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Adapting the Lean Enterprise Self-Assessment Tool for Software Development Domain


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Presentation held at Euromicro 2012 SEAA (Izmir/Cesme Turkey) )conference for paper titled: Adapting the Lean Enterprise Self-assessment tool for software domain.

Lean principles have attracted the attention of software development companies due to their potential to improve competitiveness. However, the application of such principles in the software domain is still in its infancy. This paper presents a proposal for adapting the Lean Enterprise Self-Assessment Tool (LESAT) to guide the transformation of software development companies toward Lean. LESAT, developed by the Lean Advancement Initiative (LAI) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), has been widely used in other domains. In this study, concepts and expressions of LESAT were analyzed and mapped to software development following the ISO/IEC 12207 standard. Seven assessment items concerning life-cycle processes were modified from the original LESAT. The modified LESAT for software was compared with a lean assessment approach called "Lean amplifier, " which has been developed and successfully used in practice by Ericsson R&D in Finland. The results indicated that LESAT may complement lean assessment in the software domain at enterprise level, involving the entire value stream. Moreover, they clearly emphasized the role of leadership in the transformation.

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Adapting the Lean Enterprise Self-Assessment Tool for Software Development Domain

  1. 1. Adapting the Lean Enterprise Self-Assessment Tool for Software Development Domain Authors: Teemu Karvonen, Pilar Rodriguez, Pasi Kuvaja, Kirsi Mikkonen, Markku Oivo Presentation @ SEAA 2012 38th Euromicro Conference 5.9.2012 Cesme, Izmir, Turkey Teemu Karvonen (University of Oulu, Finland) & Kirsi Mikkonen (Ericsson R&D Center, Finland)
  2. 2. Presentation contents1. Paper presentation (Teemu Karvonen) Introduction to topic What is Lean Enterprise Self Assessment Tool (LESAT)? Adaptation of LESAT for Software Development i.e. What we have done?2. Lean reality, experiences from Ericsson Finland R&D (Kirsi Mikkonen) Lean transformation in Ericsson How LESAT is applied in Ericsson3. Q&A
  3. 3. Introduction: Lean paradigm Shift From Mass-production to Lean-production
  4. 4. Lean principlesPRINCIPLES OF LEAN1. Specify value from the standpoint of the endcustomer by product family.2. Identify all the steps in the value stream for eachproduct family, eliminating whenever possiblethose steps that do not create value3. Make the value-creating steps occur in tightsequence so the product will flow smoothly towardthe customer.4. As flow is introduced, let customers pull valuefrom the next upstream activity.5. As value is specified, value streams areidentified, wasted steps are removed, and flowand pull are introduced, begin the process againand continue it until a state of perfection isreached in which perfect value is created with no Source:
  5. 5. Lean Software Development Build Quality InRespect People Eliminate waste Deliver fast Defer Commitment Create Knowledge Optimize the Whole
  6. 6. Lean Enterprise Transformation
  7. 7. Lean Enterprise Transformation Lean highlights the importance of considering the whole enterprise in thetransformation. Thus, a lean enterprise uses lean not just in some areas but in everything it does
  8. 8. Lean Enterprise Transformation Is related to organizational change. “the process by which organizations move from theirpresent state to some desired future state to increase their effectiveness” Jones (2004)
  9. 9. Lean Enterprise Transformation Why do many lean transformation efforts fail? What are the key success factors in implementing lean enterprise-wide? How can we better assure that lean will impact bottom line results? Are there certain transformation activities that are logically performed before others? What is the role of senior leadership in assuring success?
  10. 10. Assessment(s) and transformation In many cases enterprise transformation is cyclic process, where assessments produce important data and input for corrective actions for new cycle “At intervals, lean assessments are useful to get a picturehow lean transformation is progressing. From time to time it is vital to check if corrective actions are needed, major or minor ones.” (Kuusela & Koivuluoma, 2011)
  11. 11. Lean assessment in software domain
