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UNIT 3Network & E – Commerce
Networks   A network can be defined as two or more computers    connected together in such a way that they can share    r...
Why networking?   Sharing information   Sharing hardware or software   Sharing an Internet Connection   Centralize adm...
Computer Network                      Uses of Computer NetworkCompanies                   People                  Social I...
Advantages of networking   Connectivity and Communication   Data Sharing   Hardware Sharing   Internet Access   Inter...
Disadvantages   Network Hardware, Software and Setup Costs   Hardware and Software Management and    Administration Cost...
Network Classifications Based on network size:  LAN  WAN  MAN Based on transmission media:  Wired (UTP, coaxial cabl...
Network Size   Local Area Networks (LANs)   Wide Area Networks (WANs)   Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
LAN   A local area network (LAN) is a computer    network covering a small geographic area, like a    home, office, or gr...
WAN   Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network    that covers a broad area (i.e., any network whose    communication...
MAN   A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that    interconnects users with computer resources in a    geograph...
Classification on the basis of management   Peer to peer   Client- server
Peer-to-Peer Networks    Peer-to-peer network is also called workgroup    No hierarchy among computers - all are equal ...
•   Advantages of peer-to-peer networks:         •   Low cost         •   Simple to configure         •   User has full ac...
Clients and Servers    Network Clients (Workstation)        Computers that request network resources or services    Net...
    Advantages of client/server networks        Facilitate resource sharing – centrally administrate and         control...
Classification on the basis of typology   Bus   Ring   Star   Mesh
Network topology   A topology is a way of ―laying out‖ the network.    Topologies can be either physical or logical.   P...
Bus Topology   A bus is the simplest physical topology.   It consists of a single cable that runs to every workstation ...
Bus topology   Advantages       Simple       Low Cost       Easy to find errors   Disadvantage       It is difficult...
Star Topology   A physical star topology branches each network device    off a central device called a hub.   Very easy ...
Star topology   Advantages       Easy to install.       Prevents data collision & congestion       If one devices brea...
Ring Topology   Each computer connects to two other    computers, joining them in a circle creating a    unidirectional p...
Ring topology   Advantages       Avoids data collision       Every computer serves as a repeater to boost signals   Di...
Mesh topology (cont.)   The mesh topology is the simplest logical topology in    terms of data flow, but it is the most c...
Mesh topology
Mesh topology Advantages       High fault tolerance       There will always be a way of getting the data from        so...
Advantages and Disadvantages ofNetwork Topologies Topology Advantages                      Disadvantages Bus     Cheap. Ea...
Based on Transmission   Two main categories:       Guided ― wires, cables       Unguided ― wireless transmission, e.g. ...
Twisted-Pair Cables   Twisted pair cabling is a form of wiring in which two    conductors are twisted together for the pu...
Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP)   Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is the most popular   The quality of UTP may vary from tel...
Insulator   Metal
Categories of UTP CablesEIA classifies UTP cables according to the quality: Category 1 ― the lowest quality, only good fo...
Shielded Twisted Pair cable   If you cable is placed in environments with lots of    potential interference shielded twis...
Coaxial Cables   Coaxial cabling has a single copper conductor at    its center.   A plastic layer provides insulation b...
   Although coaxial cabling is difficult to install, it is    highly resistant to signal interference.   It can support ...
Fiber-Optic Cables   Light travels at 3 108 ms-1 in free space and is the    fastest possible speed in the Universe   Li...
   Fiber optic cabling consists of a center glass core    surrounded by several layers of protective    materials.   It ...
   This capacity broadens communication possibilities to    include services such as video conferencing and    interactiv...
   Advantages of Optical Fiber:       Noise immunity: RFI and EMI immune (RFI - Radio Frequency        Interference, EMI...
Transmissionmedium       Total data rate   Bandwidth RepeaterspacingTwisted pair     4 Mbps         3 MHz        2 to 10 k...
Electromagnetic spectrum for      telecommunicationsFrequenc             2   103   104 105 106 107 108 109 1010           ...
Unguided transmission media   Unguided transmission media is data signals that    flow through the air.   They are not g...
RF Propagation   Ground wave propagation follows the curvature of    the Earth. Ground waves have carrier frequencies up ...
RF Propagation   Ionospheric propagation bounces off of the Earths    ionospheric layer in the upper atmosphere.   It is...
RF Propagation   Line of sight propagation transmits exactly in the line    of sight.   The receive station must be in t...
