History of self ligating brackets.
Difference between Self ligating and Conventional brackets
Active versus passive self ligating clips.
Advantages and Disadvantages of self ligating brackets.
Features of self ligating system.
Different types of self ligating brackets.
Clinical tips using self ligating brackets.
2 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
The dawn of 21st century in orthodontics has been accompanied by
significant developments such as emergence profile , golden
proportions, altered active and passive eruption, biological width have
become important diagnostic considerations. Recent studies on arch
length management in mixed dentition have helped clarify ideal time to
begin treatment in.
Self ligation is “the future of Orthodontics” – Proffit also confirms this by
calling self-ligation – the future of orthodontics. Over the years, the
basic design of orthodontic brackets has evolved dramatically - Angle’s
edgewise bracket,Twin bracket, Pre torqued/Pre angulated and Self
3 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Selfligating brackets are ligatureless bracket systems that have a
mechanical device built into the bracket to close off the edgewise
slot.The cap holds the arch wire in the bracket slot and replaces
the steel/elastomeric ligature.With the selfligating brackets, the
moveable fourth wall of the bracket is used to convert the slot
into a tube.
4 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
These brackets, referred to as “low-friction” brackets with utilizing
lighter forces to move teeth because there is much less friction in
the system to overcome (Harradine, 2003, 2008).
Self-Ligating brackets allow the orthodontist to choose the type of
wire and ideal force levels that will be most efficient in the early
stages of a patient’s treatment, most notably for leveling and
aligning, as well as correcting rotations.
The design of the self-ligating brackets is based on the principle that
the force used to reposition teeth , should not overwhelm the
specialized tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth (Harradine,
5 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
The concept of Self ligating brackets was not new to orthodontics. It was
existing for surprisingly long time in orthodontics , Russell lock
edgewise attachment being described by Dr. Jacob stolzenberg in 1935.
Newer designs of these bracket have continued to appear even today.
This continued popularity of self ligating brackets has attracted more
than a small percentage of brackets manufacturers, sales and users.
6 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Light forces are the key to self-ligation. Proponents suggest that low
force, low-friction systems allow teeth to travel to their physiologic
position because they do not overpower the musculature or
compromise the periodontal tissues.
Philosophy of self-ligating bracket proponents
7 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Ischemia is not induced in the surrounding periodontal tissues
because the forces generated by the small dimension, arch wires are
too low to completely occlude the periodontal vascular supply. Heavy
forces on teeth cause hyalinization in the periodontal ligament space
which brings tooth movement to a halt.
8 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Self-ligating brackets place enough force on the teeth to stimulate tooth
movement without completely disrupting the vascular supply and therefore,
tooth movement is more effective and physiologic.The final position of the
teeth after treatment with the self-ligating bracket systems is determined by
the balanced interplay between the oral musculature and periodontal tissues
and not by heavy orthodontic forces.
Moreover, the design in passive self-ligating bracket also enables teeth to
move in the path of least resistance.When the gate is in its closed position,
the bracket essentially becomes a tube in which the flexible nickel-titanium
arch wire can move freely.
9 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
By greatly reducing the amount of friction with passive self-ligating
brackets, low force arch wires can work to peak expression and
stimulate teeth to move in a more biologically compatible method .
Teeth movement is also more efficient when they are allowed to move
individually and passive self-ligating brackets offer more freedom for
teeth to move to their natural position even though they are still
interconnected because the arch wire is never tightly engaged with the
bracket slot (Damon, 1998).
10 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
History of self ligating brackets
11 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Year Bracket Acti/passive avail Mechanism Picture
1935 Russell Lock active No Circular thread opening
passive No Rigid sliding clip
passive No Rigid rotational disk
12 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Year Bracket Acti/passi avail Mechanism Picture
Active Yes Flexible spring clip
1986 “A” Company
passive No Rigid rotational
13 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Year Bracket Acti/passi avail Mechanism Picture
1996 AdentaTime passive Yes Rigid rotational arm
1996 “A” Company
passive Yes Solid indented slide
passive No Solid labial slider
14 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Year Bracket Acti/passi avail Mechanism Picture
Co. Damon 2
passive Yes Solid indented slide
2000 GAC In-
Active Yes Flexible spring clip
passive Yes Unique snap-on cap
15 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Year Bracket Acti/passi Avail Mechanism Picture
passive Yes Flexible tie wing
16 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Year Bracket Acti/passi avail Mechanism Picture
2002 GAC In-
active Yes Flexible spring clip
passive Yes Rotating flexible
Passive Yes Flexible hinge
17 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Year Bracket Acti/passi avail Mechanism Picture
Yes Flexible Hinge
passive Yes Snap flexible spring
2006 Lancer Praxis
passive Yes Removable
19 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Year Bracket Acti/passi avail Mechanism Picture
2006 GAC system
passive Yes Flexible clip
passive Yes Flexible clip
passive Yes Flexible clip
20 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Year Bracket Acti/passi avail Mechanism Picture
2007 3m unitek
Yes Flexible clip
passive Yes Flexible clip
passive Yes Flexible lid
21 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Year Bracket Acti/passi avail Mechanism Picture
passive Yes Flexible sliding clip
passive Yes Flexible sliding clip
2009 Smartclip sl3 Active/passi
yes Mesial and distal
22 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
On the Basis of Action of Clip or Slide
Two types of self - ligating brackets have been developed, active and passive.
These terms refer to the mode in which they interact with the arch wire.
The active type has a spring clip that encroaches on the slot from the
labial/buccal aspect and presses against the arch wire providing an active
seating force on the arch wire and ensuring engagement such as In-Ovation
(GAC International) , SPEED ( Strite Industries) and Time brackets (Adenta).
23 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
In the passive type , the clip does not press against the arch wire.
Instead, these brackets use a rigid door or latch to entrap the arch
wire providing more room for the arch wire such as Damon
(Ormco/”A”Company), SmartClip (3M Unitek, USA) and Oyster
ESL (Gestenco International).
24 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Active clip Passive clip
Spring clip pressing against the
System of ligation remains away
from arch wire.
Active clips reduce the slot size in
gingival wall is smaller than
occlusal wall.This may have an
effect on full 3D Expression.
The slot size remains unaffected .
passive clips in Damon has a slide
that opens and closes vertically on
facial surface and Smart Clip has
Nickel-titanium clips on either
side of tie wings to capture the
25 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
On the Basis of Design
Selfligating brackets may be of single or twin bracket design.
Single SelfLigating Bracket Systems (Interactive single bracket):
Based on single edgewise bracket, single self ligating bracket systems used
successfully hygienic, non –degrading and nonbinding arch wire engagement
while they simultaneously maintained a mild seating force on active arch wires
for complete tooth control and optimal time efficiency.
