Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Urban elements in interior spaces


Published on

this presentation tries to relate the kevin lynch five elements of urban form to interior spaces.

Published in: Design

Urban elements in interior spaces

  2. 2. WHAT IS SPACE? • Space it is the area provided for particular purpose. Space can be two dimensional, three dimensional or multi. • The perception of a space is known by the functionality and quality of it. So, Space doesn't defines the use,..behaviour does. • Spaces can be identified as • interior, • exterior, • common, • transition, • public ,personal etc.
  3. 3. How can we relate urban form to one building typology? Districts/zones Nodes landmarks Edges paths ST.PETERS,ROME ................Elements in urban typology.....................
  4. 4. Districts/zoneslandmarks Edges ……...............Elements in building typology...................................... Nodes Paths Thus, the similar type of urban elements can be related/seen in smaller scales within a building.
  5. 5. • Urban design can be defined as about making connections between people and places, movement and urban form, nature and the built fabric. • Some of the urban thinkers are JANE JACOBS,KEVIN LYNCH, GARDEN CULLEN and CHRISTOPHER ALEXANDER. • Jane Jacobs suggested let the cities be mixed use economies and as ecosystems.
  6. 6. • Urban thinker Kevin Lynch was able to establish a notation of city elements that matched peoples perception. • They are identified as: • Districts • Paths • Edges • Nodes • Landmarks • Other elements those can be identified in urban context are • Landscapes and • Accessory features.
  7. 7. • Through his book “IMAGE OF THE CITY” Kevin Lynch explained that people orient themselves by means of mental maps(i.e perception of space). • A design should be in such a way that it gives room for three related movements-MAPPING,LEARNING AND SHAPING. • MAPPING: people should create or acquire a clear map of the environment. • LEARNING: People should be able to learn how to navigate in the environments. • SHAPING: People should be able to operate and act in the environment. so, what is environment? • An environment has these components • IDENTITY: recognition of elements as separate entities. • STRUCTURE: relation of elements to other objects and observer. • MEANING: its practical and emotional value to the observer.
  8. 8. Kevin lynch five elements PATHS • (Identity)Defnition: The streets, sidewalks, trails, and other channels in which people travel. • (Meaning )Importance: • They organise the mobility. • pattern of street network is what defines a city and makes it unique. • (Structure)Characteristics of Paths • They are defined by their physical dimension, size ,shape and character of the buildings that line them. • They range from grand avenues to intimate small paths.
  9. 9. • (Identity)In interiors ,paths are identified as corridors, halls ,galleries, stairways and ramps. • (Meaning ) user should be able to map out the overall configuration of the paths in the building mentally, orientation within the building and understanding of its spatial layout will be made clear. • Within a large space, a path can be random, without form or definition, and be determined by the activities and arrangement of furnishings within the space • (Structure) FORM OF THE CIRCULATION SPACE • The form and scale of a circulation space, however, should accommodate the movement of people as they walk, pause, rest, or take in a view along a path. PATHS IN INTERIOR SPACES
  10. 10. The form of a circulation space varies according to how: •Its boundaries that are defined •Its form relates to the form of the spaces it links • It handles changes in level with stairs and ramps
  11. 11. Paths defined by change of floor material Paths defined by furniture
  12. 12. Approach for Designing of paths • A narrow, enclosed path naturally encourages forward motion • This act of entering can be made significant in a number of ways not just by punching a hole in a wall • A passage can be created through an implied plane established by two pillars or an overhead beam • If greater visual and spatial continuity between two spaces is desired, even a change in level can establish a threshold and mark the passage from one place to another • Normally when a wall is used to define and enclose a space or series of spaces, an entrance is accommodated by an opening in the plane of the wall • However, the form of the openings can range from a simple hole in the wall to an elaborate, articulated gateway
  13. 13. • Persons approaching an intersection or crossing are always faced with a decision(i.e at nodes) • The Continuity and Scale of each path at the intersection helps us to distinguish between major routes leading to major spaces and secondary paths leading to less important spaces • If the paths at a crossing are equal, sufficient space must be provided to allow people to pause and orient themselves • The form and scale of entrances and paths must also convey the functional and symbolic distinction between public promenades, private halls, and service corridors • To accommodate more traffic as well as to create spaces for pausing, resting, or viewing, sections of a path can be widened
  14. 14. •Stairs are three-dimensional forms just as moving up or down . This three-dimensional quality can be exploited when we treat it as sculpture, freestanding within a space or attached to a wall plane. Further a space can itself become an oversized elaborated stairway. Together with the pitch of the stairs, the locations of landings determine the rhythm and choreography of our movements as we ascend or descend its steps.
  15. 15. • Wide, shallow steps can serve as an invitation, while a narrow, steep stairway can lead to more private places • While the act of walking up a stairway may convey privacy, aloofness, or detachment, the process of going down can imply moving toward secure, protected or stable ground • Stairs in accommodating a change in level, can reinforce the path of movement, interrupt it, accommodate a change in its course, or terminate it prior to entering a major space