What is data communication?   Not to be confused with telecommunication—       Any process that permits the passage from...
Features of Communication   Four things required       Sender, receiver, medium, and message   Types of messages      ...
Simplified Communications Model -Diagram
Business Data Communication Applications   Major data communication applications include:       E-mail       Groupware ...
Moving Bits through the Network     A n a lo g S ig n a l                1                0     D ig ita l S ig n a l     ...
Direction of Data Flow   Simplex   Half Duplex       Duplex (or Full duplex)
Intranet A network based on TCP/IP protocols belonging to  an organization, usually a corporation, accessible  only by th...
    Secure intranets are now the fastest-growing segment of    the Internet because they are much less expensive to    bu...
Functions of intranet   Knowledge sharing   Collaboration   Publishing: E,g, homepages, newsletters, documents,    empl...
Extranet   An intranet that is partially accessible to    authorized outsiders.   An extranet provides various levels of...
The Extranet (cont.)                                          Extranet Suppliers                                          ...
Functions of Extranet   Enhanced Communications       Improved internal communications       Improved business partners...
   Business Enhancements       Faster time to market       Simultaneous engineering potential       Lower design and p...
   Information Delivery       Low-cost publishing       Leveraging of legacy systems       Standard delivery systems  ...
Internet   The Internet is a public and global communication    network that provides direct connectivity to anyone    vi...
Internet   Advantages       Unlimited information       Free unrestricted access       Better communication       Inc...
How the Internet Works Transport control protocol (TCP)   A protocol that operates at the transport layer and is used   ...
Internet Service Providers    Any company that provides individuals or companies with     access to the Internet    Thou...
The World Wide Web   World Wide Web       A collection of tens of thousands of independently-owned        computers that...
Internet, Intranet, and Extranet Network                           Typical                Type of Type           Users    ...
Electronic commerce   Is a set of technologies, applications, and business    processes that link business, consumers, an...
   With the birth of dot-com sites such as Expedia.com,    Priceline.com, and Travelocity.com the hospitality    industry...
eTourism                            Business                            • Management                            • Marketin...
Electronic Commerce and the trade cycle
Benefits to Buyers    Convenient    Easy and private    Greater product access and selection    Offers comparative inf...
Benefits to Sellers    Builds customer relationships    Reduces costs    Quick and efficient    Reduces communication ...
E-Commerce Domains   B2C (business to consumer)   B2B (business to business)   C2B (consumer to business)   C2C (consu...
E- commerce in tourism   Web marketing   24*7 customer support   Online selling       Tickets       Hotels       Car...
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  1. 1. UNIT 3Network & E – Commerce
  2. 2. Networks A network can be defined as two or more computers connected together in such a way that they can share resources. The purpose of a network is to share resources. A network is simply a collection of computers or other hardware devices that are connected together, either physically or logically, using special hardware and software, to allow them to exchange information and cooperate. Networking is the term that describes the processes involved in designing, implementing, upgrading, managing and otherwise working with networks and network technologies.
  3. 3. Why networking? Sharing information Sharing hardware or software Sharing an Internet Connection Centralize administration and support
  4. 4. Computer Network Uses of Computer NetworkCompanies People Social IssuesResource Sharing Access to remote News-groups informationGeography Person To Person Bulletin Boards communication & e- mailHigh reliability: Interactivereplication EntertainmentSaving money on the flowClient-server modelScalability: Ability toincrease systemperformance graduallyas the workload grows.
  5. 5. Advantages of networking Connectivity and Communication Data Sharing Hardware Sharing Internet Access Internet Access Sharing Data Security and Management Performance Enhancement and Balancing Entertainment
  6. 6. Disadvantages Network Hardware, Software and Setup Costs Hardware and Software Management and Administration Costs Undesirable Sharing Illegal or Undesirable Behavior Data Security Concerns
  7. 7. Network Classifications Based on network size:  LAN  WAN  MAN Based on transmission media:  Wired (UTP, coaxial cables, fiber-optic cables)  Wireless Based on management method:  Peer-to-peer  Client/Server
  8. 8. Network Size Local Area Networks (LANs) Wide Area Networks (WANs) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
  9. 9. LAN A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or group of buildings Limited by no. of computers and distance covered Usually one kind of technology throughout the LAN Serve a department within an organization
  10. 10. WAN Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries). The largest and most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet. WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together, so that users and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations
  11. 11. MAN A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN). The term is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network (which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network). It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks by bridging them with backbone lines. The latter usage is also sometimes referred to as a campus network.
