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IP Signal Distribution

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Dante, AVB/TSN, and CobraNet: An Introduction and Comparison

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IP Signal Distribution

  1. 1. IP SIGNAL DISTRIBUTION Dante, AVB/TSN, and CobraNet: An Introduction and Comparison Rob Ziv, Business Development Manager, Almo Pro AV
  2. 2. Agenda • Networking Basics • Technical and Capabilities Overview – AVB/TSN – CobraNet – Dante • Which one when? – Hint: It’s not about the standard or the protocol. They are just a means to an end. Most of the time, any of the options, when properly configured will do the job.
  3. 3. Target Audience: • Totally new to AV over IT? This may help. • If you have worked with any of the popular protocols, your time is better spent in other sessions
  4. 4. Who is this guy? • Business Development Manager, Almo Pro AV • In-house technical resource (one of many) • Here for you as a value add • Recording Engineer • Audio Instructor, Director of Education, SME, System Designer • Almost enough networking to be dangerous
  5. 5. Show of hands…. Who here has worked with what protocols?
  6. 6. Why audio networking Old Way • Everything Point-to-Point or through matrix switch • Individual terminations on every signal path • Heavy multi-core snakes • Reconfiguration and growth not very flexible • Signal degradation with distance • Minimal distribution-related latency Audio Networking • One RJ45 and CAT5 cable for dozens of signal paths • Minimal terminations • One Cat5e / Cat 6 • End points at any network drop & Soft routing • Minimal signal loss with distance • Potential distribution related latency
  7. 7. Networking Basics The OSI Model as a Guide [International Standards Organization Open Systems Interconnection Model]
  8. 8. The OSI Model • Describe what happens in a network • Broken down in to 7 “layers” • Passes down from 7 through 1 & back up • AV over IT methods vary in application of OSI model Host 7 Application i.e. (Outlook) 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport Media 3 Network Routers 2 Data Switches 1 Physical Cat5e Cables, Rj-45 Connectors
  9. 9. Physical Layer • Cables & Connections • Moving bits from place to place • Hubs - all data to all ports, created collisions Host 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport Media 3 Network 2 Data 1 Physical Moving Data Cables, Connectors, Hubs, “Bits”
  10. 10. Data Layer • Reliable point-to-point data connection without collisions • Switches – A little “smarter” than a hub • Data routed to each port as needed based on unique Media Access Control (MAC) Address • Long list of addresses with local devices Host 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport Media 3 Network 2 Data Avoid Collisions Switches: MAC Address 1 Physical Moving Data Cables, Connectors, Hubs, “Bits”
  11. 11. Data Layer (cont.) • Switch – Can’t separate the network into smaller pieces • VLANs - Group Physical ports on a switch so they only see each other. – One way to isolate data on the network. – Common in CobraNet and earlier AV networking protocols • Frame – contains MAC address, payload data, etc Host 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport Media 3 Network 2 Data Avoid Collisions Switches: MAC Address, “Frames” 1 Physical Moving Data Cables, Connectors, Hubs, “Bits”
  12. 12. Layer 3 - Network Layer • Method to divide network into smaller networks (subnets) • Connect networks into larger network (your business network to the Internet) • One method to keep data of different types separate for efficiency or security Host 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport Media 3 Network Connects Subnets Routers: 2 Data Avoid Collisions Switches: Frames, MAC 1 Physical Moving Data Cables, Connectors, Hubs, “Bits”
  13. 13. Layer 3 - Network Layer (IP) • Allows us to connect across subnets • IP Address: 192.168.1.15 • IP: Internet Protocol • Subnet Mask • Network #, Subnet #, Device Number (Host Number) Host 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport Media 3 Network Connects Subnets Routers: IP 2 Data Avoid Collisions Switches: Frames, MAC 1 Physical Moving Data Cables, Connectors, Hubs, “Bits”
  14. 14. Layer 3 - Network Layer (Packets) • {Packets [Frames (MAC address, Payload)]} • Source IP Address, Destination Address, DiffServ (Priority info), etc. Host 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport Media 3 Network Connects Subnets Routers: Packets, IP, “Packets” 2 Data Avoid Collisions Switches: Frames, MAC 1 Physical Moving Data Cables, Connectors, Hubs, “Bits”
  15. 15. Layer 4 – Transport Layer • Connection, Data Order, Reliability, Flow Control, Multiplexing • [Soft] Port Numbers – local routings within a single device or IP address • Multiple IP protocols – TCP – Transport Control Protocol – UDP – User Datagram Protocol Host 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport Reliability TCP / UDP, “Segments” Media 3 Network Connects Subnets Routers: Packets, IP, “Packets” 2 Data Avoid Collisions Switches: Frames, MAC 1 Physical Moving Data Cables, Connectors, Hubs, “Bits”
