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  1. 1. EXAM IN COMPUTER• SUBMITTED BY: Raul J. Moraleda• Submitted To: Tr. Julie Ann Iglesia
  2. 2. Central Processing Unit (CPU): Also known as thecomputer processor, the CPU is an electronic circuit that executescomputer programs. The primary responsibility of a computer processoris to execute a sequential set of instructions that constitute a program.CPU operation can be divided into four basic steps, namely, fetch,decode, execute and writeback. During the fetch step, the processorretrieves program instructions from memory. In the decode step, theinstruction is broken down into parts. The instruction set architecture ofthe CPU defines the way in which an instruction is decoded. In theexecute step, CPU performs the operation implied by the programinstruction. During the writeback step, the CPU writes back the resultsof execution, to the computers memory.SOURCE:
  3. 3. Motherboard: A computer motherboard consists of socketsin which microprocessors are installed, memory slots, achipset that acts as an interface between the CPU bus and theperipheral buses, non-volatile memory chips housing thesystems firmware and a clock generator, which helps in thesynchronization of various system components. Somemotherboards also include logic and connectors to supportinput devices like PS/2 connectors for a mouse and keyboard SOURCE:
  4. 4. Hard Disk: A hard disk is described as a part of the computerdisk drive, which stores data and provides computer userswith quick access to large amounts of data. A hard disk is anelectromagnetically charged surface or set of disks that recorddata in concentric circles known as tracks. It is a non-volatilestorage device that stores digitally encoded data. A head,resembling a phonograph arm, is used to read and write dataonto a hard disk.SOURCE:
  5. 5. Computer Memory: It refers to those components of acomputer, which retain digital data. It forms the core of acomputer and makes up the basic computer model incollaboration with the CPU. Magnetic drums and delay linesused as primary storage by computers of the early days, havemetamorphosed into a miniature silicon chip, which canachieve efficient storage of large volumes of data. RandomAccess Memory, popularly known as RAM, is a small-sizedlight and volatile form of computer memory. It is capable oftemporary storage of data. SOURCE:
  6. 6. Registers located in a computer processor are the fastestforms of computer storage. The most frequently usedinformation is duplicated in the processor cache of acomputer, thereby improving its performance. Computersrequire a non-volatile primary storage to read large programs.This non-volatile memory is known as ROM or Read-onlymemory. It also contains the startup programs used forbootstrapping a computer. Secondary storage media such asflash memory, magnetic tape, punch cards and zip drives andtertiary storage media like tape libraries are also a part ofcomputer memory.SOURCE:
  7. 7. Monitor: A visual display unit, as it is called, is an electricalequipment that displays images generated by the videooutput of a computer. Monitors of the early years used CRTtechnology for imaging, while modern computer monitors useLCD or even plasma screens. The display provides computerusers with an instant feedback in the form of text and graphicimages. Monitors are the most-used output devices of acomputer. Source:
  8. 8. Keyboard: A keyboard is regarded as an input devicefor a computer. With respect to the arrangement ofkeys, a computer keyboard is similar to a typewriter.The keys or buttons act as electronic switches ormechanical levers with characters printed onthem, with each keypress corresponding to a writtensymbol. A keyboard has its own processor andcircuitry, which consists of a key matrix, which helpsbring about the keyboard operation.Source:
  9. 9. Mouse: A computer mouse is a pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion. It was introduced by Apple Macintosh in 1984. Amouse translates the motion of your hand into signals that a computercan recognize and respond to. There are three basic types of mice,namely, mechanical, optomechanical and optical. Mechanical mice havea rubber or metal ball that can roll in all directions. Mechanical sensorsin the mouse detect the direction of motion of the ball. Optomechanicalmice differ from mechanical mice, in that they use optical sensors todetect motion. Optical mice, popularly used today, have a laser to detectmovement of the mouse. They do not have mechanical moving partsand possess higher performance speeds. source:
  10. 10. PrinterAn external hardware device responsible for taking computerdata and generating a hard copy of that data. Printers are oneof the most used peripherals on computers and arecommonly used to print text, images, and photos. Source:
  11. 11. Plotteris a computer hardware device similar to a printer that usesa pen, pencil, marker or other writing tool to make a design.Often these printers are used in schematics, CAD, and otherprint jobs. In the picture to the right, is an example of whata plotter printer may look like.
  12. 12. Optical scannerHardware input device that allows a user to take an image ortext and convert it into a digital file, allowing the computer toread or display the scanned object. A scanneris commonlyconnected to a computer USB, Firewire, Parallel, or SCSI port
  13. 13. A webcam is a video camera that feeds its images in realtime to a computer or computer network, oftenvia USB, ethernet, or Wi-Fi.Their most popular use is the establishment of videolinks, permitting computers to actas videophones or videoconference stations. The commonuse as a video camera for the World Wide Web gave thewebcam its name. Other popular uses include securitysurveillance, computer vision, video broadcasting, and forrecording social videos .
  14. 14. ProjectorAn output device that can take the display of a computerscreen and project a large version of it onto a flat surface.
  15. 15. A webcam is a video camera that feeds its images inreal time to a computer or computer network, oftenvia USB, ethernet, or Wi-Fi.Their most popular use is the establishment of videolinks, permitting computers to actas videophones or videoconference stations. Thecommon use as a video camera for the World WideWeb gave the webcam its name. Other popular usesinclude security surveillance, computer vision, videobroadcasting, and for recording social videos .