The present perfect tense


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The present perfect tense

  1. 1. Present Perfect Tense The autumn has already arrived How do you know? RVA
  2. 2. Present Perfect Tense FORM: have / has + past participleAffirmative: I have seen the film before. She has seen the film before.Interrogative: Have you seen the film before? Has she seen the film before?Negative: They haven’t seen the film before. He hasn’t seen the film before.
  3. 3. Present Perfect Tense We may say that this verbal tense is a mixture of present and past. USES OF THE PRESENT PERFECT1. To talk about a completed past action at a non- specific time. The action is finished. You dont know, care or remember when it happened. – I have read that book before. – She has already done her homework.
  4. 4. Present Perfect Tense2. With words such as FOR and SINCE, we use the Present Perfect to talk about something that began in the past and continues to now. Ive studied at this school since last June. Shes lived in West Palm Beach for 2 years. “Llevo + periodo de tiempo”
  5. 5. Present Perfect TenseWhen we use the Present Perfect with FOR or SINCE it gives the idea that something began in the past and continues into the present (and may continue into the future). FOR + LENGTH OF TIMEWe use the Present perfect with “for” + length of time (for ten minutes, for two weeks, for years, for a long time) to show how long a present condition has lasted.
  6. 6. Present Perfect TenseExamples:Ive worked at this job for two years.Hes lived in Florida for five months.Theyve been married for a long time.
  7. 7. Present Perfect TenseSINCE + POINT IN TIMEWe may use the present perfect with “since” + point in time (since 5:00, since Monday, since 1994) to show when something started.- Ive worked here since last year.- They ve been married since November.
  8. 8. SINCE can also introduce a time clause. OK….. What’s a time clause? Take a look at the following examples:I’ve lived in Lake Worth since I moved to Florida.When the action in the time clause ended in thepast, we use the simple past tense in the timeclause.(“moved to Florida” is over…it happened…it is finished.)I’ve studied at the AEC since I’ve lived in Florida.When the action in the time clause began in thepast but continues into the present, use thepresent perfect. (I still live in Florida.)
  9. 9. So……How do we ask questions using this tense? When we want to know the length of time something has taken place we use the question words “HOW LONG.” How long have you lived in West Palm Beach? I’ve lived here for 2 years. How long has she studied English at the AEC? She’s studied at the AEC since 2005.
  10. 10. Wake up! Back to Use #1 (completed past action at a non-specific time) We often use the Present Perfect with already to talk about things that have happened before now. I’ve already eaten breakfast. She’s already read that book. You’re too late.He’s already left for school.Already usually comes between have andthe past participle. However, it can also come at the end of the clause. Take a look above.
  11. 11. We may use the present perfect with not yet to talk about things that have not happened before now.We’re hungry. We haven’t eaten lunch yet.Sure I’ll go with you. I haven’t seen that movie yet.We’ve waited for an hour, but they haven’t arrived yet. Notice that yet usually comes at the end of the clause.
  12. 12. We usually use yet in questions to find out if something has happened before now. Have you bought your mother a present yet? Has she seen that movie yet? Sometimes we use already in a question to express surprise that something happened sooner than expected.Have you already bought your mother a present?I didn’t know you had a chance to go shopping.Have they already left for school? It’s so early.
  13. 13. We may use the present perfect with just (acabar de) to mean something happened a short time ago. I have just lost my umbrella. Oh... I have just forgotten her address.Remember: mid-position.
  14. 14. We can sometimes use the present perfect with ever and never Have you ever been to Italy? George has never driven a car. Remember: mid-position.
  15. 15. Contrast between Present Perfect and Past SimpleWe use definite expressions with the Past simpletense: yesterday, last week, … ago etc, while wedon’t use definite time expressions with the Presentperfect tense.I have been to France three timesWhen did you go there last?I went there last Summer
  16. 16. Contrast between Present Perfect and Past Simple Gerald has bought a new car. He bought it last week. Have you met Ray? – Yes, I met him when we were students. My parents have been to India. In fact, they went there twice last year. Has anybody phoned me? – Yes, Joyce phoned an hour ago. I’ve seen that man before. – Really? When did you see him?
  17. 17. Present Perfect TenseHave you ever listened toclassical music before?Where did you hear it?
  18. 18. Present Perfect TenseHave you walked along ariverside similar to the one onthe photograph?When did you do it?
  19. 19. Please note the difference • He has been to London.  Now he is here. He can tell you wonderful stories about London. • He has been in London for two weeks.  He is still in London. • Where’s Peter? He has gone to London.  He is in Italy or on his way to London.
  20. 20. Any Questions? No?OK. Let’s Practice!