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Studies of mercury pollution in a lake due to a                  thermometerfactory situated in a tourist resort: Kodaikka...
• Introduction• Sources of mercury• Forms of mercury and method    to detect•   Fick’s Law and its role•   Aquatic Mercury...
INTRODUCTION• Non-essential element  with no biochemical or  nutritional function to bio  organisms.• Mercury is persisten...
SOURCES OF MERCURY•Natural Sources- volcanoes, geologicdeposits of mercury, and volatilization fromthe ocean.•Anthropogeni...
FORMS OF MERCURY AND    METHOD TO DETECT• FORMS – Hg, Hg(II), MeHg.• METHOD- Mercury was analysed by  cold vapour atomic a...
FICK’S LAW• The diffusion first Fick law allows the  estimation of the diffusive fluxes (J) across  water–sediment interfa...
Table– Quantities of reactive and non-reactive mercury (nmolm2 (12 h)1 and mmolm2 (12 h)1,respectively) present in the Lar...
GEOCHEMICAL CYCLE
GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
KODAIKKANAL MERCURY       POLLUTION• Mercury contamination originating  from a thermometer making factory.• Present study ...
• Ambient levels of mercury in air of  1.32 mg/m3 were found immediately  outside the factory premises.• Outside the premi...
• Kodai sediment showed 276-350  mg/kg HgT with about 6% methyl  mercury. Berijam and Kukkal  sediments showed HgT of 189-...
• Analysis of water, sediment and fish  samples from Kodai Lake from the  tourist resort of Kodaikkanal, India,  showed el...
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  1. 1. Studies of mercury pollution in a lake due to a thermometerfactory situated in a tourist resort: Kodaikkanal, India RAVI KUMAR 2009JE0618
  2. 2. • Introduction• Sources of mercury• Forms of mercury and method to detect• Fick’s Law and its role• Aquatic Mercury Cycle• Geochemical characteristics• Kodaikkanal mercury pollution• Conclusion
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION• Non-essential element with no biochemical or nutritional function to bio organisms.• Mercury is persistent.• All forms of mercury are extremely toxic.• Methylated mercury – bioaccumulation and biomagnification.
  4. 4. SOURCES OF MERCURY•Natural Sources- volcanoes, geologicdeposits of mercury, and volatilization fromthe ocean.•Anthropogenic Sources- Alkali and metalprocessing, incineration of coal, medical andother waste, and mining of gold andmercury.
  5. 5. FORMS OF MERCURY AND METHOD TO DETECT• FORMS – Hg, Hg(II), MeHg.• METHOD- Mercury was analysed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) using a mercury analyser.
  6. 6. FICK’S LAW• The diffusion first Fick law allows the estimation of the diffusive fluxes (J) across water–sediment interface, by constructing a linear gradient of the solute concentration (C) in pore water at the 0–0.5cm layer (Z):Where DAB=Diffusion Constant.
  7. 7. Table– Quantities of reactive and non-reactive mercury (nmolm2 (12 h)1 and mmolm2 (12 h)1,respectively) present in the Largo do Laranjo water column and estimation of the pore waterscontribution to the enrichment of the water column (%) Zone A Zone B Zone C Zone DMercury present in water columnReactive Hg (nmolm2 (12 h1)) 394 396 318 150Non-reactive Hg (mmolm2 (12 h1)) 2.99 3.35 2.18 2.34Contribution of pore waters to enrichment of water columnReactive Hg (%) 0.016–0.17 0.006–0.12 0–0.012 0.027–0.030Non-reactive Hg (%) 0.064–0.50 0.010–0.054 0.007–0.033 0.005–0.056
  8. 8. GEOCHEMICAL CYCLE
  9. 9. GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  10. 10. KODAIKKANAL MERCURY POLLUTION• Mercury contamination originating from a thermometer making factory.• Present study determined total mercury and methyl mercury in water, sediment and fish samples and compared the values with those from two other lakes, Berijam and Kukkal.
  11. 11. • Ambient levels of mercury in air of 1.32 mg/m3 were found immediately outside the factory premises.• Outside the premises of the factory, the mercury levels in the lichen and moss were 7.9 mg/kg and 8.3 mg/kg respectively.• Mercury vapour once released into the air is known to travel long distances leading to widespread contamination.
  12. 12. • Kodai sediment showed 276-350 mg/kg HgT with about 6% methyl mercury. Berijam and Kukkal sediments showed HgT of 189-226 mg/kg and 85-91 mg/kg and lower methylation at 3-4% and 2%, respectively.• HgT in fish from Kodai lake ranged from 120 to 290 mg/kg.
  13. 13. • Analysis of water, sediment and fish samples from Kodai Lake from the tourist resort of Kodaikkanal, India, showed elevated levels of mercury even 4 years after the stoppage of mercury emissions from the thermometer factory that operated for 18 years and was closed down subsequently in 2001.• This shows that mercury is retained

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