Ex: Edgelok, Speed,Activa etc.
SiameseTwin Self Ligating Bracket Systems (Interactive twin bracket):
The synthesis of the distinct functional characteristics of the interactive single
philosophy with the preadjusted Siamese twin form has created the new art and
science of Interactive SiameseTwins. Interactive-twins are designed to be
independent of conventional elastomeric or metal ligation to achieve relatively
low-friction and offers better rotational and torque control.
Ex: Time,Twin Lock, Damon System etc.
26 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
According to position of clip :
1. cap type.
2. clip type.
27 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Difference between self ligating
and conventional brackets
28 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Self - ligation Conventional
Esthetics Some designs permits significant
Force level Permits use of lighter forces Requires heavier level force
Force density Light initial force Higher initial force
Friction Predictable, very low Stainless steel : high
Elastomeric very high
Infection control Significantly reduced risk of precutaneous
Increased risk of precutaneous
Instrumentation Fewer instruments are required during arch
Many instruments are required
during arch wire change
Ligation Movable, integral part creates outer fourth
Stainless steel or elastomeric
Ligation stability Retains original throughout treatment Loses initial shape and tightness
Office visits Shorter, less frequent visits Longer, more frequent visits
Oral hygiene Wingless designs easy to clean Difficulty to treat food straps
Patient comfort Only slight discomfort with wire changes Teeth usually sore after ligation
Sliding mechanics Ideally situated for tooth translation slow
Treatment time Overall treatment reduced by about four Longer, especially in extraction29 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Active Clip vs. Passive Slide Self-ligating Systems
Self-ligating brackets come in a variety of designs from different
manufacturers. Overall these designs can be categorized as either
active or passive designs.Active and passive systems have been
introduced to allow for more efficient sliding mechanisms to reduce
the force and increase the rate of tooth movement(Pandis, 2010).This
has been a topic of controversy because most of the original claims
were published by the manufacturer and not evidence-based.
30 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Active Clip Designs
Active clip designs such as the SPEED bracket have an element in the
bracket that depresses and makes contact with the arch wire when the
wire is engaged (Pandis, 2010).
In many designs nickel-titanium is used to exert force onto the wire
when it is engaged. In reality active systems are a mix of both passive
and conventional systems. This means they have low friction in small
round archwires when there is room in the slot to allow for easy
sliding of the archwire.
As the wire size increases, the spring clip engages the wire and causes
the bracket to act similar to a conventional bracket. This allows for
more three-dimensional control expressed in larger arch wire.
31 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
In addition, these spring clips will exert their own force upon the arch
wire giving a greater and longer activation range. Smaller arch wires that
do not completely fill the bracket slot can still exert more control.
Arguments against use of the spring clips on active brackets are that they
change the direction of force in a less desirable direction.This can result
in unwanted side effects on the tooth and can throw off finite finishing
32 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Passive Slide Designs
As opposed to active clip designs, passive slide designs do not have
an “Active” element that exerts force on the wire when the bracket
door is closed.
Instead, passive slide designs have a “door” that closes around the
wire effectively making a tube. Ideally there would be no pressure
exerted upon the arch wire , although this is likely possible only
when the tooth is in ideal alignment.
Passive slide brackets are used when the orthodontist inserts a
smaller wire to create less friction early on in treatment, which is
very good for freedom of movement (Harradine,2006).
33 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
The advantage of a passive slide system is the extremely low level of
friction , while the disadvantage is that many practitioners feel
there is a lack of finite control during the finishing stages. The same
large bracket slot that provides low friction levels during initial
stages of treatment diminish “slot-fill” and therefore control of tip
and torque on the tooth is compromised in later stages of
During the initial stages of treatment, low friction is advantageous.
In the middle and final stages of treatment, low friction is a
disadvantage (Roth, 2005).
34 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Advantages of self ligating brackets
1. More certain full arch wire engagement.
2.Low friction between bracket and arch wire.
3.Less chair side assistance and faster arch wire removal and ligation.
4. Reduced overall treatment time.
5. Self-ligation reduces the risk of percutaneous injuries and potential
transmission of HBV, HCV, or HIV for both the orthodontist and the
6. Self ligating brackets can also be superior to conventional appliances
in treating patients with complications such as hemophilia , swollen
gingival tissue due to persistent mouth breathing.
7. More efficient treatment (fewer appointments and increased
intervals between appointments).
Advantages and disadvantages of self ligating brackets
35 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Disadvantage of self ligating brackets
1.High cost compare to conventional bracket.
2. Because of their low friction design, some practitioners feel they
have trouble expressing the minor tooth movements necessary to
finish cases (Harradine,2006).
3.The increased size of self ligating brackets can also cause occlusal
interferences, particularly in the lower anterior position. There is a
lack of evidence to support these claims (Pandis, 2010).
36 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Features of self ligating system
37 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Properties of an Ideal Ligation System
1.Be secure and robust.
2.Ensure full bracket engagement of the archwire.
3. Exhibit low friction between bracket and archwire.
4.Be quick and easy to use.
5.Permit high friction when desired.
6.Permit easy attachment of elastic chain.
7.Assist good oral hygiene.
8.Be comfortable for the patient.
38 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Limitations of Conventional Ligation
1.Failure to provide and to maintain full arch wire engagement.
3.For elastomerics, the force (and therefore tooth control) decays and they are
4.Potential impediment to oral hygiene.
5.Wire ligation is very slow.
Wire ties are secure, robust, enable full, partial or distant ligation and have
lower friction than elastomerics.Their largest drawback is the time required
for ligation. Elastomerics are quick, but less good in every other respect.
Neither method is ideal or nearly as good as a molar tube assembly, which is
universally adopted as the‘ligation’ of choice on posterior teeth. It is easy to
find examples of the deficiencies of conventional ligation, but clinicians have
become accustomed to tolerating these shortcomings.
39 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Archflow describes both flow mechanics of the self ligating bracket
along the archwire and the distal drift of the initial archwire itself.
Tooth distalization with conventional twin systems have referred to it
as “sliding” or “walking back”. But severe deflections of the archwire in
conventional twin brackets with metal ligation follow a more erratic,
zigzag pattern that increases resistance.
Features of self ligating brackets
40 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Distal movement of the self ligating bracket can be compared to a
flowing liquid. The bracket and arch wire move in union because of
the arm and arch wire deflections, which are constantly changing
position and also the smoother, undulating shapes of the smaller and
more flexible arch wire deflections also contribute to the flow
mechanics. This produces significantly less friction than
circumferential elastomeric chain or metal ligatures around the four
tie wings, which is often used for arch wire engagement.
41 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Thus Self ligating brackets produce a freer distal flow, making initial
autorotations less restricted and distal drift of the teeth more efficient.