  12. 12. Lean Enterprise Self-Assessment ToolLean Advancement Initiative Aerospace industry (LAI Consortium members)
  13. 13. Seven Principles of Lean Enterprise ThinkingBased on both practical observation and rigorous research, LAI researchershave developed seven principles of a successful lean enterprisetransformation Adopt a holistic approach to enterprise transformation Identify relevant stakeholders and determine their value propositions Focus on enterprise effectiveness before efficiency Address internal and external enterprise interdependencies Ensure stability and flow within and across the enterprise Cultivate leadership to support and drive enterprise behaviors Emphasize organizational learning
  14. 14. More LAI products at:
  15. 15. LESAT Adaptation for softwaredevelopment domainConceptual space Real space Review prior research,  Evaluate LESAT for Software literature etc. utility in real world (Only tool comparison, no Translate LESAT’s empirical evaluation yet) conceptual architecture, principles, and practices in to software context. Deeper LESAT for Software understanding of (proposal) Lean in SW domain
  16. 16. for software development - 7 modified assessment items - Mappings to ISO/IEC 12207 - Additional remarks for agile and lean development Adaptation: 1. Review of LESAT language, concepts and processes2. Mapping of lean practices and processes to software domain: LEAN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT Poppendieck etc… Agile methods Scrum etc… ISO/IEC 12207 Standard - Software lifecycle processes
  17. 17. LESAT for Software Adaptationsummary LESAT for Software-documents 7 from all 54 practices were modified, all changes in Life-cycle processes section 87% of lean practices could be remained similar to original LESAT i.e. language and terminology compatible with “Software domain language” Mappings to ISO/IEC 12207 processes Additional remarks/mapping to Lean & Agile SW development Summary sheet(s)
  18. 18. LESAT For SoftwareDemonstration LEAN ENTERPRISE SELF‐ ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR SOFTWARE DOMAIN LESAT FOR SOFTWARE V. 0.73 4.12.2011 Teemu Karvonen ( Available for download: LESAT for Software: LESAT for Software summary sheets for assessment:
  19. 19. Reality Check / Evaluation for software development- 7 modified assessment items- Mappings to ISO/IEC 12207- Additional remarks for agile Ericsson Lean Amplifier and lean development AGILE & LEAN SURVEY SOFTWARE ENTERPRISE
  20. 20. Using LESAT for SW in practiceEricsson Lean transformation since 2008  Utilizing LESAT organization level statements to facilitate lean transformation in software enterprise  Focus on enterprise level value stream  Continuous improvement at organization level  Method used:  Self learning through Team discussion  Participants empowered to initiate further actions  Resulting in new thinking:  Lifts focus from team to organization level challenges  Larger benefits to focus on end-to-end flow
  21. 21. Conclusion LESAT for Software can complement current assessment tool portfolio in software domain Contains enterprise level, value stream view in Lean adoption / lean transformation Compatibility with other LAI based models and tools (MIT approach for lean transformation)
  22. 22. Thank You! Questions?
  23. 23. Additional materialComparison results
  24. 24. Ideas for future research Field testing  Empirical evaluation of tool in software industry  Extend knowledge about lean transformation characteristics in software industry LESAT version 2.0 sync & update (new version release made available 2012 by LAI)
  25. 25. Comparison (overview) LESAT Ericsson Lean Amplifier for software development AGILE & LEAN SURVEY30 30 2525 2020 1515 1010 5 0 5 0 Lean transformation / Lifecycle Enabling infrastructure leadership 54 assessment items in three main sections 167 assessment items in 8 main sections by by process areas process areas
  26. 26. Comparison (Lean principles) LESAT Ericsson Lean Amplifier for software development AGILE & LEAN SURVEY Womack & Jones (1996) Lean Principles:18.00% 45.00%16.00% 40.00%14.00% 35.00%12.00% 30.00%10.00% 25.00% 8.00% 20.00% 6.00% 15.00% 4.00% 10.00% 2.00% 5.00% 0.00% 0.00% Value Value Flow Pull Perfection Value Value Flow Pull Perfection stream stream
  27. 27. Comparison (Lean principles) LESAT Ericsson Lean Amplifier for software development AGILE & LEAN SURVEY Poppendieck’s (2006) Lean Software Development Principles: 20.00%30.00% 18.00%25.00% 16.00% 14.00%20.00% 12.00%15.00% 10.00% 8.00%10.00% 6.00% 5.00% 4.00% 2.00% 0.00% 0.00%