  12. 12. Classification on the basis of management Peer to peer Client- server
  13. 13. Peer-to-Peer Networks Peer-to-peer network is also called workgroup No hierarchy among computers - all are equal No administrator responsible for the network Peer-to-peer 15
  14. 14. • Advantages of peer-to-peer networks: • Low cost • Simple to configure • User has full accessibility of the computer Disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks: • May have duplication in resources • Difficult to uphold security policy • Difficult to handle uneven loading Where peer-to-peer network is appropriate: • 10 or less users • No specialized services required • Security is not an issue • Only limited growth in the foreseeable future 16
  15. 15. Clients and Servers Network Clients (Workstation)  Computers that request network resources or services Network Servers  Computers that manage and provide network resources and services to clients  Usually have more processing power, memory and hard disk space than clients  Run Network Operating System that can manage not only data, but also users, groups, security, and applications on the network  Servers often have a more stringent requirement on its performance and reliability 17
  16. 16.  Advantages of client/server networks  Facilitate resource sharing – centrally administrate and control  Facilitate system backup and improve fault tolerance  Enhance security – only administrator can have access to Server  Support more users – difficult to achieve with peer-to- peer networks Disadvantages of client/server networks  High cost for Servers  Need expert to configure the network  Introduce a single point of failure to the system 18
  17. 17. Classification on the basis of typology Bus Ring Star Mesh
  18. 18. Network topology A topology is a way of ―laying out‖ the network. Topologies can be either physical or logical. Physical topologies describe how the cables are run. Logical topologies describe how the network messages travel
  19. 19. Bus Topology A bus is the simplest physical topology. It consists of a single cable that runs to every workstation This topology uses the least amount of cabling, but also covers the shortest amount of distance. Each computer shares the same data and address path. With a logical bus topology, messages pass through the trunk, and each workstation checks to see if the message is addressed to itself. If the address of the message matches the workstation’s address, the network adapter copies the message to the card’s on-board memory.
  20. 20. Bus topology Advantages  Simple  Low Cost  Easy to find errors Disadvantage  It is difficult to add a workstation  If any one of the cables breaks, the entire network is disrupted.  Passive topology  Congestion  Less no. of users
  21. 21. Star Topology A physical star topology branches each network device off a central device called a hub. Very easy to add a new workstation. Also, if any workstation goes down it does not affect the entire network. But if the central device goes down, the entire network goes down.
  22. 22. Star topology Advantages  Easy to install.  Prevents data collision & congestion  If one devices breakdowns, whole network is not affected Disadvantages  Star topologies are more expensive to install than bus networks  One point failure
  23. 23. Ring Topology Each computer connects to two other computers, joining them in a circle creating a unidirectional path where messages move workstation to workstation. Each entity participating in the ring reads a message, then regenerates it and hands it to its neighbor on a different network cable.
  24. 24. Ring topology Advantages  Avoids data collision  Every computer serves as a repeater to boost signals Disadvantages  Difficult to add new computers  More expensive  If one computer fails, whole network fails
  25. 25. Mesh topology (cont.) The mesh topology is the simplest logical topology in terms of data flow, but it is the most complex in terms of physical design. Each device is connected to every other device This topology is rarely found in LANs, mainly because of the complexity of the cabling. If there are x computers, there will be (x × (x–1)) ÷ 2 cables in the network. For example, if you have five computers in a mesh network, it will use 5 × (5 – 1) ÷ 2, which equals 10 cables. This complexity is compounded when you add another workstation.
  26. 26. Mesh topology
  27. 27. Mesh topology Advantages  High fault tolerance  There will always be a way of getting the data from source to destination. Disadvantages  Very expensive to install and maintain.  Becomes inefficient with five or more entities.
  28. 28. Advantages and Disadvantages ofNetwork Topologies Topology Advantages Disadvantages Bus Cheap. Easy to install. Difficult to reconfigure. Break in bus disables entire network. Star Cheap. Easy to install. More expensive than bus. Easy to reconfigure. Fault tolerant. Ring Efficient. Easy to install. Reconfiguration difficult. Very expensive. Mesh Simplest. Most fault tolerant. Reconfiguration extremely difficult. Extremely expensive. Very complex.