The distally moving archwire in self ligating brackets has a water-
wheel effect on the lightly contacting brackets .This accurate distal
drift, as compared to the inconsistent distal drift with conventional
twin brackets, is especially evident in rotated teeth near extraction
42 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
The precision arm accurately locks the arch wire within the dimensions
of the slot in an “all or nothing” pattern. This secure robust ligation is
very resistant to indent loss of ligation .This is a primary factor
contributing to the improvement in controlled tooth movement over
conventional ligation. In metal ligation or elastomeric modules
engagement, after initial movement of the tooth the displaced
archwire will catch the labial edges of the slot and leads to reduced
control. Thus full archwire engagement in selfligating brackets
maximizes the potential long range of action of modulus wire.
43 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Active self ligating brackets: Automatic seating of either a round or a
rectangular archwire in the base of the slot is responsible for the
light, continuous force of the active clips and early rotation control.
Passive self ligating brackets: Passive interaction is almost strictly a
one-way force interchange. The archwire presses against the straight
precision arm, which then reacts to the archwire force.
44 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
With passive self ligating brackets , rotation control is efficiently
achieved only by using larger rectangular archwires. The
recommended archwire sequence is 0.014" nickel titanium, 0.016" X
0.025" thermally activated nickel titanium, 0.019" x0.025" stainless
In some passive systems (Activa) require changes in certain
prescriptions (Roth, for example) and expanded archforms because of
the archwire not being seated in the base of the slot. If the archwire is
not fully seated, the teeth cannot move toward the final archform.
45 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
In both active and passive self ligating brackets, the low friction of the
resilient and flexible stainless steel precision arms reduces interbracket
archwire deflections, resulting in free , biocompatible three-
dimensional tooth movements and accurate distal drift.
The narrowest arm and the smallest bracket body provides additional
archwire flexibility . Increased force in metal ligation produces
moderate friction from seating causes undesirably large archwire
deflection moments (which often cause bond failures) and archwire
binding with resultant patient discomfort.
46 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
The low friction of interactive brackets allows the application of
consistent, light forces for efficient flow mechanics during
retraction. This, in turn, reduces posterior anchorage loss. Lower
net force deflects arch wire less and facilitate release of binding
force between arch wire and bracket, enhancing sliding of bracket
along the arch wire.
The high friction of conventional twin brackets with repeated
elastomeric or metal ligation eventually controls tooth movement,
but resists flow mechanics and thus taxes anchorage. Brackets with
shoulders that lift ligatures away from large round archwires have
near-zero friction and avoid straining anchorage, but can
compromise tooth control.
47 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
The four tie-wing undercuts are also left open for the self-cleansing
effects of salivary fluids. The precision arm is integrated into the
bracket body, thus contributing to the prevention of enamel
discoloration and gingival inflammation. Conventional ligatures retain
plaque, calculus and food debris external to the bracket body.
48 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
7. Comfortable for the patient
In 1990,Rolf major showed Patients bonded with self ligating brackets
invariably reports the brackets are smoother and wings do not seems to
sticks in to the cheeks and lips, which reduces the risk of skin
perforation and possible infection. Even though Elastomers are good
wire ligature requires careful tuckering into the ends to avoid soft
tissue trauma and can occasionally be displaced between appointments
and cause discomfort.
This mechanisms project an image of clean, precise, punctual
treatment. Reduction in bracket profile further adds esthetics.
49 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
The Flexible archwire is not bound by ligatures so the vertical elastics
over the open tie wings will work with the low-friction, to provide
excellent dental adaptation and ideal occlusal interdigitation. The
muscles of mastication will further assist through chewing and
swallowing, since the finally, flexible archwire is not bound by
50 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
9. Patient Acceptance
a) Frequency of visit
The ability to ensure full and secure wire engagement of modern, low
modulus wires make an of the interval between appointments even up to 10
b) Duration of visit
Berger showed , stainless steel : 6-7 minutes, Elatomeric Modules : 2
Self ligating : less than 1 minutes(Speed least to damon most)
In 1990,Maijer & Smith showed that with conventional edgewise brackets
requires an average of 10 minutes for archwire removal and replacement,
and six minutes for the orthodontist's adjustments.Assuming that the
average patient takes five minutes to arrive and depart, a total of 21 minutes
has been used. On the other hand, the average self-ligating case would take
51 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
In 1990,Smith showed that anterior self ligating brackets were four
times as fast in removing and placing arch wire than the other
operator with edgewise brackets.
In 1994 , Shivapuja and Berger showed that overall 12 minutes added
time for both archwire removal and placement in conventional method
compared to self ligating system(speed).
In 1996,Harridine showed using the selfligating brackets frees an
additional seven minutes of the appointment for positive
reinforcement of proper oral hygiene, headgear, lip bumpers or elastic
wear, discussion of progress or Simply communicating with the
patient. Another possibility is that two patients with selfligating
brackets could be scheduled in the time of one conventional half-hour
arch change appointment.
52 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Friction is defined as a force that retards or resists the relative
motion of two objects in contact, and its direction is tangential to the
common boundary of the two surfaces in contact.
Static friction is the force needed to start movement kinetic friction is
the force needed to maintain movement once started.
In orthodontic sliding mechanics, friction is determined by the type of
archwire, the type of bracket and the method of ligation.
53 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Frank and Nikolai(1980) describes Friction is related to applied force
which is influenced by the degree of tension of ligature engaging arch
wire in bracket and co-efficient of friction between ligature and arch
Schumacher et al (1990 ) describes friction is determined mostly by
method of ligation rather than dimension of arch wire.
Proffit-1993 describes Due to appliance inefficiency, friction and
kinematics of tooth movements , it becomes extremely difficult to
determine and control the magnitude of force received by an
54 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
In active Selfligating system, friction is produced as a result of the
clip pressing against the arch wire. These brackets have greater
torque control without unduly increasing the friction.
In the passive selfligating system, there is no actual contact of the
clip with the arch wire, The full bracket expression is achieved only
when higher dimensional wires are used.
The active selfligating bracket produced 216 times more the
friction of a passive self ligating bracket.
55 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
In 1998Voudouris measured the friction produced by three types of
conventional twin brackets compared to three self ligating
brackets: one active (Sigma) and two passive (Damon SL I and
TwinLock).When 0.016,0.018,0.020,0.019 x0.025 Niti, and
Stainless Steel wires were drawn through the bracket,
a) As the diameter of arch wire increases, friction increases.
b)A conventional twin ligated with elastomeric rings produced
388 to 609 times more .
Conventional twins with metal ligatures were found to have
friction values more than 300 times those of passive self ligating
brackets. The active self ligating bracket produced 216 times the
friction of a passive self ligating bracket.
