Non verbal communication


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Non verbal communication

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  • Albert Mehrabian : As much as 93% of the emotion and meaning in a conversation is conveyed nonverbally. Expressions may appear unnatural when a person tries to conceal true feelings. Often these concealing behaviors will leak a true feeling.
  • Personal Space : The imaginary buffer zone around a person. Edward Hall created the four personal space distances in which communication takes place.
  • Emblems : Have a direct verbal counterpart and can take it’s place Example: Giving a thumbs up Illustrators : Complement the spoken message Example: pointing to an object while also speaking about its location Regulators : Gestures that control the flow of the conversation Example: Head nod Adaptors : Accompany and help accomplish various psychological needs Example: scratching, covering eyes from a hideous sight
  • Relationship, emotions, status, culture, etc.
  • Discussion Question : What kinds of preconceptions do you have about appropriate eye contact? Students may talk about concepts such as deception (avoiding eye contact), age relations (do you or do you not look an older person in the eye? Very cultural related), etc.
  • In the workplace, touch should be avoided as to avoid sexual harassment. What is appropriate off the job, may not be okay in the workplace.
  • How words are emphasized makes a big difference in how they are understood. Example: Depending on what words are stressed in a sentence can completely change the interpretation of the message. Say this sentence four different ways – each time stressing the underlined word. “ Did you fire him?” “Did you fire him?” “Did you fire him?” “Did you fire him ?” Each sentence asks very different things!
  • Rosenthal’s important nonverbal behaviors in sales contexts
  • Non verbal communication

    1. 1. Chapter 4: Nonverbal Communication
    2. 3. Definition <ul><li>Nonverbal communication is all types of communication that do not involve the exchange of words </li></ul><ul><li>Facial expression, clothes, walk, body posture, skin color, hair style, touch, distance, time management, body language... </li></ul>
    3. 4. Nonverbal Communication in the Workplace What do the nonverbal behaviors in each of these pictures indicate about the situation? How can you know what might be occurring when there are not any words being spoken?
    4. 5. The Significance of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>It conveys meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anywhere from 65-93% of the meaning of a message lies in the nonverbal aspect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It reflects the unspoken </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal behaviors can “leak” true feelings </li></ul></ul>
    5. 6. Proxemics – the study of the use of space to communicate <ul><li>Personal space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimate – 0 to 18 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal – 18 inches to 4 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social – 4 to 12 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public – 12 feet and beyond </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semi-fixed space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How movable objects are arranged in a space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An object’s size, type, expense, etc can all send messages </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Proxemics:Teritories and Zones
    7. 8. Proxemics How might seating arrangements play a part in each of these pictures? What can you tell about each of these situations and the people from the nonverbal messages?
    8. 9. Kinesics – the study of body movement <ul><li>Gesture </li></ul><ul><li>Posture reveals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships and status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E motional state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facial expression characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture, gender, and age </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Kinesics What might kinesics reveal about this picture?
    10. 11. Oculesics – the study of eye behavior <ul><li>Eye movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by culture, gender, and age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveys interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans typically prefer “soft” eye contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asian cultures typically prefer very little eye contact </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Haptics – the study of touch as used to communicate <ul><li>What are the touch norms at our university? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you express emotions through touch? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hug, pat on the back, slap on the face </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. How is touch used in a business and professional context?
    13. 14. Vocalics – the study of the use of the voice to convey meaning <ul><li>Regulates conversation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocal cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn taking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helps interpret oral communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Chronemics – the study of time usage in communication <ul><li>How we regulate interactions </li></ul><ul><li>How we treat others – “wait time” </li></ul><ul><li>How we prioritize </li></ul>
    15. 16. Objectics – the study of how objects influence communication What might clothes communicate about these people?
    16. 17. Nonverbal Communication in the Workplace <ul><li>Remember : </li></ul><ul><li>Actions sell louder than words! </li></ul>
    17. 18. Nonverbal Communication in Business <ul><li>Important nonverbal behaviors in business context : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaking hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye contact and smiling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removing desks and tables as barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the voice effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching time orientations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nodding your head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding nervous gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop talking and listen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacing toward “low and slow” </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Guidelines for Effective Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>You cannot read people “like a book” </li></ul><ul><li>Consider your nonverbal messages </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the impact status and power have </li></ul><ul><li>Observe nonverbal messages in clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Be cautious when generalizing the meaning of nonverbal cues </li></ul>
    19. 20. Palm Gestures
    20. 21. Palm Gestures
    21. 22. Palm Gestures
    22. 34. Hand and Arm Gestures
    23. 38. Hands-to-Face Gestures
    24. 40. Hands-to-Face Gestures
    25. 44. Language and Technology <ul><li>Receivers can’t observe important elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tone of voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body posture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New language has emerged with email, IMs </li></ul>