  29. 29. Based on Transmission Two main categories:  Guided ― wires, cables  Unguided ― wireless transmission, e.g. radio, microwave, infrared, sound, sonar Guided media  Twisted-Pair cables:  Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cables  Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cables  Coaxial cables  Fiber-optic cables
  30. 30. Twisted-Pair Cables Twisted pair cabling is a form of wiring in which two conductors are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources If the pair of wires are not twisted, electromagnetic noises from, e.g., motors, will affect the closer wire more than the further one, thereby causing errors The least expensive media Capable of handling up to 100 Mbps
  31. 31. Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is the most popular The quality of UTP may vary from telephone-grade wire to extremely high-speed cable. Each pair is twisted with a different number of twists per inch to help eliminate interference from adjacent pairs and other electrical devices. The tighter the twisting, the higher the supported transmission rate and the greater the cost per foot. It is the least expensive cable but may be susceptible to radio and electrical frequency interference
  32. 32. Insulator Metal
  33. 33. Categories of UTP CablesEIA classifies UTP cables according to the quality: Category 1 ― the lowest quality, only good for voice, mainly found in very old buildings, not recommended now Category 2 ― good for voice and low data rates (up to 4Mbps for low-speed token ring networks) Category 3 ― at least 3 twists per foot, for up to 10 Mbps (common in phone networks in residential buildings) Category 4 ― up to 16 Mbps (mainly for token rings) Category 5 (or 5e) ― up to 100 Mbps (common for networks targeted for high-speed data communications)
  34. 34. Shielded Twisted Pair cable If you cable is placed in environments with lots of potential interference shielded twisted pair is the solution. Shielded cables can also help to extend the maximum distance of the cables. STP cabling includes metal shielding over each individual pair of copper wires. This type of shielding protects cable from external EMI (electromagnetic interferences).
  35. 35. Coaxial Cables Coaxial cabling has a single copper conductor at its center. A plastic layer provides insulation between the center conductor and a braided metal shield The metal shield helps to block any outside interference from fluorescent lights, motors, and other computers.
  36. 36.  Although coaxial cabling is difficult to install, it is highly resistant to signal interference. It can support greater cable lengths between network devices than twisted pair cable. The two types of coaxial cabling are  Thin coaxial cable is also referred to as thinnet. (10Base2)  Thick coaxial cable is also referred to as thicknet. (10Base5) In general, coaxial cables, or coax, carry signals of higher freq (100KHz–500MHz) than UTP cables Outer metallic wrapping serves both as a shield against noise and as the second conductor that completes the circuit
  37. 37. Fiber-Optic Cables Light travels at 3 108 ms-1 in free space and is the fastest possible speed in the Universe Light slows down in denser media, e.g. glass Refraction occurs at interface, with light bending away from the normal when it enters a less dense medium Beyond the critical angle total internal reflection
  38. 38.  Fiber optic cabling consists of a center glass core surrounded by several layers of protective materials. It transmits light rather than electronic signals eliminating the problem of electrical interference. This makes it ideal for certain environments that contain a large amount of electrical interference. It has also made it the standard for connecting networks between buildings, due to its immunity to the effects of moisture and lighting. Fiber optic cable has the ability to transmit signals over much longer distances than coaxial and twisted pair. It also has the capability to carry information at vastly greater speeds. 42
  39. 39.  This capacity broadens communication possibilities to include services such as video conferencing and interactive services. The cost of fiber optic cabling is comparable to copper cabling; however, it is more difficult to install and modify. The center core of fiber cables is made from glass or plastic fibers A plastic coating then cushions the fiber center, and kevlar fibers help to strengthen the cables and prevent breakage. The outer insulating jacket made of teflon or PVC. There are two common types of fiber cables -- single mode and multimode. Multimode cable has a larger diameter; however, both cables provide high bandwidth at high speeds. Single mode can provide more distance, but it is more expensive.