56 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
In 1998, Damon showed in 0.022 slot 0.019 x 0.025 wire is
preferable.This will free an 0.03 inch clearance , provided with lesser
friction and better tooth control.
In 1998 Rupali kapur showed that
0.17N for 0.014 Niti, 2.15N for 0.019 x0.025 SS in conventional
0.01N for for 0.014 Niti,0.75N for 0.019x0.025 SS inTime brackets
0.01N for for 0.014 Niti,0.07N for 0.019x0.025 SS in DamonSL
Distance between spring clip and bracket base forTime 0.018 inch
and Speed bracket is 0.016inch.
When arch wire used are lesser than this dimension ,there will not as
much difference in friction between the brackets.
57 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
SEM study showed, smoother surface of Damon bracket was due to
metal injection moulding , which lowers kinetic friction than
In 1998 Pizzoni showed minitwin >speed >Damon regarding
In 1998Thomas showed preadjusted edgewise >Tip edge> Damon
regarding kinetic friction.
58 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
In1994 Shivapuja and Berger showed when force is applied away
from the center of resistance tooth will tip until the wire touches
the corner of the brackets. This will be applicable to both self
ligating and conventional brackets.Thus second order angulation
affects more than the type of ligation.
This was also shown by Loftus in1999 that most of the studies uses a
fixed base medium. But normal tooth movement will be as stated
by Shivapuja and berger. Both of them showed that no difference
between conventional and self ligating brackets regarding friction.
59 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
In 2003, Vittorio and sfondrini showed Friction of Esthetic Self
ligating brackets is comparable to conventional Selfligating brackets
and coventional brackets shoe less friction than Ceramic Brackets. For
esthetic reasons this bracket is used as an alternative to ceramic
60 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Different types of self ligating brackets
61 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Russel lock edgewise attachment
First Self-ligating brackets were introduced in the mid-1930s in the
form of the Russell attachment by Newyork orthodontic pioneer
Dr. Stolzenberg .
The bracket had a flat-head screw seated snugly in a circular,
threaded opening in the face of the bracket that allows for quick and
Simple arch wire changes.
Horizontal screw could be loosened or tightened with a small
watch repair screw driver to obtain the desired tooth movement.
62 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Loosening the screw made the system passive and allowed bodily
translation on a round wire while tightening it made it active and
provided root torquing on a square or a rectangular wire.
The bracket system was more comfortable for the patient and
shorter office visits and shorter treatment time .
Perhaps because Dr. Stolzenberg was ahead of his time, the concept
of self-ligating brackets fell more or less into obscurity until the early
63 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
The first modern passive self ligating bracket (Edgelok- Ormco ) was
introduced in the early 1970’s which had a round body with a rigid labial
sliding cap .
A special opening tool was used to move the slide occlusally for arch wire
insertion.When the cap was closed over the arch wire with Finger Pressure,
the bracket slot was converted to a tube.The rigidity of this outer fourth wall
rendered the bracket “passive” in its interplay with the arch wire.
64 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
2.Smothness to tissues.
4.Automatic locking and unlocking.
5.Reliable action and complete control in all planes of space.
1. Imprecise in their ability to control tooth movement.
2. Only available prewelded to preformed bands or band strips.
65 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
In 1974,Dr. Franz Sander developed Mobil-lock Brackets(Forestadent
, Germany) which had a rigid Semicircular labial disk, which was turned
with a screwdriver to close and open covering part of the labial surface
of the slot.The wire could be tightly or loosely engaged by the degree of
rotation of the cam.
66 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
As with the Edgelok the passive outer wall transformed the bracket slot
into a tube that loosely contained the arch wire.
Clockwise rotation eccentric cam, resulting in the variable slot (0016-0.022-
inch in the occluso gingival direction), which may be adjusted by the use of a
key which is constructed with a 'ratchet‘ system such that the arch wire is
engaged only up to a certain pressure, after which the ratchet will
slide. Perhaps because of the simultaneous introduction of elastomeric
ligatures, however, neither the Edgelok nor the Mobil-lock gained much of a
67 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
2. Free-sliding, where the depth of the slot is 0.022-inch and
permits maximum play of the arch wire.
3. Further turning of the cam leads to gradual engagement of the arch wire up
to the point of locking the arch wire, it is possible to regulate the amount of
torque and tip transmission to the tooth.
1.Narrowness of the labial face of the slot gave very poor rotational control , to
the extent that upper incisor brackets were given twin cams to increase the
effective bracket width.
2. Difficulty of access to open and close premolar brackets with the straight
68 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
SPEED is a fully preadjusted miniaturized edgewise appliance that
uses a superelastic nickel titanium , introduced in 1980 by Herbst
This appliance offered in a full range of popular torque prescriptions.
69 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
SPEED brackets are similar in appearance, they are specifically
designed for each individual tooth. Each attachment consists of upto
1.Multislotted bracket body.
2.Permanently installed super elastic nickel titanium spring clip.
3.An in-out adapter.
4.An Integral Mushroom Hook .
5. Micro-Retentive Mesh bonding base.
70 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
The SPEED appliance uses a narrow, single bracket body. The body design is a
narrow form for the incisors, but the slightly wider posterior body which
features a miniaturized mushroom-shaped hook that neatly projects from the
distal-gingival of each bracket body. The precision machined bracket body is
multislotted in design with the three main horizontal slots.
1.A pre torqued arch wire slot :
The arch wire slot is available in either 0.018 x 0.025 inch or 0.022 x 0.028
inch and can accommodate round, rectangular, square, or SPEED shaped
71 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
2.An auxiliary slot :
The 0.016-inch x 0.016 inch square auxiliary slot which may house
secondary archwire . It runs parallel to the main arch wire slot both
occlusally and gingivally. Auxilliary slot remains as a tube even when
spring clip is in open position .
3.A spring retainer slot :
The spring retainer slot has been incorporated into the SPEED body
design to house the recurved tip of the spring clip. This slot is made
deep enough and shaped with an outer lip to securely house the spring
clip during the most severely of transient stresses.
72 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
The SPEED bracket had a curved, flexible “Super-Elastic Spring Clip”
that wraps Occlusogingivally around a miniaturized bracket body .The clip
is moved occlusally using either a universal scaler at the gingival aspect
of the bracket body or a curved explorer inserted into the labial window
to permit archwire placement, then seated gingivally with finger pressure.
The labial arm of the Spring Clip, which forms the flexible fourth wall of
the bracket slot, not only constrains the archwire, but interacts with the
archwire.This sets the SPEED system apart from all other currently
Available self-ligating brackets as the only “active” design.
73 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
The Spring Clip, through elastic deflection, gently imparts a light,
continuous level of force on the archwire, resulting in precise and
controlled tooth movement.