  16. 16. Layer 4 – Transport Layer (TCP vs. UDP) TCP – Transport Control Protocol • Reliable – every data packet is acknowledged as it is received • Useful when 100% accuracy is required over unmanaged network such as the pubic Internet • Acknowledgement increases bandwidth consumption and latency Host 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport Reliability TCP / UDP, “Segments” Media 3 Network Connects Subnets Routers: Packets, IP, “Packets” 2 Data Avoid Collisions Switches: Frames, MAC 1 Physical Moving Data Cables, Connectors, Hubs, “Bits”
  17. 17. Layer 4 – Transport Layer (TCP vs.UDP) UDP – User Datagram Protocol • No confirmation of delivery – so less header info than TCP • When urgency is more important accuracy (i.e. Real-time voice & video) • Disadvantage on unreliable network Host 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport Reliability TCP / UDP, “Segments” Media 3 Network Connects Subnets Routers: Packets, IP, “Packets” 2 Data Avoid Collisions Switches: Frames, MAC 1 Physical Moving Data Cables, Connectors, Hubs, “Bits”
  18. 18. Layers 5 - 7 • Mostly software and application related • Data moves down through the layers on the way out & back up on the way in • Sometimes functions between layers not clear • OSI model gives us a way to think about and describe the process Host 7 Application What we interface with (i.e. email, etc) 6 Presentation Conversion for Application (i.e. compression, encryption) 5 Session Establish Connections between hosts 4 Transport Reliability TCP / UDP, “Segments” Media 3 Network Connects Subnets Routers: Packets, IP, “Packets” 2 Data Avoid Collisions Switches: Frames, MAC 1 Physical Moving Data Cables, Connectors, Hubs, “Bits”
  19. 19. Ethernet Timing & Priority Standards • All audio over Ethernet protocols require Priority, Sequence, & Sync • Differentiated Services / Quality of Service (DiffServ, QoS) – Priority by data type (Clock Sync and Audio Packets over Email) – Traffic prioritized based upon tags in IP Header (Layer 3) – Priority number assigned by manage switch to each packet • Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) – Keeps data sequenced in the right order – Time stamp on UDP header – Works with RTCP (Real Time Control Protocol) for QoS and Sync – Variation: RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol) works on TCP and not UDP – Does not reserve resources or provide for quality of service • Precision Timing Protocol (PTP) – IEEE 1588 – Sub-microsecond accuracy to synchronize subnets – Layer 2 - Switches provide hardware-based time stamping
  20. 20. AVB / TSN “It’s not a protocol, it’s a standard”
  21. 21. Audio Video Bridging / Time Sensitive Networking • 2012+ • Proponent: AVnu Alliance… – Interoperable – precise timing – low latency requirements – open standards • Avnu Founders: Broadcom, Cisco, Harman, Intel, and Xilinx • 50+ current Members • Collection of IEEE Layer 2 standards
  22. 22. Standards vs. Protocols (Unofficial) • Standards: – Agreed upon underlying technologies – that allow things to work – i.e. Ethernet • Protocols: – A methodology – May utilize standards to accomplish a function – Requires standards to function with other technologies – i.e. Email
  23. 23. AVB / TSN – The Standard • IEEE looked at the various standards to make sure Audio and Video can go across a network and pulled them together into one standard • Does not require a dedicated network – AVB by definition is part of the network – The media portion is prioritized over other traffic as part of this definition – If anything, the audio will not suffer from other traffic, but non-media will not get the same priority • Requires AVB certified switch(es) • Will not pass on non-certified switches
  24. 24. AVB - Stream Reservations • Stream Reservations for AV held by the switch • Switch reserves up to 75% of bandwidth for media • Queue in the switch to hold non-AVB signals and prioritize AVB over DiffServ • Guaranteed synch (<0.5ms, 1 Gigabit) • Simplification - Enable AVB switch command
  25. 25. AVB – Setup & Media Compatibility • Can run other data on same network. • Can control amount of the bandwidth allocated to AVB • Don’t need to set up QoS on the switch – Saves time – “Enable AVB”. • No VLANs to setup • Changes not in real time / not a real time switch – Takes a few seconds for switch to setup path through the network so not real time switch
  26. 26. AVB • Up to 192K / 32 Bit Floating Point • Multiple Simultaneous Sample Rates • Channels: Reports vary by mfg – 400-512+ – Different devices support different channel counts • Latency 2ms up to 7 hops – some run less • “Perfect Audio & Video Sync” • Supports video, control, and any other payload data across the same network and within AVB/TSN
  27. 27. CobraNet “Tried & True…”
  28. 28. CobraNet Background • 1996 by Peak Audio • 1997 Super Bowl Halftime Show & Disney’s Animal Kingdom • Now owned by Cirrus Logic • Combination of software, hardware and network protocol • Layer 2 Protocol compatible with standard network infrastructure
  29. 29. CobraNet Audio • Up to 64 channels in and 64 channels out • Up to 96kHz / 24 Bit • Must match across system • Audio grouped in 8 channel bundles • Less at 24 bit • Channel count expandable by VLAN
