Bone tumor<br />University  of duhok/ Kurdistan <br />College  of  nursing <br />Prepared By students:<br />1.Raveen Ismai...
My Objectives<br />Simple introduction about skeletal system <br />Definition of bone tumor<br />Bone tumor Classification...
The Skeletal System <br />The skeleton is the name given to the collection of bones that holds our body up. It does three ...
Though bone comes in several shapes and sizes the structure and composition of bone is the same in all. Bone is composed o...
<ul><li>A tumor is a lump or mass of tissue that forms when cells divide uncontrollably. A growing tumor may replace healt...
Definition<br /><ul><li>A bone tumor is an abnormal growth of cells within the bone that may be noncancerous (benign) or c...
Ennekingdescribed the most widely used staging system for (benign bone tumors )<br />    The stages are denoted by the Ara...
<ul><li>.   Stage 1-LATENT, it do not have any characteristics of         growth or progressive change, may resolve sponta...
Stage 2-ACTIVE, lesion deform the host   bone but remain   contained in bone, require intralesional curettage.
Stage 3-AGGRESSIVE , tumor extend beyond the bone, require complete work-up and a removal with wide margins to avoid possi...
<ul><li>The staging system for malignant tumor adopted by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society, and originally developed by  ...
<ul><li>Stage IAis defined as G1 and Intra-compartmental
Stage IB is G1 and extra-compartmental
Stage IIA is G2 and Intra-compartmental
Stage IIB is G2 and extra-compartmental
Stage III is G1 or G2, intra- or extra-compartmental, and has evidence of metastasis</li></ul>Stage of malignant bone tumo...
Classification<br />
<ul><li>Is a tumor which have spread from other organs ,The most common cancers that spread to the bone are cancer of the:...
<ul><li>Any Question?</li></li></ul><li>Risk factors<br />Age<br /> Combinations of radiation and chemotherapy for treatin...
Movement problems<br />Stiff bones<br />Bone lumps and masses<br />Bone tenderness<br />Anemia <br />Weight loss, Fatigue<...
<ul><li>The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often arise in areas of rapid growth
Inherited genetic mutations
Radiation
Trauma</li></ul>Causes<br />
Delayed wound healing<br />Nutritional deficiency <br />Infection<br />Hypercalcaemia<br />muscle wasting, bone weakening ...
Complications<br />8. nausea, vomiting, mouth sores, hair loss, and lowered resistance to infection from chemotherapy.<br ...
<ul><li>Blood test
Bone biopsy
Bone scan computed tomography (CT).
MRI( magnetic resonance imaging )
X-ray of bone
CT scan</li></ul>Diagnosis & Tests<br />
Bone biopsy:<br />removal of a sample of bone tissue to test for cancer cells. <br />Open Biopsy<br />Needle Biopsy<br /><...
insert a needle into the tumor to remove some tissue</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Systemic therapy
Local therapy</li></ul>Treatment<br />1.Chemotherapy<br />2. hormone therapy<br />3. Immunotherapy ex. Interferon α<br />1...
Provide foods high in protein, vitamins and folic acid.</li></li></ul><li>Hormone therapy<br />    removal of the organs w...
Radiation Therapy<br />Radiation therapy uses high-dose x-rays to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. may be given either...