Hanson describes this as the “homing action of the spring” - the ability of
the SPEED bracket to reorient itself three-dimensionally until the arch wire
is fully seated in the slot.Any subsequent rotation, tipping or torquing,
during tooth movement of any kind, results in a labial deflection of the
spring that reactivates this homing behavior.
74 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
In-out adaptor :
SPEED adaptor features both an angular and a translational dimension.
This unique characteristic ensures the creation of an exceptionally smooth
arch form that is achieved through a progressive “ ramp-like” effect of the
in-out adaptor.The transition to a more rigid construction of each adaptor
has permitted further appliance miniaturization while increasing bond
strength by more than 300%.
Foil Mesh Pad
Each SPEED attachment features a foil mesh bonding pad with complex
asymmetric curvatures.These, combined with the miniaturized dimensions of
each mesh pad, ensure ideal bracket to tooth adaptation. Furthermore, the
recent change in size of the brazed foil mesh from a fine 100 gauge to a more
coarse 60 gauge has further enhanced the bond strength of the SPEED
attachment.75 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
since the bracket base is smaller ,to avoid bond failure sintered porous
metal coating is used on the base. It consist of irregular microscopic stainless
steel particles fused together and to the bracket base to create network of
pores for a strong adhesive grips. Narrow bracket increase the span of arch
wire between the teeth for greater torquing and rotation efficiency.
The advent of the recently designed SPEED bracket with a mushroom hook
permits the gingival positioning of the elastomeric power module and,
hence, the chances of frictional drag between the arch wire and the
elastomeric power module become nonexistent.
76 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
1.Highly flexible nickel titanium spring clip provides precise 3-D
2. Minimal friction during sliding mechanics.
3. Extended range of activation due to energy stored in spring clip.
4. Large interbracket span.
5. Spring clip will not fatigue or plastically deform under normal treatment
6. Horizontal auxiliary slot enhances segmental mechanics.
Benefits for the patient include:
1.Smooth, rounded, easy for all patients to clean.
2.Miniaturized, wingless design with low profile improves patient comfort.
3. Esthetically appealing - polished appearance with clean design lines.
77 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
1.Try to treat without extractions in any case that has the necessary
potential except include extremely crowded cases or where
other mitigating circumstances, such as soft tissue profile or incisor
angulations. Not only is this nonextraction approach advantageous for
the patient, but the orthodontist benefits by having to spend less time
managing the compensatory extraction mechanics and more time
managing the more predictable reaction to light forces.
2. If extractions necessary, extract 2nd bicuspids to minimize any
reduction in prominence of dentition.
Treatment Philosophy When Using SPEED
78 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
3. Preliminary functional appliances as necessary to favorably alter jaw
growth if possible.
4.Use intraoral distalization instead of headgear.
5.Expand arches that have failed to develop to their full potential.
6. In patients that exhibit lots of gingival tissue, intrude upper anterior
7.Correct tooth rotations to ideal alignment without overcorrection
rely on IPR and circumferential Supracrestal fiberotomies to enhance
8.Overcorrect Class II/III where strong tendency for relapse occurs.
79 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Arch wires—Selection and Use
SPEED appliance design greatly simplifies and enhances arch wire selection
and effectiveness. SPEED’s wide inter bracket span, predictably light
frictional drag and full control with even the most undersized arch wires
maximizes efficiencies of tooth movement while ensuring excellence
Although SPEED’s edgewise slot will accommodate virtually any size or
configuration of arch wire, experienced SPEED users have found that the
selected arch wires outlined herein most fully exploit SPEED’s unique
benefits.These are recommended for best results and include Super cable ,
Hills Dual-Geometry and SPEED finishing arch wires
80 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
SPEED Supercable wire
SPEED Super cable is a super elastic nickel titanium coaxial archwire
consisting of Seven strands of wire wrapped with a “long pitch” and is
available in 0.016, 0.018 and 0.020.With one-third the force of a
solid 0.016 nickel titanium archwire it offers unmatched low force
As an initial aligning and levelling arch wire, Super cable may be Fully
engaged without plastic deformation due to its unique construction and
Super elastic properties . In such instances, the supporting tissues
experience near optimum force levels, which translate into minimal or no
patient discomfort.81 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Hills Dual-Geometry Arch wire
This arch wire has been designed to maximize sliding mechanics in the
posterior segments via its round posterior portion while maintaining anterior
incisor crown torque with its square anterior portion . Made from ultra-high
tensile-strength stainless steel , the Hills wire provides the stiffness needed to
prevent undesirable side effects during tooth translation.The Hills wire is
manufactured in two sizes—0.018 X 0.018 anterior with 0.018 round
posterior and 0.021 X 0.021 anterior with 0.020 round posterior.
82 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
SPEED Finishing Archwires
The bevelled labial-gingival shape of “SPEED” finishing arch wires
encourages full expression of the interaction between the super elastic
spring clip , the arch wire and the arch wire slot .Any deviation of the
bracket position relative to the wire, results in deflection of the
spring clip, which stores appropriate energy for recovery.
This energy is gently released through precise three-dimensional tooth
positioning. In addition, this quarter round archwire shape facilitates
wire insertion and spring clip closure.These wires are manufactured
intwo sizes: 0.017 X 0.022 and 0.020 X 0.025 dimensions.
83 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
In 1986, Dr. Erwin Pletcher developed Activa bracket(“A ”company).
Activa bracket had an inflexible, curved arm that rotates occluso
gingivally around the cylindrical bracket body. The arch wire is retained
by a resilient clip that rotates into a retaining groove gingival to the arch
wire, positioning two straps labial to the wire and creating a bracket that
is very similar mechanically to a molar tube with twin channel caps.
The clips can be opened and shut with a wide range of commonly used
hand instruments including ligature tuckers, flat plastics and Mitchell's
All brackets have vertical slots behind the arch wire channel.
85 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Advantages of vertical slot :
Vertical slot is a useful feature in a bracket withoutTie wings.T- shaped
locking pins are a preformed auxiliary used in the slot for
1. Closure of diastema withT pins and elastic chain.
2. Ligature connection of palatal canine to buccal sectional wire
3. Rotating spring used to overrotate a canine.
Higher bond failure rate
1.Operators who are new to these brackets tend to fail to fully seat them on
2.Bases are slightly smaller than with most brackets.
3.The absence of tie-wings means that a smaller percentage of the bracket
base is attached to overlying bracket and this may possibly lead to less
rigidity of the bracket base and easier distortion of the base and
consequent bond failure under external loading forces86 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Less convenient with power chain
When closing multiple spaces, elastic chain must either be placed behind arch
wire orT-shaped locking pins must be placed in several brackets. Neither of
these is a big problem, but tie-wings are more convenient in this instance.