  16. 16. NODES • (Identity)Defnition: A common point where two or more roads meet to form a junction or square. • The strategic focus points for orientations of squares and junctions. • spots in a city into which an observer can enter, and which are the intensive foci from which the person is travelling. • (Meaning )Importance: • to increase the perception of an active, urban corridor and to encourage more walking. • Strengthen the emphasis on alternative mode use in the corridor. • Contribute to the overall vibrancy, safety, and desirability of the area.
  17. 17. • (Structure)Characteristics of nodes: • These nodes should occur where single uses or a combination of uses lead to higher levels of pedestrian activity, • Pedestrian nodes should include such furnishings as drinking fountains, trash cans, and benches to increase the users’ sense of comfort. Seating should be arranged to accommodate groups of people • Careful thought should be given to the amount of seating provided because too much unused seating may detract from the goal of creating an active area
  18. 18. NODES IN INTERIOR SPACES • (Identity)In interiors,They are identified as transition spaces, intersecting spaces and common gathering spaces where people of different activities meet together while moving. • (Meaning ) These nodes punctuate the paths of movement through a building and provide opportunities for pause, rest and reorientation. • These are the casual common spaces with an unstructured environment thatpromotes comfort and relaxation. • (Structure) Persons approaching an intersection or crossing are always faced with a decision. • To avoid the creation of a disorienting maze, a hierarchical order among the paths and nodes of a building should be established by differentiating their scale, form, length and placement (common /sharing/casual spaces in a building)
  19. 19. • Nodes or pass through spaces • The path may pass through a space axially, obliquely or along its edge • In cutting through a space, the path creates pattern of rest and movement within it Approach for Designing of nodes
  20. 20. GRID • A Grid configuration consists of two sets of parallel paths that intersect at regular intervals and create square or rectangular fields of space NETWORK • A Network configuration consists of paths that connect established points in space COMPOSITE • In reality, a building usually employs a combination of the different paths • Important points in any pattern are centres of activity, entrances to rooms and halls and places for vertical circulation provided by stairways/ramps and elevators
  21. 21. • OPTIMALLY SIZED • Larger spaces provide a greater level of accommodation for activities, but more is not always better. • Appropriately sized common areas are simultaneously compact enough to encourage interaction and generous enough to house a range of activities. • Spaces that are too big for their purpose or undifferentiated feel empty when only a few people are around. • One example there was an enclosed study lounge with three tables. If it was occupied by a group, it felt intrusive for others to come in, even though there were empty tables. • The room should neither be big enough for multiple groups nor small enough to dedicate to one activity at a time.
  22. 22. Large space with less furniture Small space with heavy furniture Optimum design
  23. 23. • NODES AS CASUAL SPACES • Allowing people the freedom to move, rearrange furniture, and create spaces that suit their needs gives them desired control of their environment • The Casual attendee searches out a comfortable spot and takes refuge for an indeterminate period of time. The unstructured or sometimes informal environment can help make this space inviting, which is typically adjacent to circulation and activity. Small groups may take advantage of this space for solace or discussion.
  24. 24. Informal furniture like bean bags,swings,and movable furniture Which creates comforting ,friendly and controlled atmosphere.
  25. 25. • QUALITY OF SPACE • Conversations, the most basic ingredient of social interaction, occur in settings with good acoustics ,comfortable furniture, natural light and inviting colour. • A study revealed that aesthetic buildings emphasize warm colour schemes and use materials such as drywall, wood, and stone that are more comfortable to touch and softer acoustically. • People do not hang out in spaces that are poorly lit, outfitted with unfurnished ,uncomfortable furniture, echoing, or otherwise physically unpleasant.
  26. 26. •DISTRIBUTION AND VARIETY • People form social connections and build a sense of community on a range of scales—with roommates, with floor mates, and with other activity members. • A variety of common areas distributed throughout the building maximize opportunities for social connection at these various scales. • A common space in a room can be intimate than in a floor .like wise, the common space in a floor is distributed and larger. • Multiple sizes and types of spaces are important in large buildings and in towers, where the potential for an anonymous experience is heightened.
  27. 27. IN A ROOM Intimate furniture arrangements for a similar type of people and similar activities associated with them
  28. 28. IN A FLOOR In a multifunctional building floor more furniture is widely spread to encourage different groups of people to enter into a common space of public interaction
  29. 29. Educational and learning places are allotted with large common spaces in a floor with intimate furniture to encourage social movement and exchange of thoughts . IN A FLOOR