  40. 40.  Advantages of Optical Fiber:  Noise immunity: RFI and EMI immune (RFI - Radio Frequency Interference, EMI -Electromagnetic Interference)  Security: cannot tap into cable.  Large Capacity due to BW (bandwidth)  No corrosion  Longer distances than copper wire  Smaller and lighter than copper wire  Faster transmission rate Disadvantages of optical fiber:  Physical vibration will show up as signal noise!  Limited physical arc of cable. Bend it too much and it will break!  Difficult to splice
  41. 41. Transmissionmedium Total data rate Bandwidth RepeaterspacingTwisted pair 4 Mbps 3 MHz 2 to 10 kmCoaxial Cable 500 Mbps 350 MHz 1 to10 kmOptical fiber 2 Gbps 2 GHz 10 to 100 km
  42. 42. Electromagnetic spectrum for telecommunicationsFrequenc 2 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 1010 1011 1012 1013y (hertz) 10 1014 ELF 1015 VF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF Power and Radio Microwave Infrared visible telephone Rotating Radios and Radar Lasers light generators televisions Microwave guided Musical Electronic tubes antennas missiles instruments Integrated circuits Magnetrons Rangefinders Voice microphone Twisted Pair Coaxial optical Cable fiber AM Radio FM Terrestrial Radio and and TV Satellite Transmissio 10 6 105 104 103 102 101 100 n 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5Wavelength inspace (meters) -6 10
  43. 43. Unguided transmission media Unguided transmission media is data signals that flow through the air. They are not guided or bound to a channel to follow. Types  Radio waves  Microwave  Satellite
  44. 44. RF Propagation Ground wave propagation follows the curvature of the Earth. Ground waves have carrier frequencies up to 2 MHz. AM radio is an example of ground wave propagation.
  45. 45. RF Propagation Ionospheric propagation bounces off of the Earths ionospheric layer in the upper atmosphere. It is sometimes called double hop propagation. It operates in the frequency range of 30 - 85 MHz. Because it depends on the Earths ionosphere, it changes with the weather and time of day. The signal bounces off of the ionosphere and back to earth.
  46. 46. RF Propagation Line of sight propagation transmits exactly in the line of sight. The receive station must be in the view of the transmit station. It is limited by the curvature of the Earth for ground- based stations (100 km, from horizon to horizon). Reflected waves can cause problems. Examples of line of sight propagation are: FM radio, microwave and satellite.
  47. 47. What is data communication? Not to be confused with telecommunication—  Any process that permits the passage from a sender to one or more receivers of information of any nature, delivered in any easy to use form by any electromagnetic system. Data communication-  Defined as a subset of telecommunication involving the transmission of data to and from computers and components of computer systems.  More specifically data communication is transmitted via mediums such as wires, coaxial cables, fiber optics, or radiated electromagnetic waves such as broadcast radio, infrared light, microwaves, and satellites.
  48. 48. Features of Communication Four things required  Sender, receiver, medium, and message Types of messages  File  Request  Response  Status  Control  Correspondence
  49. 49. Simplified Communications Model -Diagram
  50. 50. Business Data Communication Applications Major data communication applications include:  E-mail  Groupware  Knowledge management systems  E-commerce and e-business applications  Wireless applications
  51. 51. Moving Bits through the Network A n a lo g S ig n a l 1 0 D ig ita l S ig n a l 1 1 1 0 0 0 digital analog digital C om puter M odem M odem C om puter telephone lines
  52. 52. Direction of Data Flow Simplex Half Duplex  Duplex (or Full duplex)
  53. 53. Intranet A network based on TCP/IP protocols belonging to an organization, usually a corporation, accessible only by the organizations members, employees, or others with authorization. Intranet is a private extension of the Internet, but the firewall surrounding an intranet fends off unauthorized access. Used to securely share organizations information within that organization. Organizations internal website, therefore it is not exposed to the general public and is accessed only by authorized persons
  54. 54.  Secure intranets are now the fastest-growing segment of the Internet because they are much less expensive to build and manage than private networks based on proprietary protocols Advantages  Reduce printing, paper costs  the computers and servers can communicate much faster than they could over the internet-  Useful for sharing information throughout an organization while still keeping it private. Disadvantages  It is an evolving technology that requires upgrades and could have software incompatibility problems-  Security features can be inadequate  Maintaining content can be time consuming 
  55. 55. Functions of intranet Knowledge sharing Collaboration Publishing: E,g, homepages, newsletters, documents, employee directories. Searching: The intranet can integrate different search functions, e.g. through a search engine or using a system of categorization. Transacting: Allows user to make transactions with other web/intranet homepages. Interacting: Collaborative applications and other groupware, expert finders, directories, etc. Recording: It can be used as a storage medium for such elements as procedures, best practices, and FAQs
  56. 56. Extranet An intranet that is partially accessible to authorized outsiders. An extranet provides various levels of accessibility to outsiders. You can access an extranet only if you have a valid username and password, and your identity determines which parts of the extranet you can view. Extranets are becoming a very popular means for business partners to exchange information. An extranet implies an ―extended intranet‖, which uses TCP/IP protocol networks (like the Internet) to link intranets in different locations. Extranet transmissions are conducted over the Internet to save money.
