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Periodontally accelerated osteogenic osthodontics


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Periodontally accelerated osteogenic osthodontics

  2. 2. CONTENTS Introduction. Age factor in PAOO. Indications and contraindications . Advantages and Disadvantages of PAOO. Biology underlying PAOO. Surgical techniques. Complications and side effects. Case reports . Conclusion. 2 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Wilckodontics also known as Periodontally Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics (PAOO), is a clinical procedure that combines selective alveolar corticotomy, Particulate bone grafting and the application of orthodontic forces. This procedure is theoretically based on the bone healing pattern known as the regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP) . This procedure was developed by Dr .Thomas wilcko and Dr .William Wilcko in 1995. Thomas is a periodontist and his brother Willlam Wilcko is a orthodontist. 3 William wilcko Thomas wilcko DrRavikanthLakkakula
  4. 4. 4 Corticotomy : Surgical procedure whereby only the cortical bone is cut or perforated or mechanically altered. The medullary bone is not changed. Osteotomy: Surgical procedure through both the cortical and medullary bone. Difference between Corticotomy and Osteotomy Corticotomy Osteotomy DrRavikanthLakkakula
  5. 5. 5 Wilckodontics combines two major philosophies of orthodontics. The mechanical nature referring to the brackets and wires and the biological/augmentative nature referring to the bone and gums around the teeth. The amalgamation of these philosophies has resulted in a New Orthodontic treatment name the “Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics (AOO)”. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  6. 6. Surgically assisted orthodontic tooth movement has been used since the 1800’s. Corticotomy - facilitated tooth movement was first described by L.C. Bryan in 1893. However, it was first introduced in 1959 by Kole as a mean for rapid tooth movement. Kole’s procedure involves the reflection of Full thickness flaps to expose buccal and lingual alveolar bone, followed by interdental cuts through the cortical bone and barely penetrating the Medullary bone (Corticotomy style). The Subapical horizontal cuts connecting the interdental cuts were osteotomy style, penetrating the full thickness of the alveolus. Because of the invasive nature of Kole’s technique, it was never widely accepted. 6 History of Wilckodontics DrRavikanthLakkakula
  7. 7. 7 Then in 1991, Suya replaced supra apical horizontal osteotomy with horizontal corticotomy subapical osteotomies were replaced by cuts limited to the cortical portion of the alveolar bone. Hence the first description of a surgical attempt to enhance orthodontic treatment only corticotomies called as Selective Alveolar Decortication (SAD). DrRavikanthLakkakula
  8. 8. Kole and Suya attributed the accelerated tooth movement by selective corticotomy to moving “blocks of bone”. Both believed that teeth were embedded and moved in “blocks of bone” connected to each other by medullary bone only, instead of today’s understanding of how teeth move through alveolar bone. Therefore, they postulated that with less resistance from medullary bone compared with that from the denser cortical plate, rapid tooth movement could be achieved. 8 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  9. 9. A more recent surgical orthodontic therapy was Introduced by Wilcko which included the innovative strategy of combining corticotomy surgery with alveolar grafting in a technique referred to as Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics (AOO) (Wilcko et al., 2000) and more recently called as Periodontally Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics (PAOO) (Wilcko et al., 2008). 9 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  10. 10. 10 Unlike a usual corticotomy, PAAO does not just cut into bone, but decorticate it – that is some of the bones external surface is removed. The bone then goes through a phase known as osteopenia, where its mineral content is temporarily decreased. While the alveolar bone is in the transient state of demineralization, there is accelerated tooth movement, because the bone offers less resistance to the orthodontic forces. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  11. 11. 11 Age factor for PAAO DrRavikanthLakkakula