Surgical Treatment<br /><ul><li>Amputation
Rotationplasty
Bone graft
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  1. 1. Bone tumor<br />University of duhok/ Kurdistan <br />College of nursing <br />Prepared By students:<br />1.Raveen Ismail<br />2.Kajeen Salih<br />3.Rojan Abdullah<br />3/4/2011<br />
  2. 2. My Objectives<br />Simple introduction about skeletal system <br />Definition of bone tumor<br />Bone tumor Classification <br />Deference between malignant and benign bone tumor <br />The staging of bone tumor <br />Clinical features ,causes ,complications ,risk factors of bone tumor <br />Diagnostic tests for bone tumor, treatment , epidemiology for bone tumor in united state <br />Applying nursing process for patient with bone tumor ,home care <br />
  3. 3. The Skeletal System <br />The skeleton is the name given to the collection of bones that holds our body up. It does three major jobs.<br /> It protects our vital organs such as the brain, the heart, and the lungs.<br /> It gives us the shape that we have<br /> It allows us to move..  <br />.  When we were born our skeleton had around 350 bones. By the time we become an adult, we will only have around 206 bones<br />Introduction<br />
  4. 4. Though bone comes in several shapes and sizes the structure and composition of bone is the same in all. Bone is composed of protein , minerals and cells. The main part are: <br />shaft<br />neck<br />head<br />
  5. 5. <ul><li>A tumor is a lump or mass of tissue that forms when cells divide uncontrollably. A growing tumor may replace healthy tissue with abnormal tissue. It may weaken the bone, causing it to break (fracture). </li></ul>Bone tumor<br />
  6. 6. Definition<br /><ul><li>A bone tumor is an abnormal growth of cells within the bone that may be noncancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant).</li></li></ul><li>The difference between benign and malignant tumors<br />
  7. 7. Ennekingdescribed the most widely used staging system for (benign bone tumors )<br /> The stages are denoted by the Arabic numerals 1, 2, and 3, whereas malignant bone tumors are classified by Roman numerals (I, II, III). <br /> Many benign bone tumors have the potential to present at, and progress through, various stages during their disease course.<br />Stage of benign tumors<br />
  8. 8. <ul><li>. Stage 1-LATENT, it do not have any characteristics of growth or progressive change, may resolve spontaneously.
  9. 9. Stage 2-ACTIVE, lesion deform the host bone but remain contained in bone, require intralesional curettage.
  10. 10. Stage 3-AGGRESSIVE , tumor extend beyond the bone, require complete work-up and a removal with wide margins to avoid possible local recurrence. </li></ul>Stage of benign bone tumors<br />
  11. 11. <ul><li>The staging system for malignant tumor adopted by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society, and originally developed by ( Enneking) is based on the histological grade, the local extent(Tumors whether they are intra-compartmental or extra-compartmental)</li></ul> and the presence or absence of metastasis<br />Stage of malignant bone tumors<br />
  12. 12. <ul><li>Stage IAis defined as G1 and Intra-compartmental
  13. 13. Stage IB is G1 and extra-compartmental
  14. 14. Stage IIA is G2 and Intra-compartmental
  15. 15. Stage IIB is G2 and extra-compartmental
  16. 16. Stage III is G1 or G2, intra- or extra-compartmental, and has evidence of metastasis</li></ul>Stage of malignant bone tumors<br />
  17. 17. Classification<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. <ul><li>Is a tumor which have spread from other organs ,The most common cancers that spread to the bone are cancer of the:</li></ul>Breast <br />Kidney <br />Lung <br />Prostate <br />Thyroid<br />These forms of cancer usually affect older people<br />metastatic tumors<br />
  20. 20. <ul><li>Any Question?</li></li></ul><li>Risk factors<br />Age<br /> Combinations of radiation and chemotherapy for treating prior cancer<br />Certain kinds of anticancer drugs (alkylating agents) <br /> Family history of bone cancer<br /> An overactive parathyroid gland<br />Multiple benign tumors<br />Paget's disease <br /> osteomyelitis<br />Radiation<br />
  21. 21. Movement problems<br />Stiff bones<br />Bone lumps and masses<br />Bone tenderness<br />Anemia <br />Weight loss, Fatigue<br />Bone pain, may be worse at night<br /> fevers and night sweats<br />Bone fracture, especially fracture from slight injury (trauma) <br />Note ! Some benign tumors have no symptoms<br />Clinical features<br />
  22. 22. <ul><li>The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often arise in areas of rapid growth
  23. 23. Inherited genetic mutations
  24. 24. Radiation
  25. 25. Trauma</li></ul>Causes<br />
  26. 26. Delayed wound healing<br />Nutritional deficiency <br />Infection<br />Hypercalcaemia<br />muscle wasting, bone weakening <br /> pathological fracture<br /> temporary burn to the skin and fatigue from radiation therapy<br />Complications<br />
  27. 27. Complications<br />8. nausea, vomiting, mouth sores, hair loss, and lowered resistance to infection from chemotherapy.<br />9. infection of the surgical site and possible blood clotting disturbances from surgery.<br />10. Pain<br />11. Spread of the cancer to other nearby tissues (metastasis)<br />
  28. 28. <ul><li>Blood test
  29. 29. Bone biopsy
  30. 30. Bone scan computed tomography (CT).
