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  1. 1. Chapter 2 Perception
  2. 2. Perception is Important <ul><li>Differences in perception are widespread </li></ul><ul><li>Not all differences are of equal importance </li></ul><ul><li>Not everyone’s perceptions have equal status </li></ul><ul><li>What does perception have to do with communication? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You communicate your perceptions through language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You use your perceptual filters to interpret others’ messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your communication shapes your perceptions of others </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Perception Defined  <ul><li>Perception: the way in which an individual gives meaning to an object, messages or event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception is a process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objective reality: the actual object, message or event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You filter this through: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Past experiences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prior knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological state </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Perception Defined <ul><li>Subjective reality: Result of filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone interprets reality differently </li></ul><ul><li>No two people have the exact same reality </li></ul><ul><li>You need to communicate your reality to others in a way they understand </li></ul><ul><li>You need to be open to listening </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is shared understanding </li></ul>
  5. 5. A Perception Model <ul><li>Prior Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge base you’ve developed over years of experience and education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical to making sense of what you see and hear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prior Experiences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use to help you make sense of your world </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. A Perception Model <ul><li>Psychological state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity: your sense of self as a unique individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You interact in relationship to the way you define yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Men & women, wealthy & poor, young & elderly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity includes personality traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on external traits: marital status, job, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity can impact your values and worldviews </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. A Perception Model <ul><ul><li>Values reflect what you see as good/bad, right/wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World views are group-related value orientations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-concept: how you view yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional state: additional filter (ex. Anxiety) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical variables: health, location, weakened sense </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. A Perception Model Prior Knowledge Prior Experiences Psychological State Perceptual Processes (including selective attention, projection, stereotyping, halo effect, attributions, etc.) = Subjective Reality
  9. 9. A Perception Model <ul><li>Selective attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We are bombarded by so many messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible to pay attention to them all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You make decisions to pay attention to some more than others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We pay attention to message that are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thrust at us (ex. Loud noises, dazzling colors, pungent smells) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interesting to us </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Related to us specifically (ex. Name) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. A Perception Model <ul><li>Self-fulfilling prophecy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role expectations play in your perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You see what you want/expect to see </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People tend to live up to expectations of significant others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive or negative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotype threat : negative cultural stereotypes about a group can create a belief in the stereotypes among members </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. A Perception Model <ul><li>Halo Effect, Attribution Error and Projection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Halo effect: occurs when you make assumptions based upon limited information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive or negative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution error : attempt to attribute causes of events to either personalities or external situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projection : tendency to see your own faults (or strengths) in others and point out those traits </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. A Perception Model <ul><li>Concepts to minimize communication breakdowns resulting from perceptual differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize the distinction between objective and subjective reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your differences in perception are rooted in individual differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How you look at differences matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication is a central skill in the perception process </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Sharpening Your Perceptions <ul><li>Facts/opinion confusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statements of fact: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are based on observable sensory data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are only about the past or present, never the future </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are objective and free from interpretations, conclusions or assumptions about what has been observed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Sharpening Your Perception <ul><ul><li>Statements of opinion: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Go beyond what has been observed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are about the past, present or future </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Include interpretations, conclusions or assumptions about what has been observed and are subjective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State your opinions by using an “I” message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I think,” “To me,” “From my point of view” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Sharpening Your Perception <ul><li>Checking Perceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responses to someone’s verbal/nonverbal communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They share an impression of the person’s message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-minded, non-evaluative statements that invite a response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help to verify assumptions or opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a way to confirm what you are thinking </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Sharpening Your Perception <ul><li>How to phrase a clear perception check: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State your perception of another person’s behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present the perception in an open-minded or tentative way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“I may be wrong,” “It seems” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Express your perception in a non-evaluative way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invite a response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short question </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rising inflection </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Sharpening Your Perception <ul><li>Learning conversations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process for learning about the perceptions of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debates: attempt to win, convince the other person you are right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogue: goal is to understand, not win and requires a curiosity of others </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Sharpening Your Perception <ul><ul><li>Content messages: describe facts about what happen, often include assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling messages: how someone feels, most likely expressed in body language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity messages: how people see themselves and how they are affected </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Sharpening Your Perception <ul><ul><li>Purpose of learning conversations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding another person’s point of view </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing your point of view </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding/sharing feelings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working together to resolve a problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Move from “convincing” other person to cultivating “curiosity” about others’ views </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Sharpening Your Perception <ul><ul><li>Phases of learning conversations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invite the person to share his/her different point of view </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share the differing points of view </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask for information about his/her experiences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrase the speaker’s message </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on learning, not winning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Perception and Technology <ul><li>New technology allows people to change and shape reality </li></ul><ul><li>Be critical of what you see and hear </li></ul><ul><li>Call for media literacy awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media constructs messages to broadcast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages use creative language with specific rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages are understood differently by different people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision-makers have their own points of view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is usually more money and/or power </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Perception and Technology <ul><li>5 Questions for Critical Media Viewing </li></ul><ul><li>Who created this message? </li></ul><ul><li>What creative techniques were used to attract my attention? </li></ul><ul><li>How might other people understand this message differently than I? </li></ul><ul><li>What values, lifestyles, and points of view are being represented in, or omitted from, this message? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this message being sent? </li></ul>