  12. 12. PAOO can be done on people of any age, as long as they have a healthy periodontal situation. According to Dr .Wilcko, this technique has been done on children as young as age 11 years and on senior citizens as old as 77 years (mainly as preparation for dental implants or devices). It is particularly useful in adult patients due to there is increasing chance of hyalinization will occur during treatment ,Cell mobilization and conversion of collagen fibres is much slower in adults than in Children and more prone to periodontal complications since their teeth are confined in non-flexible alveolar bone. 12 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  13. 13. Indications and contraindications 13 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  14. 14. Indications 1. Class I with moderate to severe crowding. 2. Class II with extraction (To accelerate Canine retraction after premolar extraction or Enmass retraction of anterior teeth) or expansion. 3. Mild class III cases. 4. To facilitate eruption of Impacted teeth. 5. Molar intrusion and Openbite correction. 6. Molar Uprighting. 7. Molar Distalisation. 8. Arch expansion. 14 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  15. 15. Contraindications 1. Severe class III cases. (Class III cases have many physical constraints which may not lend themselves to AOO treatment) 2. Active periodontal disease or gingival recession are not good candidates for PAOO. 3. It should not be considered as an alternative for surgically assisted palatal expansion in the treatment of severe posterior cross-bite. 4. It should not be used in cases where Bimaxillary protrusion is accompanied with a gummy smile, which might benefit more from segmental osteotomy . 15 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  16. 16. 16 5. Abnormal skeletal relationship between jaws. 6. Patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, compromised immune system and patient incompliance. 7. Patients with Long term use of medication such as anti- inflammatory, immunosuppressive or steroids . 8. Patients with inadequately treated endodontic problems. 10. Persons who are taking medications that slow down bone metabolism, such as bisphosphonates and NSAIDs. 11. Uncontrolled Osteoporosis or other bone diseases. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  17. 17. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PAOO 17 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  18. 18. Advantages of PAOO 1. Reduced treatment time: this technique will reduce treatment time to 1/3rd to 1/4th time of conventional orthodontics. 2. Less root resorption due to decreased resistance of cortical bone . 3. More bone support due to the addition of bone graft. 4. Improved periodontal support, both gum and bone support for the teeth. 5. History of relapse reported to be very low. 6. Less need for extra-oral appliances like headgear. 7. It can be used to expedite the rate of movement of Individual teeth or Dental segments, i.e. canine and incisor retraction. 8. Alveolar grafting also benefits the patient by repairing bony dehiscences and fenestrations. 8. In the ten years since PAOO was first applied, the patient’s outcomes were good. 18 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  19. 19. Disadvantages. 1. Extra-surgical cost. 2. Mild invasive surgical procedure like all surgeries and Post-surgical crestal bone loss and recession may occur. 3. Some pain and swelling is expected . 4. Not applicable to all cases , Proper case selection is necessary to attain a good result. Maxillary and mandibular arch crowding with normal skeletal relationship and incisors retraction are the main indications . 5.Patients who take NSAIDS on regular basis or have other chronic health problems cannot be treated with this technique. 19 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  20. 20. Biology underlying PAOO 20 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  21. 21. In PAOO technique, cortical bone is scarred surgically on both labial and lingual sides of the teeth to be moved followed by grafting. The tissue of alveolar bone release rich deposits of calcium and new bone begins to mineralise 20-55 days. While the alveolar bone in this transient state braces can move teeth very quickly, because bone is softer and less resistance to force of braces. The patient is seen every 2 weeks and the rapid tooth movement produced after PAOO is substantially different than periodontal ligament cell-mediated tooth movement. Recent evidence suggests a localized osteoporosis state, as a part of a healing event called regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP), may be responsible for the rapid tooth movement after PAOO. 21 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  22. 22. 22 RAP was first described by Frost in 1983, he noted that the original injury somehow accelerated the normal regional healing processes. This acceleration is the regional acceleratory phenomenon. RAP usually occurs after a fracture, arthrodesis, osteotomy or bone- grafting procedure and may involve recruitment and activation of Precursor cells necessary for wound healing concentrated at the site of injury . DrRavikanthLakkakula
