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  1. 1. Chapter 11: Situational Influences Consumer Behavior - A Framework John C. Mowen Michael S. Minor
  2. 2. Key Concepts <ul><li>Consumer Situations </li></ul><ul><li>Types of situational influences </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of physical surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Store location effects </li></ul><ul><li>Store atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Task definition </li></ul><ul><li>Categories of gift-giving situations </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of time </li></ul><ul><li>Time differences across cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Types of antecedent states </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Environment and the Exchange Process Cultural Environment Economic Environment Subcultural Environment Regulatory Environment Group/ family Processes Situational Influencers Individual Processes Buying Unit Exchange Process Marketer
  4. 4. Consumer Situations . . . <ul><li>consist of temporary environmental factors that form the context within which a consumer activity occurs at a particular place and time. </li></ul><ul><li>include factors that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve the time and place in which a consumer activity takes place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain why the action takes place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence consumer behavior </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Table 11-1: Belk’s Situational Elements <ul><li>Physical surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Social surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Task definition </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent states </li></ul>
  6. 6. Physical Surroundings . . . <ul><li>. . .are the concrete physical and spatial aspects of the environment that encompass a consumer activity. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Effects of Music on Shoppers <ul><li>In a supermarket store study sales increased daily by 38% when slower music was played. </li></ul><ul><li>A restaurant study found when slow music was played, liquor sales increased. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Effects of Music continued <ul><li>Playing peppy music while on hold or waiting in line doesn’t make time pass more quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>Louder music increases “pace of events” perception but raises estimates of time durations. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Effects of Crowding on Consumers <ul><li>Density - how closely packed people are (i.e., the physical arrangements of people in a space). </li></ul><ul><li>Crowding - the unpleasant feelings that people experience when they perceive that densities are too high and that their control of the situation has been reduced to unacceptable levels. </li></ul>
  10. 10. High - and Low-density... <ul><li>High-density situations may be beneficial - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More perceived control in bar study, less in bank study. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In “fun” situations, density enhances pleasure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is usually an optimal level of density. </li></ul><ul><li>Other elements (time, convenience) as important for shopping behavior. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Consumer Crowd Behavior <ul><li>In some circumstances consumers behave like hysterical crowds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large groups may cause high physiological arousal among each of the members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The high arousal results in the tendency of each member of the crowd to act on a dominant idea or tendency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each person in a crowd becomes inconspicuous and individual responsibility is lost. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Store Location . . . <ul><li>. . . influences consumers from several perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers have “cognitive maps” of a city’s geography that may not match the actual locations of retail stores. </li></ul><ul><li>Image transference exists: The image of anchor stores affects that of smaller stores in the same shopping center. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Store Layout . . . <ul><li>. . . is the physical organization of a store that creates specific traffic patterns, assists retailers in the presentation of merchandise, and helps create a particular atmosphere. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Atmospherics . . . <ul><li>. . . refers to how managers manipulate the design of the building, interior space, layout of aisles, texture of carpets and walls, scents, colors, shapes, and sounds experienced by customers to achieve a certain effect. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Atmospherics and Shopping Behavior Influences Influences Atmosphere <ul><ul><li>Emotional Response </li></ul></ul>Behavior Layout Sounds Smells Texture... Pleasure/ displeasure Arousal/ Boredom Time in Store Affiliation Buying
  16. 16. Olfactory Cues... <ul><li>Shoppers perceive higher quality goods in scented stores. </li></ul><ul><li>Odors should be consistent with store offerings. </li></ul><ul><li>These cues are expensive to maintain. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Effects of Spatial Arrangements… <ul><li>Space modifies/shapes behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Retail store space affects consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Retail stores affect attitudes, images </li></ul><ul><li>Stores can create desired consumer reactions </li></ul>
  18. 18. Social Surroundings . . . <ul><li>. . . deals with the effects of other people on a consumer in a consumption situation. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Task Definition . . . <ul><li>. . . the situational reasons for buying or consuming a product or service at a particular time and place. </li></ul><ul><li>Usage situations form the context in which a product is used and influence the product characteristics sought by a consumer. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Occasion-Based Marketing Opportunities <ul><li>Sometimes a product is locked into one usage situation, limiting market potential. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers may come to consider the product inappropriate for all other situations. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Gift-Giving Motivations Voluntary Obligatory Low High Altruism Reciprocity creation Ritual obligation Love, friendship <ul><ul><li>Degree of Self-Interest </li></ul></ul>Gift Type
  22. 22. Gift Behavior and Gender... <ul><li>Women start shopping earlier for Christmas (October vs. November) </li></ul><ul><li>Spend more time shopping/gift (2.4 vs. 2.1 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>Are more successful (fewer of their gifts are exchanged) </li></ul><ul><li>But men spend 50% more/gift. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Self-Gifts... <ul><li>Premeditated, indulgent </li></ul><ul><li>Rewarding an accomplishment, therapy for disappointment </li></ul><ul><li>Baseball glove/Front-end loader </li></ul>
  24. 24. Time... <ul><li>Individual differences in conception… </li></ul><ul><li>Time as a product </li></ul><ul><li>Time as a situational variable </li></ul>
  25. 25. Time: Individual Differences... <ul><li>People Can Use Time in Four Different Ways : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leisure </li></ul></ul>Obligatory Discretionary
  26. 26. Individual Time Differences Are Influenced by Culture... <ul><li>Linear Separable. There is a past, present, future. The future is expected to be better: the idea of “progress”. Activities are a means to an end. </li></ul><ul><li>Circular Traditional. The future is like the present. Do today only what has to be done today. Time and money aren’t related. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural Traditional. Task Orientation. Meetings take as long as necessary. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Time as a Product <ul><li>Many Purchases Are Made to Buy Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “time-buying consumer” is a consumer who engages in buying time through these products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-saving qualities are a key promotional idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time can act as a product attribute </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. “Perception Management,” Time, and Lines <ul><li>In 1998, 70 Northern California MacDonald’s restaurants tried multiple lines vs. one line. </li></ul><ul><li>The single, serpentine line is most popular - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple lines actually move people faster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But jumping from line to line creates stress. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Time as a Situational Variable <ul><li>How much time a consumer has available to do a task influences the buying strategy used to select and purchase the product. </li></ul><ul><li>With limited time, there is less information search. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Antecedent States . . . <ul><li>. . . are the temporary physiological and mood states that a consumer brings to a consumption situation. </li></ul><ul><li> Physiological State: Hunger. </li></ul><ul><li> Mood State: Happy feelings. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Antecedent States . . . . . . Can lead to problem recognition. . . . Can change the “feeling” component of hierarchy of effects (Ch. 8) . . . Mood states influence behavior, e.g. shopping to alleviate loneliness.
  32. 32. Usage Situation, Person, and Product Interactions <ul><li>The Buying Act Results From Interactions That Occur Among : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumption situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the buying unit/person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The product or service being offered </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Managerial Implications <ul><li>Positioning. Situational variables offer multiple opportunities for positioning. </li></ul><ul><li>Research. May indicate which situations present opportunities for new products. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Mix. Firms may be able to present time-saving attributes as a tradeoff for a higher price. </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation. An increase in the female work force presents opportunities to market to the segment of males doing more of their own shopping. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Situation-by-Product Interaction Tennis Match Party Mixer High Low Gatorade Ginger Ale