  30. 30. EDGES •(Identity)Defnition: They are boundaries between two phases, Bodies of water (such as an ocean, river, or lake) Landforms (such as mountains and hills) Manmade structures (such as buildings, railroad tracks, walls, or highways) •(Meaning )Importance:Functionality and usage of the spaces are clearly defined by edges.. •(Structure)Characteristics of edges: Acts in a space by stopping it,more or less penetrable,or they may be seams, lines along which two regions are related and joined together. Street edges need to be oriented and/or adjusted for maximum light on the space between buildings, and not just for interior penetration, in order to encourage active street life
  31. 31. Edges that are seen from building to street
  32. 32. Edges in interior spaces • We view site and building as a series of free-flowing interior and exterior space . • (Identity) colonnades, courtyards,windows and trellises are transparent barriers, where public meets private, indoors meets outdoors, light meets shadow; places of crossing over. • Within a room edges can be defined as separating planes like partition walls,curtains,furnitures,grills etc. • (Meaning )It allows each space to be clearly defined and respond in its own way. • It creates adjacency the most common spatial relationship . • Views and vistas become an integral part of interior spaces.
  33. 33. (Structure) •Should act as both separator and connector in a space. •The degree of spatial continuity that occurs between two spaces will depend on the nature of plane that both separates and bind together.
  34. 34. Design approach for edges The separating plane can be: •Limit physical and visual access between two adjacent spaces, reinforce the individuality of each space and accommodates their deference.
  35. 35. •Appears as free standing plane in a single volume space
  36. 36. • Can be defined with row of columns that allows a high degree of visual and spatial continuity between the space
  37. 37. • By merely implied by change of level or surfaces articulated between the two spaces. It separates single volume of space into two separate zones.
  38. 38. • Edges are also created by using jaliis as semi seperators,screens which gives partial privacy
  39. 39. • Glass as partition enlarges the space giving partial privacy by reducing noise levels. Tinted,misted,tempered and frost glass dividers provide both visual and sound privacy
  40. 40. Placement and continuity of edges. • The issue of continuity within building to building edges entails balancing the variety between bigger and smaller moves in. • When big moves extend over correspondingly large distance, the effect is dispassionate. • Introducing smaller scale rhythms provokes continued interest in a pattern. • A long sequence of smaller, unrelated moves quickly becomes chaotic, and represents the other extreme of monotony: uniform confusion.
  41. 41. Though the partition wall is partially visible,the closer and more differential arrangement made the space confusing and will also appears chaotic in heavy traffic.
  42. 42. Introducing smaller scale rhythm made the display board interesting and simpler.
  43. 43. Linear shapes and defined path makes the room bigger but are less interesting for the viewer. Linear patterns can be transformed like exemplary images making them more vibrant and also interesting for the visitor.
  44. 44. Shapes of the edges •Horizontal lines suggest a solid, harmonious relationship with the earth, and offer a sense of tranquility. •Long horizontal lines can visually expand space, making rooms appear wider or longer. •Lest you go overboard, a room with too many horizontal lines may become boring and lack interest. Spacious but boring
  45. 45. • Smooth, curling lines can improve functionality and boost good feeling, both inside and out. • People tend to be attracted to curved forms as it creates free flowing pattern. • Curves create harmony with the spaces adjacent to it. • Gentle curves give closure where as undulated forms create negative spaces and are more busy and chaotic.
  46. 46. DISTRICTS • Districts: Areas characterized by common characteristics, these are the medium to large areas, which have some common identifying character. • Distinctive physical characteristics might include ‘thematic continuities’, such as texture, space, form, detail, symbol ,function and building. • In interior spaces, districts can be termed as zones that are divided for achieving the functionality and comfort of the occupant. • A kitchen with its adjoining wash area,store area forms a district. • The presence of these and other similar attributes reinforce a district’s fabric, cohesiveness, and identity • Good planning makes for liveable neighbourhoods, a safe and healthy community, and a sustainable economy
  47. 47. Importance of zoning • Zoning helps in creating identity to the place, security and enrich private and social behaviour.
  48. 48. LANDMARKS • (Identity)Definition: external points of orientation,easily identified objects– towers, spires, hills are distant and are typically seen from many angles and from distance, over the top of smaller elements. • Other landmarks – sculptures, signs and trees are primarily local being visible only in restricted localities and from certain approaches. • (Meaning )Importance: Functionally prominent structures have a major influence on the aesthetics of their immediate urban landscape; location ,function of open spaces and landscape furniture. • ( Structure)physical characteristics: some aspect that is unique or memorable in the context.
  49. 49. IN INTERIORS Landmarks are identifies variously depending on the scale and focus of the element. It can also define functionality of the space. • A sculpture in the middle of lobby creates circumambulatory path avoiding haphazard movement acting as a memorable landmark. • The scale and proportion of columns, define space and also highlights the importance acting as focal point.
  50. 50. the Enhancing a architectural feature with interior colors and textures allowing natural light add to the aesthetics of the place marking it as landmark or active and interesting feature.
  51. 51. A prime functional element of circulation is enhanced by adding sculpturic design and colour to it. Scale,Focus made the element of design as a landmark.