Unfamiliarity and difficulties during bracket placement
Tie-wings are useful holding points for tweezers and their absence dictates
minor changes in bracket placement technique.Also, the very different shape
and the unfamiliar aligning tags on the bases require close concentration if
errors of bracket placement are to be avoided.This particularly applies to the
angulation of canine Brackets.
87 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Breakage of arch wire retaining clips
Clip breakage mainly occurs when excessive force was given to engage an stiffer
wire. If a clip break, it is possible to replace it with a new clip without the
need to remove and replace the bracket. Separate clips are supplied for this
purpose. Placing a new clip in the circumstance is a slightly awkward ,
fractional enlargement of the radius of the circular portion of the clip (with
light-wire pliers) before pressing it onto the bracket eases placement.
88 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
In 1994 Dr.WolfgangHeiser , developed theTime bracket which is similar
in appearance to the SPEED bracket , but its design and mode of action
are significantly different.It is the first one-piece self-ligating system, was
developed using CAD/CAM technology. It is described as hybrid self
Time features a rigid, curved arm that wraps occlusogingivally around the
labial aspect of the bracket body.TheTime bracket can be opened either
with a dental probe or with its special instrument. It is used to pivot the
arm gingivally into the slot-open position or occlusally into the slot-closed
89 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
The time bracket has a clip that rotates into position around the
gingival tie wing and rotates towards the occlusal rather then the
gingival wall of the slot .The spring clip opens far enough for a wire to
be inserted, but the opening is limited by a stop between the clip and
the bracket body.
Resistance will be felt when the full opening is reached, opening the
clip any farther could deform it enough that it would have to be
replaced. If necessary, the spring clip can be removed by over-opening
it or by sliding it mesially or distally.This will allow the bracket to be
used with conventional ligatures .
90 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
1.Designed to be both passive(minimal force and friction in early stage of
treatment) and active(torque and rotational control in middle and finishing
stage), Controlled torque and rotations, Easy to open throughout treatment
and more hygienic for Patients.
2. Its small mesio-distal width enables it to be placed in the most severely
Crowded lower anterior cases.
3.A simple to open-close clip mechanism for ease of wire changes .
4. The capacity to achieve finishing details in a controlled manner in all three
planes of space. Because of its intrinsic simplicity of design, only a short
description of the Time bracket is necessary to augment the figures
presented.91 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
These brackets are introduced in 1996 by Dwight Damon.
Damon SL 1
It had a slide, which moved vertically on the labial Surface of an otherwise
fairly conventional twin tie-wing bracket.The slide clicked into a positive
open or shut position and opened in a downward direction in both jaws to
give a full view of the slot.
A tiny U-shaped wire spring lay under the slide and clicked into the two
labial 'bulges' on the slide to provide positive open and shut positions.These
brackets were a major Step forward, but suffered two irritating problems;
(1)the slides sometimes opened inadvertently and (2) they were prone to
92 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Disadvantages of Damon SL 1 bracket
1. Inadvertent slide opening.
2. Loss of slide.
breakage of slide due to work hardening of slide corner.
Excessive opening will cause the slide to pass beyond the stop
provided by the underlying U – shaped wire.
93 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
The imperfections in the Damon SL brackets led to the development of
Damon 2 brackets(2000yr) which retain the same vertical slide action and
U-shaped spring to control opening and closing, but place the slide within
the shelter of the tie-wings .
Combined with the metal injection moulding manufacture, which permits
closer tolerances, these developments have almost completely eliminated
inadvertent slide opening or slide breakage.
Although special and excellent slide-opening tools are provided with these
brackets, they can after some practice be easily opened and closed with
conventional light-wire pliers in combination with the Cool-Tool archwire-
Damon 2 bracket
94 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Opening closing : there are three components to handling arch wires with
self ligation – locating the arch wire in slot, closing the slide or clip and
opening the slide or clip.
In order to close and open the doors or clips easily , it is necessary to be
able to see clearly whether the arch wire is fully seated or not.
It is strongly recommended that operators work under mild magnification
(1.5 to 3 times) in order to visualize the relation between arch wire and the
Nuview’s Voroscope MXL has excellent magnification with rechargable LED
light (slight bluish white)used for this purpose.
95 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Advantage of damon 2 bracket .
1.Reduce the overall size of the bracket and hence the larger inter-
bracket span produces lower forces.
2.Slide opens away from the clinician, allowing clear visibility into
96 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Damon 3 brackets(2004 yr)
These brackets have three major changes from previous damon brackets.
1. A tooth colored composite resin base and upper tie wing reduces the
visual impact of the bracket.
2. A completely new vertically placed chair shaped clip behind the slide. This
has produced a slide which is extremely easy and consistent to open and
close. The slide is closed with finger pressure and has a positive tactile and
audible signal when fully closed.
3. It is opened with a special opening tool resembling a modified blunt dental
probe. The technique is to slide the point of the tool down the V - shaped
ramp on the front of the slide until it engages in the small hole at the base
of the slide , pressing inwards while continuing to press downwards
release the clip.
4. A rhombodial shape of the bracket and slide which facilitates bracket
97 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Advantage of damon 3 bracket
1.Combination of clear material and stainless steel provides the
aesthetic. Remarkably easy-to-use slide mechanism makes wire
changes a snap.
1.High rate of bond failure.
2.separation of metal from reinforced resin components .
3. Fracture of tie wings.
98 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Damon MX brackets(2005)
These brackets are all metal and have essentially the same mechanism as D3
with further refinements. They are designed to be fully compatible with
D3.They have a vertical slot behind the arch wire slot into which
prefabricated click in auxiliary hooks can be added to any brackets as
1.Easy-to-use slide mechanism.
2.Ultra-smooth self-ligation contours and rounded edges for maximum
3. Patient comfort and improved hygiene.
4. Contoured base design for strong, reliable bond retention.
99 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
In 1998, Dr. JimWildman DevelopedTwinLock bracket .
Its flat, rectangular slide, housed between the tie wings of an edgewise twin
brackets. Passive Slides is moved occlusally into the slot-open position with a
universal scaler. It is moved gingivally with finger pressure to entrap the arch
wire in a passive configuration.
100 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
1.Quicker Treatment and reduced chair time, fewer emergencies, available
with Advanced bonding base in orthodontics. (Optimesh XRT).
2.Additional benefits include improved hygiene and patient comfort, smooth
and clean labial surface.
1.Mobility of the slide during opening and closing outdated its
101 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
GAC - Inovation bracket
These brackets are introduced by Micheal CAlpern in 2000.
These are very similar to speed brackets in concept and design,
but are of
1.Twin configuration .
2. Bracket manufactured with metal injection moulding.
3.V –Tool(Tweezer ) is used for opening the clip.