  31. 31. MRI( magnetic resonance imaging )
  32. 32. X-ray of bone
  33. 33. CT scan</li></ul>Diagnosis & Tests<br />
  34. 34. Bone biopsy:<br />removal of a sample of bone tissue to test for cancer cells. <br />Open Biopsy<br />Needle Biopsy<br /><ul><li>small incision is made and the tissue is removed
  35. 35. insert a needle into the tumor to remove some tissue</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Systemic therapy
  36. 36. Local therapy</li></ul>Treatment<br />1.Chemotherapy<br />2. hormone therapy<br />3. Immunotherapy ex. Interferon α<br />1.Radiation therapy<br />2.surgery<br /><ul><li>Nutritional therapy
  37. 37. Provide foods high in protein, vitamins and folic acid.</li></li></ul><li>Hormone therapy<br /> removal of the organs which produce hormones which can promote the growth of certain types of cancer (such as testosterone in males and estrogen in females), or drug therapy to keep the hormones from promoting cancer growth.<br />Chemotherapy <br /> used to kill tumor cells when they have spread into the blood stream <br />Systemic therapy <br />
  38. 38. Radiation Therapy<br />Radiation therapy uses high-dose x-rays to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. may be given either before or after surgery<br />Local therapy<br />
  39. 39. Surgical Treatment<br /><ul><li>Amputation
  40. 40. Rotationplasty
  41. 41. Bone graft
  42. 42. Artificial bone</li></ul>Local therapy<br />removes all or part of an arm or leg when the tumor is large and/or nerves and blood vessels are involved.<br />is a form of amputation, in which the patient's foot is turned upwards in a 180 degree turn and the upturned foot is used as a knee.<br />affected bone is removed, bone from elsewhere from the body is taken.<br />affected bone is removed, putting an artificial bone in.<br />
  43. 43. <ul><li>Narcotics
  44. 44. analgesics</li></ul>Ex. Biphosphonates<br /> are drugs that can be used to reduce bone pain and slow down bone damage in people who have cancer that has spread to their bones,increasebone strength<br /> Ex. Metastron also known as strontium-89 chloride is an intravenous medication given to help with the pain and can be given in three month intervals <br />Pain medications<br />
  45. 45. Age: Bone tumor are more common in children and young adults when bones grow rapidly<br />The incidence of bone cancer is higher in families with familial cancer syndromes. The incidence of bone cancer in children is approximately 5 cases per million children each year , in united states <br />Epidemiology<br />
  46. 46. <ul><li>Nursing assessment
  47. 47. Nursing diagnosis
  48. 48. Nursing planning
  49. 49. Nursing Implementation
  50. 50. Nursing evaluation</li></ul>Nursing process<br />
  51. 51. Nursing assessment<br /><ul><li>Collection Of Subjective Data:</li></ul>Bone pain in the area of the tumor , may be worse at night, pain is generally described as dull and achy<br />pain may or may not get worse with activity<br />Fatigue, anxiety <br /><ul><li>Collection Of Objective Data:</li></ul>Bone lumps and masses determining the location and size of tumor ,soft tissue swelling<br />Stiff bones<br />Weight loss<br />Bone fracture, especially fracture from slight injury (trauma) <br />fevers and night sweats<br />Movement problems<br />Anemia<br />
  52. 52. 1<br />
  53. 53. 2<br />
  54. 54. 3<br />
  55. 55. 4<br />
  56. 56. 5<br />
  57. 57. Home care<br />
  58. 58. <ul><li>http:// www.google.com
  59. 59. http:// www.wekipedia.org
  60. 60. http://www.bonetumor.org
  61. 61. help.com/Bonetumors.htm</li></ul>References<br />
  62. 62. <ul><li>Books</li></ul>Writer :Patricia M , Dillon<br /> Book :nursing health assessment <br /> Edition :second edition <br /> Pages :467_470<br /> Year :2003<br />References<br />
  63. 63. <ul><li>Books</li></ul>2.Writer :Suzanne C .smltzor<br /> Book :medical and surgical nursing<br /> Edition :eleventh edition <br /> pages:2419_2413<br /> year :2008<br />References<br />
  64. 64. <ul><li>Any Question?</li></li></ul><li>Thanks for all<br />

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