  23. 23. 23 RAP is a normal physiologic healing , but it can enhance the hard and Soft tissue healing stages 2-10 times . Shih and Norrdin demonstrated that when intraoral cortical bone was injured by corticotomy, RAP accelerated the normal regional healing processes by transient bursts of hard and soft tissue remodelling. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  24. 24. The two main features of RAP in bone healing include 1) Decreased regional bone density , but not its volume 2) Accelerated bone turnover which are believed to facilitate orthodontic tooth movement . The RAP begins within a few days of injury, typically peaks at 1–2 months, usually lasts 4-6 months in bone and may take 6 to more than 24 months to subside . As long as tooth movement continues, the RAP is prolonged. When RAP dissipates, the Osteopenia disappears . When orthodontic tooth movement is completed, an environment is created that favours alveolar remineralisation. 24 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  25. 25. 25 Surgical Techniques Classical surgical technique Corticotomy with Gingival augmentation technique Piezocision technique Modified corticotomy technique Propel alveolar micro – osteoperforation technique Laser Corticotomy DrRavikanthLakkakula
  26. 26. Classical Surgical Technique 26 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  27. 27. Before opting for the periodontal surgical technique and beginning with the procedure , a Complete medical review of the patient is done to rule out any systemic and local factors that may interfere with the surgery. A meticulous phase 1 therapy involving scaling and root planning and oral hygiene instructions to the patient given. Once the local factors have been controlled patient is recalled for the periodontal surgery. 27 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  28. 28. 28 A thorough Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation for the patient is done to evaluate the periodontal status of the patient. It can be evaluated by use of 1. Full mouth IOPA x - rays. 2. OPG 3. 3D Imaging DrRavikanthLakkakula
  29. 29. PAOO can be used in both Maxillary and Mandibular arches. However, the decision regarding the site of PAOO can be made based on clinical judgement. For example, maxillary expansion generally requires more time than correction of mild mandibular anterior crowding. So a case with a narrow maxilla and mild anterior crowding in mandible may benefit with PAOO in the maxilla and traditional orthodontic therapy in the mandibular arch. On the other hand, a case of Bimaxillary Dentoalveolar Protrusion requiring extractions in both the arches can be treated with PAOO to hasten the result in both the arches. Having both arches corrected in a similar time frame is ideal. 29 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  30. 30. The orthodontist has a limited amount of time to accomplish accelerated tooth movement. This period is usually 4 to 6 months, after which finishing movements occur with a normal speed. Given this limited “ window ” of rapid movement, the orthodontist will need to advance arch wire sizes rapidly. The surgical technique for PAOO consists of 5 steps viz. 1.Raising of flap. 2.Decortication. 3.Particulate grafting. 4.Closure of flap. 5.Orthodontic Force Application. 30 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  31. 31. 31 Pre - operative patient preparation 1. On the day of surgery, orthodontic archwire was removed in maxilla, in case of mandible there is no need for removal of arch wire due to proper accessibility and patient was asked to perform mouth brushing . DrRavikanthLakkakula
  32. 32. 32 2. 2 grams of Amoxicillin was taken by the patient orally 30 minutes prior to the Surgery , in case of allergy to penicillin drugs advice Clindamycin or Erythromycin 500mg orally. 3. On the dental chair Chlorhexidine mouthwash was performed by the patient. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  33. 33. 1. Flap Design A proper flap design is essential for the success of any surgical procedure. In PAOO also the flap should provide proper access to the alveolar bone wherein corticotomies are to be performed. Preservation of the gingival form is also important for proper esthetic appearance. 33 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  34. 34. 34 After administration of local anaesthesia , Crevicular incision is made buccally and lingually extending at least two to three teeth beyond the area to be treated. The flaps were reflected beyond the apices of the teeth , if possible. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  35. 35. 35 Special care was taken not to perforate the flaps and any interdental papillary tissue that remained interproximal was left in place. Care should be taken not to damage any of the neurovascular bundles exiting the bone and not to disturb muscle attachments. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  36. 36. 36 2. Decortication Decortication refers to the removal of the cortical portion of the alveolar bone. The purpose of the decortication is to initiate the RAP response and not to create movable bone segments. After flap elevation, decortications of bone adjacent to the malpositioned teeth is performed by using low-speed No.1 or No.2 round diamond burs , in Canine region use straight diamond bur under the Copius amount of saline irrigation. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  37. 37. 37 In the PAOO procedure, decortication is performed at clinical sites without entering the cancellous bone, avoiding risk of damage to underlying structures, such as the maxillary sinus and the mandibular canal. The corticotomies are placed on both the labial and lingual (palatal) aspects of the alveolar bone. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  38. 38. A typical vertical groove will be placed in the inter radicular space , midway between the root prominences in the alveolar bone. This groove will be extended from a point 2 to 3 mm below the crest of the bone to a point 2 mm beyond the apices of the roots about 1.5 - 2mm in depth. These vertical corticotomies are then connected with a semicircular shaped corticotomy in the apical region. 38 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  39. 39. 39 If the alveolar bone is of sufficient thickness, solitary perforations may be placed in the alveolar bone over the radicular surface. Cortical perforation can be made at selective areas to increase blood supply to the graft material. However, if cortical bone is estimated to be less than 1 to 2 mm in thickness, these perforations are omitted to ensure no damage to the radicular surface. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  41. 41. 3. Particulate Grafting The materials most commonly used for grafting after decortication are deproteinized bovine bone, autogenous bone(Maxillary tuberosity, Mandibular symphysis, Angle of the mandible, Ramus of mandible and Exostosis), decalcified freeze-dried bone ,allograft or a combination there of . No objective data exist comparing one grafting material with another in terms of superiority. The decorticated bone acts to retain the graft material. The use of Platelet rich plasma or calcium sulfate has been reported to increase the stability of the graft material. 41 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  42. 42. 42 Resorbable grafting materials wetted with an antibiotic solution were applied directly over the activated bone. Frequently used augmentation grafting mixture : 2 parts demineralized freeze-dried bone (DFDBA) and 1 part bovine bone wetted with clindamycin phosphate solution(0.5 mg/ml) applied at a rate of 0.5 to 1 ml of grafting mixture per tooth to be moved. Antibiotic produces soothening effect and prevent the surgical site infection and act as a medium for placement of graft material to the surgical site. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  43. 43. 43 Grafting is done in most areas that have undergone corticotomies. The volume of the graft material used is dictated by the direction and amount of tooth movement predicted, the pre treatment thickness of the alveolar bone and the need for labial support by the alveolar bone. A typical volume used is 0.25 to 0.5 ml of graft material per tooth .If excess graft material is placed this result in difficulty in full closure of flap. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  44. 44. Flap Closure Technique : The flap should be closed using Non - resorbable interrupted 3-0 sutures without creating excessive tension. No packing is required. The sutures are usually left in place for 1 to 2 weeks . 44 After closer of flap Orthodontic arch wire was secured back into the brackets. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  45. 45. 45 This is particularly important to the adult patient who presents with significant gingival recession ,dehiscence and fenestration. In these situations a sub-epithelial connective tissue graft is placed over the denuded root surface in addition to particulate graft placement. This connective tissue graft is harvested by removing a 1 to 2mm thickness of gingival connective tissue from the elevated palatal flap or Acellular dermal matrix allograft (AlloDerm). PAOO with Gingival augmentation Technique DrRavikanthLakkakula
  46. 46. 46 Vercellotti & Podesta (2007) introduced the use of Piezosurgery in conjunction with conventional flap elevations to create an environment conducive to rapid tooth movement. Dibart et al(2010) introduced a procedure known as Piezocision, minimally invasive procedure combining microincisions, minimal piezoelectric osseous cuts to buccal cortex only and bone and soft tissue grafting concomitant with tunnel approach. Piezocision Technique DrRavikanthLakkakula
  47. 47. 47 Procedure Gingival vertical incisions are made interproximally below the interdental papilla using a number 15 surgical blade and kept as much as possible in the attached gingiva . All of the incisions (and the graft when required) are made only buccally. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  48. 48. 48 Then , Ultrasonic instrumentation (BS1 insert Piezotome™, Satelec Acteon Group Merignac, France) is used to perform corticotomy cuts through the gingival micro-incisions and to a depth of 3 mm. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  49. 49. 49 At the areas requiring bone augmentation, a tunnel is performed by means of an elevator inserted between the gingival incisions to form sufficient space for receiving the graft. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  50. 50. 50 The allograft is then placed and the incision sutured (absorbable sutures 5-0). DrRavikanthLakkakula
