About the Concorde Concorde was a product of the manufacturing efforts of Aerospatiale and the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC), produced under a joint Franco-British treaty. First flown in 1969,Concorde entered service in 1976and continued commercial flights for 27 years.
Contd..• In the late 1950s, France, the United Kingdom, United States, and Soviet Union were considering developing supersonic transport.• The designs were both ready to start prototype construction in the early 1960s, but the cost was so great that the British government made it a requirement that British Aircraft look for international co-operation.• Approaches were made to a number of countries, but only France showed real interest.
Contd…. • A draft treaty was signed on 29 November 1962. • The design work was supported by a preceding research programme studying the flight characteristics of low ratio delta wings. The supersonic BAC 221 was modified for flight tests of the high speed flight envelope.
Features• Double delta shaped wings.• Mach 2.04 cruising speed.• Digital air intake system• Fly-by-wire and brake-by-wire system .• Droop-nose section for better landing visibility• Low weight aluminum body .• Fuel efficient engine• Fuel storage is high .• Special paint coating .
Problems• Aerodynamics• Structural issues• High costs• Takeoff noise and sonic booms• Need to operate aircraft over a• Skin temperature• Poor range• Carbon dioxide rate.
THE ACCIDENTDATE-25 JULY, 2000Air France Flight 4590Cocorde registered as F-BTSC operated byAIR FRANCEScheduled to fly from Charles de GaulleInternational Airport near Paris, to John F.Kennedy International Airport in New York CityTotal causalities reported- one hundredpassengers, nine crew members and fourpersons on the ground were killed
Reasons• According to BEA(Bureau dEnquêtes et dAnalyses pour la Sécurité de lAviation Civile)
Post Accident It was safest operational passenger airliner in the world in terms of passenger deaths-per-kilometres travelled with zero tyre explosions 60 times higher than subsonic jetsSafety improvements were made in the wake of the crash, including more secure electrical controls, Kevlar lining to the fuel tanks and specially developed burst-resistant tyresThe first flight after the modifications departed from London Heathrow on 17 July 2001, piloted by BA Chief Concorde Pilot Mike Bannister.Normal commercial operations resumed on 7 November 2001 by BA and AF (aircraft G-BOAE and F-BTSD)
REASONS OF WITHDRAWL On 10 April 2003, Air France and British Airways simultaneously low passenger numbers followingannounced that they would retire the 25 July 2000 crash Concorde later that year Slump in air travel following Rising maintenance costs. 11 September 2001
conclusion• The withdrawal of the Concorde fleet ended an important chapter in airline history. Experts said that, this was probably the first time in aviation history when flight became slower rather than faster. The Concorde did not succeed because the market was not ready for commercial supersonic travel.• No doubt there were people willing to pay huge amounts to travel faster than the speed of sound but, these small numbers did not have the capacity to justify the costs incurred in maintaining the Concorde.
Contd….. A project of Concordes scale required morewidespread acceptability and use to justify itsoperation. However, analysts felt that, although theConcorde would not operate in future, there couldbe a market for a project on a much smaller scale(like a 10-seater plane), providing supersonic travelto a select few customers who were willing to paythe price. There was also speculation that asuccessor to Concorde could be operational byaround 2030...