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  1. 1. Jessica Elaine Cavazos BabcockGRAMMAR
  2. 2. One problem is that the word grammar means different things todifferent people. For many the term suggests a list of do’s ant donts,rules that tell us we should say It is I, not It is me, that we should not sayain’t or we should avoid ending a sentence with a preposition.Introduction: grammar and grammarsPROBLEMS
  3. 3. Grammars with rules that make distinctions between correct andincorrect forms are defined as prescriptive grammars. Grammars that donot make these distinctions that aim to describe language as it isactually used or called descriptive grammarsRULES
  4. 4. For applied linguistics , the focus is more pedagogical grammar type ofgrammar designed for the needs of second language students andteachers.APPLIED LINGUISTICS
  5. 5. differ greatly, on whether they are formal grammars or functionalgrammars. Chomsky’s generative theory is based on a rationalistapproach, the central assumption being that language is represented asa speaker’s mental grammar, a set of abstract rules for generatinggrammatical sentences. Form and functionMODELS OF GRAMMAR
  6. 6. an anthropological linguist, developed a functional model that focusesmore on appropriate use of language, that is on how language functionsin discourse. In applied linguistics the influence of these theoreticalmodels is evident in various areas.HYMES (1972)
  7. 7. In terms of descriptive grammars, there still remain questions aboutwhat it is exactly, that should be described. With the development ofcomputers and computer analysis of language, token descriptions arenow possible on a massive scale, and such descriptions haverevolutionalized the way we view languageDESCRIPTIVE GRAMMER
  8. 8. Speakers and writers make grammatical choices that depend oncontextual features and how they wish to position themselves in theworld. Discourse grammarSPEAKERS AND WRITERS
  9. 9. Corpus studies also reveal important distinctions between spoken andwritten grammar. Carter and McCarthy (1995) believe that differencesbetween spoken and written grammar are especially important forpedagogical grammars, since descriptions that rest on the written modeor on the restricted genres and registers of spoken language are likely toomit many common features of everyday informal grammar and usage.Spoken and written grammarCORPUS STUDIES
  10. 10. The interdependence of lexis and grammar is that of prefabricatedchunks of language in which boundary between the two becomes evenmore blurred. Native speakers tend to use a great many expressions thatact as single lexical words and grammatical structures. Lexicogrammar :the problem of defining boundariesLEXIS AND GRAMMAR
  11. 11. Withy the awareness that formulaic language is a prevalent as it is, it is clearly thecase that we should be thinking more in terms of lexicogrammar , rather thenthinking solely of morphology and syntax . Due to the multifaceted nature ofgrammar and the learning processes, we must recognized that the teaching ofgrammar itself is complex and multidimensional and may require a variety ofteaching approaches. conclusionTHE VIEWS OF GRAMMAR HAVECHANGED OVER THE YEARS .