  51. 51. 51 Advantages of piezocision 1. Shorter surgical time. (i.e., 45 min to 1 h is usually sufficient for a complete surgery on both the maxilla and mandible with bone grafting against 3-4 hours for traditional techniques.) 2. Minimally invasive technique. 3. No periodontal complications such as mild bone loss and partial loss of interdental papilla which occurred in raising a flap . 4. Post-operative morbidity is less. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  52. 52. 52 Disadvantages and limitations of piezocision 1. Because of the lack of muco - periosteal flap elevation, cortical incisions may present a risk of root damage particularly in areas of close root proximity. 2. Extra care is also required as to the location of gingival incisions. It is very important to keep at least 2 mm from the gingival margin to avoid the formation of gingival cleft. 3. Postoperative scar formation in case of gingival pigmentation. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  53. 53. 53 Germec et al (2006) introduced “ Modified Corticotomy,” they demonstrated a “conservative” technique to shorten the treatment time during lower incisor retraction. In this modified technique, corticotomy done only on the buccal side without lingual cuts. Modified Corticotomy Technique DrRavikanthLakkakula
  54. 54. 54 It technique had logical modification because the surgically induced transient osteopenia (RAP) described by Frost is sufficiently elicited for most kinds of Orthodontic tooth labial movement. Germec et al’s use of minimal intervention to achieve a specific clinical objective suggests a knowledge of RAP and respect for a discrete surgical technique. Advantages 1. Surgical time is less compared to classical technique. 2. Technique is less sensitive. 3. Patient acceptance is more and discomfort (Morbidity) is less. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  55. 55. 55 However, the potential for the non - operated lingual surface “pull” of gingival and periodontal tissues postoperatively presents a theoretic warning. It is eliminated by simple circumferential Supracrestal fiberotomy or Transmucosal Perforation with a irrigated bur may improve this potential relapse factor, if the acceleration of the incisors retraction begins to slow. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  56. 56. 56 An alternative approach has been recently introduced by Park et al (2006), consisting of incisions directly through the gingiva and bone using a combination of surgical blades and a surgical mallet. While decreasing the surgical time due to No flaps or sutures ,there is only cortical incisions. Disadvantages 1.This technique did not offer the benefits of bone grafting to increase periodontal support in the areas where expansive tooth movement was desired. 2.The extensive hammering in office to perform the cortical incisions appears to certain patients to be Somewhat aggressive. In addition, highly use of the hammer and chisels in the maxilla adds dizziness and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo . DrRavikanthLakkakula
  57. 57. 57 Propel is a device uniquely designed to perform corticotomy procedure. It is a novel technique that creates micro - osteopeforations. Propel is an FDA-registered 510k exempt Class I device designed for single use only. The instrument provides a surgical stainless-steel leading edge similar in appearance to an orthodontic mini-screw, but uniquely designed and patented to be used to atraumatically perforate the alveolus directly through keratinized gingiva as well as movable mucosa. Propel alveolar micro – Osteoperforation technique DrRavikanthLakkakula
  58. 58. 58 Procedure Apply topical anaesthetic or infiltrate the area(s) with a local anaesthesia . Assess the alveolar bone for the appropriate tip-length needed to maximize the depth of the perforation both mesial and distal to the tooth . Then, make perforations with smooth rotations of the instrument to the appropriate depth until the LED light goes on indicating depth has been reached. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  59. 59. 59 Control any bleeding with the application of a vasoconstrictive agent such as Astringent or just apply minimal pressure for one minute with gauze. The Propel device is specifically designed and patented to maximize the remodelling process, while eliminating soft-tissue damage and enabling orthodontist the ability to accelerate treatment. Disadvantage 1. Instrument is high cost ($149). DrRavikanthLakkakula
  60. 60. 60 Laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Lasers consist of an active medium and a pumping source enclosed in an optical cavity. The pumping source pumps the active medium from its ground state (inactive state) to an excited state. Very intense flashes of lights or electrical discharges pumps the lasing medium and creates a large collection of atoms in excited state for the laser to work efficiently. Based on the active lasing medium, it can be a container of gas or a solid crystal rod. Laser Corticotomy DrRavikanthLakkakula
  61. 61. 61 Hibst et al (1988) were the first to report the use of the Erbium: Yttrium Aluminium Garnet(Er: YAG) laser for ablation of dental hard tissues. Advantage of Erbium : Yttrium Aluminium Garnet(Er: YAG) laser : 1.It had Dual ability to ablate soft and hard tissues with minimal damage because their wavelengths(2,940 nm) lie within the absorption spectra of water and soft tissue, causing the ablation phenomenon. 2. Irradiation effect limited to an ultra-thin layer of tissue(No damage of surrounding tissue ). 3. Faster bone repair(healing) after irradiation than conventional bur drilling. 4. Suitable alternative for defect and root surface debridement in conjunction with periodontal surgery. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  62. 62. 62 The Er,Cr;YSG laser device (Waterlase, Biolase, USA) was used to deliver an energy range about 300 mJ at pulse rates of 20 Hz. The Laser ablation or bone cutting was performed under water-spray cooling to improve the absorption of laser radiation by the bone and thus to prevent thermal interactions like carbonization in the region adjacent to the laser-cut. Duration of laser irradiation for each penetration was between 0.25 - 0.5 second and it was in a noncontact manner with a 2 mm distance. The proportion of air and water was 40% and 20% respectively. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  63. 63. 63 Advantages of laser corticotomy 1. It Creates a clear, dry field with no bleeding, decreasing the possibility of infection. 2. Less trauma in the surgical field. 3. Post-operative swelling , scars and pain is minimal. 4. The possibility of infection is decreased. Disadvatange 1.High cost compared to conventional method. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  64. 64. 1. Patient was instructed to Apply local cold fermentation intermittently for first 12 hours after the surgery , 2. Instructed to only take cold diet for 24 hours. 3. Advice Amoxicillin 500 mg T.I.D coverage was to continue for 3 days. 4. Careful brushing in the area of surgery was advised against for the 1st week. 5. Check up was scheduled for the next day. 64 Post operative Instructions DrRavikanthLakkakula
  65. 65. 65 6. Do not prescribe NSAID’s like Ibuprofen after surgery , because they can inhibit the production of prostaglandin hormone in the body. Prostaglandin is derived from Arachdonic acid through cyclooxygenase activity. PG has Properties of stimulating osteoclasts and sometimes osteoblasts, which produce bone resorption through RANKL receptor. So, adminstration of NSAID’s , inhibits the cyclooxygenase , results in slow down the bone growth process which is Non vital to PAOO. So Narcotic pain killers are prescribed . DrRavikanthLakkakula
  66. 66. The placement of orthodontic brackets and activation of the arch wires are typically done one week before the surgical aspect of PAOO is performed. However, if complex mucogingival procedures are combined with the PAOO surgery, the lack of fixed orthodontic appliances may enable easier flap manipulation and suturing. After flap repositioning, an Immediate heavy Orthodontic forces are applied to the teeth and in all cases initiation of orthodontic force should not be delayed more than 2 weeks after surgery. A longer delay will fail to take full advantage of the limited time period that the RAP is occurring. Timing of orthodontic treatment 66 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  67. 67. 67 Depending on case braces are put for 3 to 9 months. After the braces are removed , a retainer for at least 6 months is usually recommended. The same types of braces and retainers are used in PAOO as in traditional orthodontics , so you will have choice of metal or ceramic brackets. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  68. 68. Complications and side effects 68 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  69. 69. It is less invasive procedure than osteotomy assisted orthodontics or surgically assisted rapid expansion, but there have still been several reports regarding adverse effects to the periodontium after corticotomy, they are ranging from 1. No problems to slight interdental bone loss. 2. Loss of Attached gingiva. 3.Periodontal defects observed in some cases with short interdental distance . 4. Subcutaneous hematomas of the face and the neck have been reported after intensive corticotomies . 5.Some post-operative swelling and pain is expected for several days. 6. No effect on the vitality of the pulps of the teeth in the area of corticotomy was reported . 69 DrRavikanthLakkakula
  70. 70. 70 CaseReports Dr Ravikanth Lakkakula
  71. 71. 71 Fischer in a sample of 6 patients with bilateral palatally impacted maxillary canines requiring surgical exposure, randomly performed corticotomy procedures on one side, in addition to the surgical exposure. The corticotomy consisted of circular holes mesial and distal to the impacted tooth, approximately 2mm and 60g of force was utilised with 4-6week intervals between appointments. The reduction in treatment time was between 28-33% for the corticotomy- assisted canines Vs the non- corticotomy canines, with significantly higher tooth movement velocities (1.06mm/month Vs 0.75mm/month). DrRavikanthLakkakula
  72. 72. 72 Germec et al(2006) described case report of a bimaxillary protrusive case being treated with their “ modified corticotomy ” approach. They performed this mid-treatment, to accelerate the treatment. The corticotomy procedure consisted of vertical cuts with a 0.5mm round bur 2mm into bone. There were no horizontal cuts or lingual cuts. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  73. 73. 73 Maxillary and mandibular 0.016 x 0.022 inch stainless steel retraction arches with T loops were inserted 1 week before corticotomy. In this case report, the total orthodontic treatment time (16 months) was dramatically reduced when compared with the average treatment time for extraction therapy (31 months). DrRavikanthLakkakula
  74. 74. 74 Ozlem Aylikci, Caglar Sakin (2013)described case report of piezoincision assisted canine distalisation in 1st premolar extraction case. After leveling phase(0.016) finished, 0.016 stainless steel wire placed and canine distalisation phase was started. Vertical interproximal incisions were made, 5 mm apical to the mesial and distal interdental papilla of related canines, on the buccal aspect of each jaw using surgical blade No. 15. Incisions were extending 10 mm length apically. A Piezo surgical knife was used to create the cortical bone incision through the gingival opening to a depth of approximately 4 mm. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  75. 75. 75 Then , canine distalization was performed immediately using sentalloy closed coil springs which produce 180 grams continuous forces to maxillary canines. Closed coil springs were extending from the hook of canine bracket to ipsilateral miniscrew. Canine distalization phase completed within 4-5 months (classical method it takes 4-8months). Pre-treatment Post- treatment DrRavikanthLakkakula
  76. 76. 76 Aljhani and Aldrees (2009) demonstrated treatment of an anterior openbite with corticotomy procedure. The patient was a 22-year-old woman with class I molar relation and 6mm anterior open bite and flared and spaced upper and lower incisors. One week before the surgery, preadjusted edgewise orthodontic fixed appliances were placed and 0.016 inch NiTi archwires were inserted for leveling and alignment. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  77. 77. 77 Full thickness flap was reflected both facially and lingually around all erupted teeth from first molar to first molar in the maxillary arch and between the canines in the mandibular arch . The lingual interdental papilla between the maxillary central incisors was not reflected and no vertical releasing incisions were used. Cuts in the alveolus that penetrate the entire thickness of the cortical plate both buccally and lingually around all the teeth in both arches. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  78. 78. 78 Vertical decortication cuts were made between the roots of the teeth and they were stopped 2–3 mm short of the alveolar crest. Horizontal scalloped corticotomy cuts were used to connect the vertical cuts along with perforations in the cortical plate. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  79. 79. 79 0.016 x 0.022 inch NiTi archwire was inserted in the upper arch and 0.016 inch Stainless steel was inserted in the lower arch with 150 g NiTi coil springs attached from the mandibular first molars to the canines for retraction and powerchain to derotate the lower first Premolars. Four weeks later, continuous powerchian was inserted in the upper arch and a 0.016 x 0.016 inch stainless steel archwire with closing loops was inserted in the lower arch for incisors retraction . Class III box elastics (3/16 in., 4 oz) were prescribed to be worn full-time. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  80. 80. 80 Four weeks later 0.016 x 0.022-in. stainless steel archwire was inserted in the upper arch, and in the lower 0.016 inch stainless steel with helices was inserted . Powerchains were replaced every 2 weeks, and then finishing upper and lower 0.016 x 0.022 inch stainless steel archwires were inserted and vertical anterior and posterior elastics were used . The total active treatment period was only 5 months. DrRavikanthLakkakula
  81. 81. 81 Corticotomy assisted orthodontics is an effective and reliable technique to treat severe malocclusions to reduce the treatment time and increase the treatment quality . Reduced root resorption, increased alveolar volume, reduced chair side time are the basic advantages of this technique. However this should be carefully performed over the teeth and surrounding tissues to avoid the risk of devitalisation of the teeth and periodontal damage. conclusion DrRavikanthLakkakula
  82. 82. 82 The PAOO technique can be an especially attractive treatment option and be a “win-win” situation for the orthodontist, the periodontist and the patient. A long term follow up studies have to be performed to evaluate the effects of corticotomy assisted orthodontics on retention and stability. DrRavikanthLakkakula