  30. 30. CobraNet Timing • Latency is fixed & applies to the entire system • Latency: 1.33mS, 2.66mS, or 5.33mS • User definable • Lower latency yields lower channel counts • + AD/DA & DSP Latency ≈ 10ms • Clock accuracy: 10µs for channels originating on the same switch • Longer for devices connected to different switches • “Conductor” [Master Clock]sends out “Beat packet” for entire system
  31. 31. CobraNet Networking • Dedicated network not required • Dedicated network recommended • VLAN’s an option to segment traffic • Pops, clicks, or dropouts • Bandwidth use up to capacity of the switch
  32. 32. • Many CobraNet (and Dante) devices offer Primary and Secondary ports • For redundancy, not to daisy chain off ports • For automatic cutover in case of network failure CobraNet Redundancy
  33. 33. • Network & System Design Tools • Network Design Support – http://www.cobranet.info/support/design CobraCad
  34. 34. • Monitoring, Troubleshooting, Maintenance Discovery Utility “Disco”
  35. 35. “The new kid, that’s not so new”
  36. 36. Dante - Background • 2003 Former team from Motorola starts Audinate • March 2015: Passed 200 Manufactures – 6 months after passing 150 – 20 Million Dante Network Channels – 50% shipped in last 12 months • Wide adoption & major events • Pope Francis, Paul McCartney, Bruce Springsteen, Elton John, Bob Dylan, Kenny Chesney, Foo Fighters, The Killers, etc
  37. 37. Dante Networking • Proprietary system of software & hardware • Licensed technology for use on standard networks • OSI Layer 3 • Standard Switch OK – Managed switch preferred – Will work with AVB switches • Dedicated Network: No • Cat5e if only 100Mbs / Cat6 recommended on gigabit networks • Keep some bandwidth headroom – Up to 70% of usable bandwidth for Dante
  38. 38. Dante – Basic Audio • Supported Channel Count: 1024 (512/512) • Can route individually (Bundles not required) • 192K / 32Bit • Supports Multiple Simultaneous sample rates – Must match between “subscriptions” – Subscriptions are signal routings from outputs of one device to inputs on another • Label-based routing
  39. 39. Dante Controller – Routing
  40. 40. Dante Networking (cont.) • OSI Layer 3 • DHCP to automatically assign IP addresses • Plug & Play device discovery • UDP / IP for speed • DiffServ QoS – Priority by data type – Priority number assigned to each packet at managed switch
  41. 41. Dante Controller – Network Status
  42. 42. Dante Controller – Device Info
  43. 43. Dante – Latency • Latency: <0.15ms – 5ms • User adjustable & constant • Set in Dante Controller • Based on network size • Set at receiver • Negotiation between rcvr & xmtr to ensure high enough
  44. 44. • Dante Virtual Soundcard – Provides routing from individual channels within internal applications – ProTools, Cubase, etc • Dante Via – Allows a standard Apple Mac or Windows PC to function as a Dante device – No Dante enabled hardware required Other Dante Software
  45. 45. • Some Dante (and many CobraNet) devices offer Primary and Secondary ports • For redundancy, not to daisy chain off ports • For automatic cutover in case of network failure Dante Network Redundancy
  46. 46. AES67 & Other Players • AES67 – A standard for standards… – Get DiffServ standards to function together – May lose advanced functionality • HQ Net – HARMAN Pro – Control Only • EtherSound • QLAN / QSYS – QSC Only • ANET – AVIOM • ROCKETNET • RAVENNA • H.264
  47. 47. Dante with AVB & AES67 • Dante / Audinate uses DiffServ • Audinate is a member of Avnu Alliance (AVB) – Will also make available compatibility to AVB • AES67 – Unifies DiffServ family of protocols according to commonalities • Compatible with AES67 & AVB • Bridging between protocols can exist and bridge within a device
  48. 48. Summary Highlights AVB / TSN (Audio Video Bridging) • Rapid Adoption Growing • Plug & Play • Existing networks • 1-5ms Latency • Name Based Routing • Common Control Application • Network Setup may take time for QoS • Adoption in flux • Plug & Play implementations • Standard. Implementation will vary • Easy network setup • Excellent sync & Low latency • 192K / 32 bit floating point • 2ms Latency • Requires certified switch • Control & Config per mfg •Tried and true • Adoption Waning •Not Suggested with other network traffic • One sample rate per system • 8 Channel Bundles
  49. 49. Conclusion: It’s not about the network… • The protocols themselves don’t matter as much as what they allow you to do with the equipment connected to them • While Dante, AVB, and CobraNet all have strength and limitations, they are each flexible enough to meet audio most demands • Starting with the protocol and working up to the rest of the system is backwards – Customer Requirements → Specifications → Design Options → Audio Devices & Selection of Network – “I only work with equipment that has XLR connections…TRS and Euroblock are not as good.” (Not the best analogy, but you get the idea.)
  50. 50. Additional Considerations AVB / TSN (Audio Video Bridging) Need to run on existing network Are able to upgrade network to AVB/ TSN certified switches If CobraNet is already in place
  51. 51. QUESTIONS? Rob Ziv Business Development Manager, Almo Pro AV

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