4. Active clip which is made from cobalt chromium alloy is highly resistant
5. Slot Blocker: It prevents archwire from escaping from the bracket and
6. Horizontal Slot :This Slot runs through the occlusal wings which can be
used for Rotation and uprighting springs or Segmental wire .
7. Super mesh Base: This houses a wide mesh over a tight mesh which
102 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Innovation – The standard In-ovation bracket .
Innovation R -These brackets are narrow in width than inovation brackets.
This adds advantage of their use in lower anteriors. partially erupted tooth,
small tooth, impacted tooth.
Innovation C - Esthetic innovation brackets.
Innovation L MTM - indirect bonding of anterior teeth (3-3) with these
Innovation L - lingual innovation braces.
103 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
These brackets are similar to the SPEED brackets in conception and
design, but are of a twin configuration .They are a good, robust design,
and no breakage of the clips has been personally experimented or
reported. Some relatively minor disadvantages in bracket handling are
1. some brackets are hard to open. This is unpredictable, but more common
in the lower arch where the gingival end of the spring clip is difficult to
visualize. Excess composite to the gingival of lower brackets can be hard
to see and may hinder opening.
2. These brackets are extremely easy to close before the archwire is in
position and the downward direction of closure makes this more likely in
the lower arch.
3. The security of closure of the flexible clip can be overcome by some
rectangular Niti wires, which can cause spontaneous opening of the clip.
Lastly, it is possible as with the Damon bracket105 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
slides to incompletely open the clip and discover the need for the final
Fraction of opening though difficulty with removing a thicker arch wire.
These minor reservations may well be reduced by further bracket
In 2002, smaller brackets for the anterior teeth became available called
the In-Ovation R (Reduced). This narrower width is very welcome in
terms of greater inter-bracket span In-Ovation brackets have an active
clip. There is the invasion of the slot by the clip and the consequent
differential height of the gingival and occlusal bracket walls, the former
being considerably less than the nominal slot depth.
106 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Gestenco Oyster brackets
This is the first translucent self ligating Bracket which was introduced in
The Oyster bracket is semi-translucent polycorbonate bracket and is
made from strong, fiber glass reinforced composite polymer that resists
discoloring. Use of Super elastic and Beta arch wires exclusively is strongly
The unique snap-on cap allows arch wires to be placed easily Since the cap
is convertible, it can be removed if necessary and the bracket will function
as a regular twin.
Mushroom Hook is present for auxiliary attachment.
1.High friction that is equivalent to
Conventional stainless steel brackets,
So not used now.
107 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Adenta Evolution brackets
It is developed by Dr. Hatto Loidl and C. Schendell (2001).
Unlike many other self ligating brackets that only lock closed and no longer
play a role, the Adenta self ligating lingual bracket was designed with non-
locking rotating clip resulting in unique flexibility .
Programed to hold even a non-seated wire securely with just the right
amount of pressure, continuously pushing the archwire to the base of the
bracket slot. This constant pressure produces the torque, angulation and in-
out control required to finish your cases quickly and efficiently.
Slot for horizontal arch wire insertion in the front and unique milled truly
Onepiece bracket design.
Smooth round edges providing highest patient comfort and oral Hygiene.
Self-ligating clip is used as a bite plane accelerating bite opening.
108 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Philippe lingual self ligating bracket
Philippe passive self ligating bracket developed (forestadent) byAldo
Philippe 2D self-ligating lingual brackets providing 2-dimensional control,
were suggested for the correction of simple malocclusions, such as minor
crowding or spacing with the lingual technique.
The main advantage of the Philippe brackets is their low profile and their
comfort to the patients.They are suitable for simple cases that do not
require 3-dimensional control since they have no slot.
109 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
These brackets can be bonded directly to the lingual surface of the tooth
These brackets have no slot, they include small wings welded to the
brackets base. Four types of Philippe brackets are available standard
medium twin, a narrow single-wing bracket for lower incisors, a large
twin and a three-wing bracket.
Bracket wings used to secure the archwire to slot, are opened with
Haideman spatula and closed with weingart plier.
Single wing triple wing
Standard medium Large twin
Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
The Forestadent 3DTorque-Lingual self-ligating brackets have the similar
flat design as the Philippe 2D self-ligating brackets, but have avertical slot
for 3-dimensional control.The verticalopening of the slot provides fast and
Easy archwire insertion .
The archwire is used like a ribbon-arch, with the widest edge of the wire
lying against the tooth surface; therefore the buccolingual slot dimension
is smaller than the occlusogingival slot dimension and the bracket is
relatively flat, with a low profile.The low profile of the brackets improves
patient comfort and address a major problem of the lingual technique.
111 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
The archwire is secured in the slot by small wings that can be pushed or
opened like the wings of the Philippe 2D self-ligating lingual brackets. By
pushing the wings against the bracket’s base, and over the archwire with
Weingart utility pliers, the archwire is secured in the slot.A thin spatula placed
between the wings and the base of the bracket is used for opening the bracket
for archwire replacement.
The brackets are designed with 45° of torque for all the upper and lower
incisors, and with 0° of torque for all the bicuspids and molars.
Individual prescription and adaptation of the bracket base for each tooth, for
each case, according to the requirements of the orthodontist is done.
In the laboratory by an indirect bracket positioning technique based on a
lingual setup and bracket positioner, using specially designed jigs to
hold the brackets.
112 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
It is a completely non metallic bracket, designed and developed (ultradent)
by Dr.Norbert Abels(2004).
Entirely nonmetallic (resin)Bracket function as an effective slot and Flexible
enough in hinge area to open and close.the opal design is rather ingenious in
this respect but care must be taken not to fatigue fracture the hinge part of
the bracket by repeated full opening of the cap.
The brackets like most resins , are perhaps best suited for short course of
treatment where these problems are longevity are less of issue.
There are no tie wings , so elastic chain is placed in prior to closing the cap.
113 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
It is introduced and developed (3M Unitek)by Gary L.Weinberger in
It consists of two nickel titanium clips i.e., mesial and distal tie wings that
open and close through elastic deformation of the material when the arch
wire exerts a force on the clip.The bracket contains no moving door or
The feature of no moving doors or latches can eliminate problems such as
sticking, spontaneous opening, or plaque build-up that are associated with
other types of self ligating brackets.
114 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Opal metal bracket
It is a hybrid self ligating bracket consist of metal and ceramic
1.Polymer snap - on door for easy and fast closing or opening - also
protects in trauma situations.
2.Ceramic body for strength and secure bonding – slim design with
3.CentredT hook for elastics and fits all NiTi chains.
4.Both passive and active.
5.Stainless steel hinge.
6.Metal insert for reduced wire- friction.
7.Radius in base for easier de-bonding.
