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Cold chain ppt

  1. 1. COLD CHAIN & IMMUNISATION SCHEDULE
  2. 2. Cold Chain The ‘cold chain’ is the system of transporting and storing vaccines at recommended temperature from the point of manufacture to the point of use. Manufacturer Distributor Vaccine Depots Provider office Client
  3. 3. Why is the cold chain important ? 1. Vaccines are:  Biological products  lose potency with time  Process irreversible and accelerated if proper storage conditions are not adhered to. 2. Assurance in potent product and vaccine programmes  Professional responsibility  Confident the vaccines you give will be effective  Public Health responsibility  Public confidence in immunisation programmes 3. Ensuring maximum benefit from immunisations Responsibility not to waste scarce NHS resources Reduce wastage from errors 4.Compliance with SPC/Manufacturer Any vaccine that has not been stored at a temperature of 2-8ºC as per its licensing conditions is no longer a licensed product
  4. 4. Cold chain storage equipment Walk in cold rooms Deep freezers Ice lined refrigerators
  5. 5. 1.Walk in cold rooms(WIC) At regional level Storage up to 3 months At district & PHC levels Temp :- -15oc to -25oc At PHC, used only for the preparation of ice packs 2.Deep freezers
  6. 6. 3.Ice lined refrigerators(ILR) Both at district and PHC levels Temp :- +2oc to +8oc ILR’s are top opening, can hold cold air inside better than front opening refrigerators
  7. 7. Vaccine Stability Sensitivity to HEAT BCG Varicella MMR MenC Hepatitis B DT and/or aP/IPV/HIB Sensitivity to COLD HepB and combination DTand/or aP/IPV/HIB Influenza MenC *MMR *Varicella *BCG (*Freeze dried) MOST SENSITIVE Temperature must be recorded twice in a day with dial thermometer LEAST SENSITIVE
  8. 8. Immunisation Department, Centre for Infections Light Sensitive Sensitive to strong light, sunlight, ultraviolet, fluorescents (neon) BCG MMR Varicella Meningococcal C Conjugate Most DTaP containing vaccines Vaccines should always be stored in their original packaging until point of use to protect them from light
  9. 9. Vaccine Storage Use a dedicated vaccine fridge Safeguard electricity supply No more than 50% full Place vaccines in clearly labelled plastic mesh baskets  Group vaccines by type (Paediatric, Adult, Adolescent) Defrost/calibrate fridge regularly Ensure back up facilities are available in the event of fridge failing X No food or medical specimens X Do not place fridge in direct sunlight or near heat source X Do not store vaccines for more than 1 month at PHC. X Do not store vaccines in fridge doors or in solid plastic trays/containers within the fridge X Keep vaccines away from fridge walls and cold air vents Picture taken from www.medisave.co.uk DO’sDON’T’s
  10. 10. Transporting Equipment Cold boxes Vaccine carriers Day carriers
  11. 11. Used for transport of vaccines Fully frozen ice packs placed at the bottom and sides DPT, TT, DT should not be kept in direct contact 1.Cold boxes Used to carry small quantity of vaccines(16 to 20 vials) For out of reach sessions 4 icepacks are used 2.Vaccine carriers
  12. 12. 3.Day carriers Used to carry very small quantities of vaccines(6 to 8 vials) For a near by session 2 icepacks are used For only 2 hours period
  13. 13. Use of diluents Specifically designed to reconstitute the vaccines with respect to volume, pH and other chemical properties Store at +2oc to +8oc in ILR Only use vaccines suppled and packaged by manufacturer
  14. 14. Vaccine Vial Monitor(VVM) VVM is a label containing heat sensitive material that is placed on a vaccine vial to register heat exposure over time Vaccine vial monitor
  15. 15. Stage 1 • Inner square lighter than outer circle Stage 2 • Inner square still lighter than outer circle Stage 3 • Color of inner square matches the outer circle Stage 4 • Color of inner square darker than outer circle Combined effects of time and temperature cause the inner square to darken gradually and irreversibly VVM does not directly measure the vaccine potency but gives info about the main factor that affects potency
  16. 16. Immunization is the process whereby a person is made immune to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine. Controlling and eliminating life-threatening infectious diseases Estimated to avert between 2 and 3 million deaths each year.  One of the most cost-effective health investments Accessible to even the most hard-to-reach and vulnerable populations. Immunization schedule
  17. 17. Accelerate control of vaccine- preventable diseases Strengthen routine immunization to meet vaccination coverage targets Introduce new and improved vaccines Spur research and development for the next generation of vaccines and technologies Objectives of WHO in immunization Active immunization/vaccination has been named one of the "Ten Great Public Health Achievements in the 20th Century"
  18. 18. Immunization Schedule

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