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  1. 1. Effectiveness in communication.
  2. 2. Essence of Communication. <ul><li>We communicate </li></ul><ul><li>We communicate always </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning of communication is the response one gets. </li></ul>
  3. 3. A’s reality B’s reality Non verbal message A Verbal Message Intended meaning B Perceived meaning Shared space
  4. 4. Basic components of communication. <ul><li>Sender </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Message </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Replication </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Mind of receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Mind of sender </li></ul><ul><li>Communication filters </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes:beliefs,enforced by emotions </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Role expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Non verbal messages </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Send clear messages - make use of repetitions,select words carefully,time the message. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Changing attitudes <ul><li>Provide feedback(positive feedback equals positive behaviour) </li></ul><ul><li>Change the conditions & consequenses </li></ul><ul><li>Observed behaviour (provide positive role models) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for personal enrichment. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Attitudes are acquired from peers from personal experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>To change attitudes: Effect the consequences. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Four basic communication Styles. <ul><li>Emotive (High dominance – High Sociability) </li></ul><ul><li>Displays action oriented behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Is Informal </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Persuassiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Director (High Dominance – Low Sociability) </li></ul><ul><li>Projects a serious attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Expresses strong opinions. </li></ul><ul><li>May project indifference. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Reflective (Low Dominance – Low Sociability) </li></ul><ul><li>Formal & deliberate </li></ul><ul><li>Seems preoccupied </li></ul><ul><li>Prefers orderliness. </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive (Low Dominance – High Sociability) </li></ul><ul><li>Listens attentively </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids the use of power </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions are made and expressed in a thoughtful and deliberate manner. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Style Flexing <ul><li>Attempt to alter your style to meet the needs of another person. </li></ul><ul><li>A temporary effort to act in harmony with another persons dominant communication style. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Self Disclosure <ul><li>A form of communication that involves letting others know what you think,feel & want. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>To improve accuracy of communication </li></ul><ul><li>An increased self awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger healthier relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Stress reduction </li></ul>
  13. 13. Criteria for developing Self disclosure. <ul><li>Repair damaged relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid judgmental attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss situations as they happen </li></ul><ul><li>Accurately describe your feelings and emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Select proper time & place </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid over whelming others with self disclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Watch for non verbal clues. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Never allow Emotions to Pollute Thinking. You cant help the way you feel but you can control the way you act.
  15. 15. Positive Reinforcements <ul><li>Tool to improve communications </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological ingredient is recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>Support from Mazlow </li></ul><ul><li>As each lower level need is satisfied, the need at next level demands attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Support from Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Any living organism will tend to repeat a behaviour if that bhaviour is followed by a reinforce </li></ul>
  16. 16. Responding to Value judgements <ul><li>Never accept doubts or criticism from others and even more important from yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism comes when sweeping,universal statements are made about specific,individual actions. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>If some one says “That will never work” </li></ul><ul><li>Respond with “Never”? “Ever”? Nowhere in the world,Never in history…. </li></ul><ul><li>If some one say :”That was really stupid” Acknowledge the value judgement and ask for exceptions.Respond with “While I admit that it might have looked stupid to you,out of all of it,what part of it wasn’t stupid? Ask for something positive .Or ask”Exactly,what made it look stupid to you?” </li></ul>
  18. 18. But & And. <ul><li>But diminishes or erases that which preceds it ex: You idea is good But…. </li></ul><ul><li>People move from positive to Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Positive ….But ……Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Negative ….But….. Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Others teach communication But this workshop is better. </li></ul>
  19. 19. If & When <ul><li>If I reach my goal </li></ul><ul><li>When I reach my goal </li></ul><ul><li>Try the word is not bad but the emotion & usage is not good. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Barriers to Communication <ul><li>Arguing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disagreeing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excusing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claiming impunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pessimism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reluctance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwilling to change </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Interrupting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting off </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Denying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inattention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sidetracking </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Ignoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discounting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open hostility </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Handling Conflict <ul><li>Persons striving for their own preferred outcome,which if attained,prevents others from attaining their preferred out come which results in hostility and a break down in communications. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Anger is the form of communication that indicates a problem that needs to be addressed <ul><li>Anger is common </li></ul><ul><li>Is form of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Happens every day </li></ul><ul><li>Anger & conflict must be acknowledged </li></ul><ul><li>Anger is healthy </li></ul>
  25. 25. Five ways to deal with anger <ul><li>Confrontation </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth over </li></ul>
  26. 26. Causes of Conflict <ul><li>Breakdown in Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Clash of Values </li></ul><ul><li>Clash of personalities </li></ul>
  27. 27. Assumptions of Win Win <ul><li>People want to work out their problems </li></ul><ul><li>A solution is possible </li></ul><ul><li>People respect each others rights </li></ul><ul><li>People respect each others integrity </li></ul><ul><li>People respect each others capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>People share common goals. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Good communicator should always avoid Win/Lose & Lose/Lose situations </li></ul><ul><li>Neither of these are adequate solutions. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Always assume attitude of patience </li></ul><ul><li>Define the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Collect facts & opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Define your expected results </li></ul><ul><li>Implement the selected solution. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Always seek to deal with issues, not with emotions. <ul><li>Explore the difference </li></ul><ul><li>State what is important </li></ul><ul><li>Temporarily lift restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Invite and suggest alternate choices </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge others right to differ </li></ul><ul><li>Explain decision and why. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Become an Active Listener. <ul><li>What does listening mean to you….. </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping quiet…. </li></ul><ul><li>Active Listening </li></ul><ul><li>How do you respond </li></ul><ul><li>Response should be non judgemental </li></ul>
  32. 32. Listening skills
  33. 33. 5 basic reasons we do not listen <ul><li>Listening is hard work </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>The rush for action </li></ul><ul><li>Speed differences in the rate of speaking and understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of training </li></ul>
  34. 34. 4 Types of listeners <ul><li>The Non-Listener HEARING </li></ul><ul><li>The Marginal Listener </li></ul><ul><li> V/s </li></ul><ul><li>The Evaluative Listener </li></ul><ul><li>The Active Listener LISTENING </li></ul>
  35. 35. How to improve your listening skills? <ul><li>Maintain eye contact with the instructor </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on content than on the way that it is being said. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid selective listening </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions to stay active and interested. </li></ul><ul><li>Face the speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Respond appropriately – say yes, nod, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not be preoccupied with your own thoughts. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Person who responds emotionally is not listening actively. </li></ul><ul><li>Person who allows emotions to interfere in response is saying “Listen to me –I know best.” </li></ul>
  37. 37. Artful Critique <ul><li>Be specific: Use three steps of Assertiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity is important for praise also. </li></ul><ul><li>No character or personality assassination </li></ul><ul><li>Offer a solution: Else it leaves other person frustrated, inefficient, deficient(include suggestions about how to take care of these problems) </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Be present: Face to Face </li></ul><ul><li>Memo makes communication impersonal. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sensitive: Empathy- be attuned to the impact of what you say & how you say it on the person at the receiving end. </li></ul>