8.FDI notation in base for easy identification
115 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
It is developed by Dr.Bjorn ludwig(2006).
It available both active (bioquick)and passive (biopassive) . Externally
passive brackets differentiated from active by a vertical marks on metal
It consist of snap flexible spring , is opened with probe from the gingival
Optimised ,anatomically positioned base prevents rocking of the bracket
When it is pressed on the tooth.
116 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Lancer praxis glide
It is developed by Dr. Robert Lokar and team of Lancer Orthodontic
engineers is truly an innovative low friction hybrid twin system, are
manufactured using the latest robotic Technology.
Praxis Glide is a proven torque-in-the base twin bracket, with a
removable multiplanar clip.
PraxisTSTM bracket is the latest mid aesthetic appliance now offered
117 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
1.Open Lumen bracket, passive at the first stage of treatment.
2.Total control using a ligature over the clip
3.Anatomical design for each tooth (11 different bracket shapes)
4.Easy positioning (avoiding any repositioning of the bracket)
5.Low profile, smooth and ergonomic, optimal comfort for the
6.Rapid leveling and alignment.
118 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Smart Clarity SL bracket(2007)
It is ceramic version of smartclip bracket with improved clip forces.
119 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
It is passive ,low prifile self ligating bracket, available in high ,standard and low
TheVision LP clip was easy to open with a simple rotation of the Vision LP
instrument. Closing is a gentle "click" with a fingernail or the instrument.
It has Strong, Durable Clip , the interplay between the keeper notch in the
bracket and the carefully heat treated, nickel titanium clip givesVision LP the
ability to hold up to 9 pounds of outward wire force more than enough to
contain heavily torqued or rotated wires.However, the unique design of the
clip's hinge action requires only light, comfortable opening forces during wire
Vision LP opening tool
120 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Brackets with sliding gates or spring clips can trap bio-debris and build up
calculus in their opening mechanisms, making them difficult to open.Vision
LP brackets with Flip ClipTM technology solve this common problem by
eliminating narrow clip tracks and rotating open instead of sliding.
Toothbrushes cannot reach the recesses of the metal on metal sliding tracks
(shown above in red) of other clip designs. Over the course of treatment,
biodebris can build up and make the clips increasingly difficult to open.Vision LP
clips have only very small contact points, which are located on the face of the
bracket where they are scrubbed clean every time the patient brushes.
121 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
It is developed by dentauram in 2007 using CAD – CAM technology.
1.Best therapy results with minimal size for aesthetic treatment.
2.high degree of user convenience due to easy locking mechanism
3.Improved, flexible lid stop keeps the lid open for quick, smooth
4.New opening mechanism in the direction of force guarantees numerous
perfect opening and closing operations.
5.Revised bracket geometry to ensure that the lids always open straight.
This prevents buckling of the lid.
6.Super smooth surfaces provide excellent intraoral comfort for the
7. FDI notation on the base ensures easy assignment to each tooth.122 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
These are the latest version of Damon system, sliding mechanism is
designed to be easier , more secure and more comfortable to the patient
when opened and closed and immune to the effects of calculus
These brackets also smaller in all dimensions than their predecessors and
space has been found for horizontal as well as vertical slot.
Spintec cool – opening tool
123 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
The new Damon Clear bracket is a translucent passive self-ligation bracket
with no metal insert.The bracket’s completely clear design is Intended to
meet patients expectations for aesthetics, while its robust construction
meets clinicians’ needs for functionality and strength.
The fully aesthetic bracket body and slide are made of sturdy polycrystalline
alumina (PCA), an inert material impervious to staining or discoloration.
The slide of the SL bracket constitutes a fourth wall, which creates a
passive lumen to hold the arch wire in place with low ligation force while
facilitating rotational control.
A nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) spring mechanism maintains the slide in the open
and closed positions and keeps the slide from separating from the
125 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Smart clip SL3(2009)
It is similar to Smartclip bracket, difference is less clip force reduction.
Also available in adhesive precoated system with flouride release
FamiliarTwinWing design allows for treatment flexibility and selective
bracket or tie-wing ligation, increasing inter-bracket width when
126 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Archwire insertion is done with finger pressure and removal done with
disengagement tool has two hooks to engage the wire, and its central part
holds over the buccal surface of the mesial and distal wings. By means of
pressing the handles together, the wire disengages from the bracket slot.
127 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Significant results have been seen in correcting rotations and creating levelling
and alignment when using tandem arch wires with 3M Self LigatingAppliances
1.To correct rotations and level and align teeth early in treatment, the goal is
to engage arch wires that fill the horizontal plane and have a low
2. Using two flexible round arch wires in tandem fills both the horizontal
and vertical planes of the bracket slot - They correct and manage rotations
while correcting vertical discrepancies.
3.The tandem arch wire should be inserted directly on top of the initial
arch wire used in treatment - No need to disengage the initial archwire,which
saves chair time.
129 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Tandem archwire combination
Tandem arch wire combinations depend on the slot size and degree
of rotational deflection.
In most cases, the .018 slot option will be the .014/.014 and the.022
slot will be the .014/.016 combination.
130 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Advantages of SmartClip SL3 Brackets
Reduction in friction, which results in more efficient sliding mechanics than
traditionally ligated brackets.
Improvement in oral hygiene with an open slot and elimination of ligature
Reduced chair-time for archwire removal and insertion.
No plaque entrapment in sliding mechanism and bracket slot.
Ability to ligate on an as-needed basis.
Treatment flexibility of twin tie-wing design.
131 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Clinical tips when using self ligating brackets
1.Aids to arch wire engagement - It is important to engage the wire
fully in the bracket before the clip closure, rather than simultaneously
attempt to close and engage the wire.
2. Wire can be held in place with different tools, Special pliers and tools
have been recommended both for closing as well as opening bracket
clips by different manufacturers.
3. Self Brackets use pushing force rather than pulling force while
engaging the arch wire.
4. In badly rotated teeth, it is advisable to first close the clip and than
thread the arch wire i.e. to first convert it to a molar tube.
5.Prevent wire pokes: Low friction allows easy sliding of wire through
brackets. It is necessary to turn the ends of wire securely.
6.V shaped notches in arch wire or stops also are recommended.132 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
Currently available self-ligating brackets offer the very valuable
combination of extremely low friction and secure full bracket
engagement and they are sufficiently robust and user friendly to
deliver most of the potential advantages of this type of bracket.
The core advantages of self-ligation are now established and readily
available. These developments offer the possibility of a significant
reduction in average treatment times and maybe also in anchorage
requirements, particularly in cases requiring large tooth movements.
Evidence of better treatment effectiveness exists but is incomplete.
While further refinements are desirable and further studies essential,
current brackets appear able to deliver measurable benefit with good
robustness and ease of use.
133 Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula