 persons of the age 20 and above. • The questionnaire contained enquiries on insect species used as food, mode of consumption /utilization, form of preparations, life stages of insects consumed, association with other ingredients, culture related to insects, method of collection and any other uses. • To record the marketability. 09-10-13 34 METHODOLOGY
  35. 35. 09-10-13 35
  36. 36. 09-10-13 36 Results Meitei Tarao Tangkhul Chothe Thadou Chothe,Meiteri,Tangkhul,Thadou and Tarao
  37. 37. Use Values Of Different Insect Species Recorded In Manipur 09-10-13 37 Usevalues
  38. 38. • The acceptance of 41edible insect species by different ethnic communities in Manipur indicated the significance of the insect as a respectable food item and also its role in promoting noticeable economic input. 09-10-13 38 CONCLUSION
  39. 39. Consumption Survey of Edible Winged Termites in Cote d’ivoire Objective :- To determine trends in consumption of winged termites in parts of Cote d’Ivoire 09-10-13 39 Koffi et al., 2012 J. Agri and Food science
  40. 40. METHODOLOGY Survey was conducted in several towns and villages of Cote d'Ivoire during six months. Sample consisted of 500 individuals were interviewed Interview technique was used to collect information Teenagers (12-17) Youth (18-35) Adults (≥36) Education level and ethnicity were listed during the investigation.
  41. 41. 09-10-13 41 Results Termites’ consumption Motivation for termites’ consumption
  42. 42. Frequency of termites’ consumption Way of termites consumption 09-10-13 42 Daily intake of termites
  43. 43. CONCLUSION • Majority of the individuals interviewed have already consumed termites. Consumption of edible insects is an eating habit in several towns in Cote d’Ivoire. Termites are actively involved in the population feeding. 43
  44. 44. Chemical Evaluation of African Palm weevil, Rhychophorus phoenicis, Larvae as a Food Source Objective • To assess the chemical composition and nutritional properties of Rhychophorus phoenicis, Larvae. Elemo et al, 2011 J.Insect Science 44
  45. 45. METHODOLOGY 1. Sample Preparation R. Phoenicis larvae (260g) were collected They were washed and put in a vacuum desiccator for 12hrs 2. Sample Analysis Lipid extraction was carried out and the defatted sample was analyzed for total protein and ash content (AOAC method). Energy content were determined with Bomb calorimeter using benzoic acid as standard. Levels of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined by AAS.
  46. 46. Qualitative analysis of larval amino acid content was carried out by hydrolyzing the sample with 6N HCl (AOAC 1997) Physical constant determinations of the crude oil extract, iodine number, saponification value and Peroxide value were carried out. Fatty acid analysis was carried out by acid catalyzed trans-methylation of the lipid extract.
  47. 47. Results 09-10-13 47 1025.0 ± 4.96 685.0 ± 2.42 Potassium Phosphorus
  48. 48. 09-10-13 48
  49. 49. CONCLUSION • The dried and defatted palm weevil larva was found very good source of minerals and protein, and a good complement of essential amino acid. • The extracted oil could also be used for other culinary practices and pharmaceutical preparations. 09-10-13 49
  50. 50. • The aim of this study is to perform analysis of macronutrients, amino acids and sensory quality of edible insects to promote consumption among population. Melo 2011 J. of Food and Agri. 09-10-13 50
  51. 51. METHODOLOGY Five species of insects of different orders were collected. Species Stage 1. Escamol Eggs 2. maguey grub Larvae 3. Ahuahutle Eggs 4.Grasshoppers Adult 5. Chicatana Adult Chemical Analysis Moisture content were analyzed and samples were then dried and used for further analysis (triplicates) Crude protein and Nitrogen free extractives were calculated. Remaining proximate composition by AOAC (2000) The determination of the methionine and cysteine was carried out by oxygenating hydrolysis. Tryptophan was determined by basic-hydolized with Ba(OH)2. Acceptance was measured by 9 point hedonic scale with 20 panellists.
  52. 52. Results Macronutrients of 5 edible species of insects (g/100g dry basis). Essential amino acid composition of 5 edible species of insects from Mexico. (g/16g N). 09-10-13 52
  53. 53. (a) Ahuahutle (Mosquito eggs) (b) Chapulines (Grasshopper) (c)Gusano blanco de maguey (Maguey grub) (d) Escamol (Ant egg) (e) Chicatana, Noku (Ant)09-10-13 53
  54. 54. 09-10-13 54 Acceptance of flavour in 5 selected edible insects in Mexico. Tested based on a 9 point hedonic scale, 1=dislike extremely, 5=neither like or dislike, 9=like extremely.
  55. 55. CONCLUSION • Insects have a good nutritional value and are high in protein with all essential amino acids. • Escamoles, maguey grub and chicatana ant are much better accepted however grasshopper and ahuahutle consumption is higher due to availability and public price. 09-10-13 55
  56. 56. 56 The nutritional value of fourteen species of edible insects in southwestern Nigeria 09/05/09 To determine some of the nutrient composition of the commonly eaten insects in Southwestern Nigeria Banjo et al., 2006 J.Of Biotechnlogy
  57. 57. 09/05/09 57 MATERIALS AND METHODS SAMPLING Insect specimens were collected using entomological nets, by hands and suction pumps. This study was conducted for a period of 12 months CHEMICAL ANALYSIS The specimens were oven-dried and grounded for analysis Determinations for water content, crude fiber, fat, free nitrogen extract and minerals. Proteins by Kjeldahl technique. Vitamin B2 -Association of Analytical Chemists (1980)
  58. 58. 09-10-13 58 Proximate analysis (%) of commonly eaten dried insects in south western Nigeria.
  59. 59. 09-10-13 59 Vitamin and mineral contents of commonly eaten insects in south western Nigeria.
  60. 60. 09/05/09 60 CONCLUSION Edible insects constitute an important part of the daily diet of a large proportion of the population in southwestern Nigeria. These insect provide high quality of proteins and supplements (minerals and vitamins) even when dried.
  61. 61. Summary • Insects hold potential as a safe, nutritious, flexible and reliable protein source for the future. • Insect consumption as an alternative source of food as increasing in worldwide. • Edible insects are rich in protein and amino acid, especially essential amino acids for the human body. • They are rich in fatty acid, nutritive elements, vitamins and carbohydrates compared to animal products. • Insects also have a high feed conversion ratio: on average insects use 2 kg of feed to produce 1 kg of meat compared to cattle that require 8 kg for every 1 kg of meat produced. 09-10-13 61
  62. 62. • The acceptance of 41edible insect species by different ethnic communities in Manipur indicated the significance of the insect as a respectable food item and also its role in promoting noticeable economic input. • Consumption of edible insects is an eating habit in several towns in Cote d’Ivoire. Termites are actively involved in the population feeding. • The dried and defatted palm weevil larva was found very good source of minerals. and a very good source of protein, and a good complement of essential amino acids. • Edible insects constitute an important part of the daily diet of a large proportion of the population in southwestern Nigeria. These insect provide high quality of proteins and supplements (minerals and vitamins) even when dried. 09-10-13 62
  63. 63. Conclusion
  64. 64. Reference • BANJO, A. D., LAWAL, O. A. AND SONGONUGA, E. A., 2006, The nutritional value of fourteen species of edible insects in southwestern Nigeria. African. J. Biotechnol., 5: 298-301. • ELEMO,B. O., GLORIA,N.E., MAKINDE. AND OCHUKO,L. E., 2011, Chemical Evaluation of African Palm weevil, Rhychophorusphoenicis, Larvae as a Food Source. J. Insect Sci., 11:1536-2442. • KOFFI, N. P., ATCHIBR. L., GBSSI, K., GILDAS. AND BEURGRE, A.G., 2012, Consumption Survey of Edible Winged Termites in Cote d’ivoire. J. Agril and food sci. 2 (4): 149-152. • MELO.V., MARITZA.G., HORACIO.S., HÉCTOR,D. AND CONCEPCION.C., 2011, Quality proteins from edible indigenous insect food of Latin America and Asia. J.of Food Agric. 23 (3): 283-289. • SHANTIBALA,T.,LOKESHWARI,R..K.ANDDEBARAJ,S.H.,(2012),Entomophag y practices among the ethnic communities of Manipur, north-east India. J. Insect Sci., 1(5), pg 13-20 • BARRIENTOS, L. L., 1995, El problema de langostas y saltamontes (Insecta- Orthoptera) en Latinoamérica, Biotam., 7: 43–48. • BEGON, M., MORTIMER, M. AND THOMPSON, D., 1996, Population Ecology, A Unified Study of Animals and Plants, Blackwell Science.Oxford. 09-10-13 64
  65. 65. • BODENHEIMER, F. S., 1951, Insects as Human Food. W. Junk, The Hague, pp 352 • CAPINERA, AND JOHN L., 2004, Encyclopedia of Entomology, Kluwer Academic Publishers. • CERRITOS, R. AND CANO-SANTANA, Z., 2008, Harvesting grasshoppers Sphenarium purpurascens in Mexico for human consumption: A comparison with insecticidal control for managing pest outbreaks, Crop prot., 27: 473-480 • CHAVUNDUKA, D. M., 1975, Insects as a Source of Protein to the Africa. Rhodesia Sci. News 9: 217-220. • COMBY, B., 1990, Delicieux Insectes. Les Proteines du Futur. Editions Jouvence, Geneve, pp.156 • CONCONI, J. R. E. DE AND PINO, J. M., 1979, Insectos comestibles del Valle del Mezquital y su valor nutritivo. Anals Bioi. Univ. Nacl Auton. Mexico, Serie Zool. 50: 563-574. • DEFOLIART, G. R., 1988, Are processed insect food products still commercially available in the United States? Food Insects Newslett. 1: 1-6 • DEFOLIART, G. R., Ed. 1988-1991, Food Insects Newslett. 1-4 • DEFOLIART, G. R., 1989, The human use of insects as food and as animal feed. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 35: 22-35 • DEFOLIART, G. R., 1990, Hypothesizing about palm weevil and palm rhinoceros beetle larvae as traditional cuisine, tropical waste recycling, and pest and disease control on coconut and other palms -can they be integrated? Food Insects Newslett. 3: 1-6 09-10-13 65
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