  57. 57. The Extranet (cont.) Extranet Suppliers Intranet VPN FirewallDistributors VPN Tunneling Internet Intranet VPNCustomers Firewall 64
  58. 58. Functions of Extranet Enhanced Communications  Improved internal communications  Improved business partnership channels  Effective marketing, sales, and customer support  Collaborative activities support Productivity Enhancements  Just-in-time (JIT) information delivery  Productive collaboration between workgroups  Training on demand
  59. 59.  Business Enhancements  Faster time to market  Simultaneous engineering potential  Lower design and production costs  Improved client relationships  New business opportunities. Cost Reduction  Reduced errors  Improved comparison shopping  Reduced travel and meetings expenses  Reduced administrative and operational costs  Elimination of paper publishing costs
  60. 60.  Information Delivery  Low-cost publishing  Leveraging of legacy systems  Standard delivery systems  Ease of implementation and maintenance  Elimination of paper publishing and mailing costs
  61. 61. Internet The Internet is a public and global communication network that provides direct connectivity to anyone via a Local Area Network (LAN) and an Internet Service provider (ISP). It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. Access to the Internet is not restricted to anyone. Wide and unlimited scope
  62. 62. Internet Advantages  Unlimited information  Free unrestricted access  Better communication  Increased productivity Disadvantages  This lack of control may result in an information overload.  Due to its vast scope and openness, the information is difficult to locate.  Users need effective and efficient search engines to navigate the sea of information .  There is no centralized control of network and information.  Cyber Crimes
  63. 63. How the Internet Works Transport control protocol (TCP)  A protocol that operates at the transport layer and is used in combination with IP by most Internet applications Backbone  An Internet high-speed, long distance communications links (like a bus; wire that connects nodes) Uniform resource locator (URL)  An assigned address on the Internet for each computer  E.g., http://www.yorku.ca/
  64. 64. Internet Service Providers  Any company that provides individuals or companies with access to the Internet  Thousands of providers including large communications companies  Need an account with the ISP and software that links with TCP/IP
  65. 65. The World Wide Web World Wide Web  A collection of tens of thousands of independently-owned computers that work together as one in an Internet service WWW terminologies  Home page  The cover page for a Web site that has graphics, titles, coloured text, etc.  Hypermedia  Tools that connect the data on Web pages, allowing users to access topics in whatever order they wish  Hypertext markup language (HTML)  The standard page description language for Web pages  Web browser  Software that creates a unique hypermedia-based menu on your computer screen and provides a graphical interface to the Web  Web page  A screen of information sent to a requesting user and presented through a browser
  66. 66. Internet, Intranet, and Extranet Network Typical Type of Type Users Access Information Internet Any individual with Unlimited, publi General, public dial-up access or c; no and advertisement LAN restrictions Intranet Authorized Private and Specific, corporate and employees ONLY restricted proprietary Extranet Authorized groups Private and Shared in authorized from collaborating outside collaborating group companies authorized partners
  67. 67. Electronic commerce Is a set of technologies, applications, and business processes that link business, consumers, and communities. For buying, selling, and delivering products and services For integrating and optimizing processes within and between businesses. It is a general concept covering any form of business transaction or information exchange executed using information and communication technologies (ICT’s) It includes electronic trading of goods, services and electronic material. It takes place between companies, between companies and their customers, or between companies and public administrations.
  68. 68.  With the birth of dot-com sites such as Expedia.com, Priceline.com, and Travelocity.com the hospitality industry has had to change how they do business. Technology has been useful in assisting companies in understanding their customers and potential customers on an individual level and developing marketing to their specific wants.
  69. 69. eTourism Business • Management • Marketing • Finance eTouris m IT Tourism • IT tools and • Accessibility technologies • Accommodation • Hardwares • Attractions • Softwares • Ancillary Services
  70. 70. Electronic Commerce and the trade cycle
  71. 71. Benefits to Buyers  Convenient  Easy and private  Greater product access and selection  Offers comparative information  Immediate and interactive  Unlimited choices
  72. 72. Benefits to Sellers  Builds customer relationships  Reduces costs  Quick and efficient  Reduces communication costs  24*7 presence  Common platform  Ease of entry
  73. 73. E-Commerce Domains B2C (business to consumer) B2B (business to business) C2B (consumer to business) C2C (consumer to consumer)
  74. 74. E- commerce in tourism Web marketing 24*7 customer support Online selling  Tickets  Hotels  Car rentals Electronic fund transfer Types  eAirlines  eHotels  eTouroperators  eDestinations

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