Communication concepts


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Communication concepts

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Communication concepts

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Communication Concepts
  2. 2. Communication Defined <ul><li>What is communication? </li></ul><ul><li>…the process of sending and receiving messages </li></ul><ul><li>Shared understanding is the key to effective communication </li></ul>
  3. 3. Communication Process Model <ul><li>Communication process model breaks down communication into parts </li></ul>Receiver/ Sender Sender/ Receiver Message Feedback Encodes Decodes Encodes Decodes
  4. 5. Communication Process Model <ul><li>Sender: originates a communication message </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver: destination of the communication </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding: sender changes thoughts into symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Decoding: receiver assigns meaning to symbols </li></ul>
  5. 6. Communication Process Model <ul><li>Message: idea, thought, feeling or opinion to be communicated (clear or unclear) </li></ul><ul><li>Channel: medium through which the message travels from sender to receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback: receiver’s response to the message/indicates the message is seen, heard and understood </li></ul>
  6. 7. Communication Process Model <ul><li>Sender (Encoder) </li></ul><ul><li>Initiates the communication </li></ul><ul><li>If both good and bad news will be given, the good news should be given first </li></ul><ul><li>If both a simple and a complex message will be given, the simple one should be given first </li></ul>
  7. 8. Communication Process Model <ul><li>Message </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal (part of the message that is heard) and nonverba l (body language and the surrounding environment) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Communication Process Model <ul><li>Channel </li></ul><ul><li>Means used to convey the message </li></ul>
  9. 10. Communication Process / Channel <ul><li>a. Immediate feedback Oral </li></ul><ul><li>communication </li></ul><ul><li>b. Other party may not understand verbal channels </li></ul><ul><li>c. Other party may be reluctant verbal channels </li></ul>
  10. 11. Communication Process / Channel <ul><li>d. Need to document the communication </li></ul><ul><li>written channels </li></ul><ul><li>e. Message should have detailed accuracy written channels </li></ul><ul><li>f. Message must be delivered to many </li></ul><ul><li>people written channels </li></ul>
  11. 12. Communication Process / Channel <ul><li>Types of channels within an organisation </li></ul><ul><li>a. Downward Channels: passing information from superior to subordinate to; </li></ul><ul><li>give job instructions </li></ul><ul><li>bring about understanding of the job </li></ul><ul><li>provide information about procedures </li></ul><ul><li>provide feedback about performances of subordinates </li></ul>LOSS OF INFORMATION
  12. 13. Communication Process / Channel <ul><li>b. Upward Channels: provides subordinates to convey information to their superiors to; </li></ul><ul><li>gain feedback and learn about problems that affect efficiency, </li></ul><ul><li>evaluate employee attitudes and perceptions </li></ul>SUBORDINATES FEEL THEIR SUPERIORS ARE NOT THAT OPEN AND ENCOURAGING
  13. 14. Communication Process / Channel <ul><li>c. Lateral Channels: conveying information between individuals and units on the same hierarchical level for; </li></ul><ul><li>the coordination of tasks </li></ul><ul><li>sharing of information, </li></ul><ul><li>problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><li>This type of communication is persuasive and suggestive rather than directive or authoritative </li></ul>
  14. 15. Communication Process / Channel <ul><li>d. Informal Channels: grapevine </li></ul><ul><li>Single-strand : Each </li></ul><ul><li>person recieves information </li></ul><ul><li>from one person and </li></ul><ul><li>passes it on to one more </li></ul><ul><li>Gossip: one individual passes </li></ul><ul><li>the news to all others </li></ul>B C A message message message A B C D
  15. 16. Communication Process / Channel <ul><li>d. Informal Channels: </li></ul><ul><li>Probability : Information is passed on randomly </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster: Channel members selectively choose their informal communication links </li></ul>COMMUNICATION BARRIERS IF THEY CARRY RUMOR, GOSSIP, INACCURATE INFORMATION
  16. 17. Communication Principles <ul><li>Communication occurs within a context (when, where, why and with whom) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronological context : time a which communication occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical context : location or setting of your communication </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Communication Principles <ul><ul><li>Functional context: purpose of the communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practical: job, apartment, health and safety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social: establish connections, building ties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decision-making: how to dress for the weather, where to live </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relational context: person(s) with whom you communicate and your relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural context: race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual preference, disabilities, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Communication Principles <ul><li>Communication is unavoidable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to not communicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal: internal monologue that judges, comments, worries, dreams and analyzes. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Communication Principles <ul><li>Communication occurs at different levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No two relationships are alike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small talk: establish contact with others and build rapport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information talk: hobbies and interests, likes and dislikes, personal preferences </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Communication Principles <ul><ul><li>Opinion talk: riskier than the other levels; you open yourself up to criticism and disagreements can lead into conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings talk: most challenging because you expose parts of your inner self </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Communication Principles <ul><li>Communication requires ethical choices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of speech doesn’t mean you can say anything you please. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Words can nurture, resolve misunderstandings or create intimacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Words can strain relationships, destroy trust or land you in jail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plagiarism, falsify records, harassment, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Communication Principles <ul><li>Communication has its limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication cannot solve all your interpersonal problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many other skills are needed (for ex. Flexibility, forgiveness, open to change). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other factors threaten stability of relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workplace relationships can be demanding. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Communication Barriers <ul><li>Internal Noise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs inside the sender and receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beliefs and values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faulty assumptions can lead to emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger or hot button words can evoke emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensiveness </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Communication Barriers <ul><li>External Noise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs outside the sender and receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be easier to control than internal noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes technology </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Communication Barriers <ul><li>Semantic Noise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when the receiver doesn’t understand a word or gesture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can happen with different cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technicians using jargon with laypeople </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Communication Barriers <ul><li>Gaps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results from people being different </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Barriers to Communication / Problems caused by the sender <ul><li>The amount of information the individual has about the subject of the message </li></ul><ul><li>Not much information </li></ul><ul><li>Too much knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Indecission regarding how to present the information </li></ul><ul><li>The order of the presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of familiarity with the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of experience in speaking or writing </li></ul>
  28. 29. Barriers to Communication / Problems in transmission <ul><li>Illegible material as a result of poor typing, poor photocopying, poor handwriting </li></ul><ul><li>Poor acustics </li></ul><ul><li>Use of too many transmission links </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission of conflicting messages </li></ul>
  29. 30. Barriers to Communication / Problems in reception <ul><li>The surrounding environment </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver’s physical condition </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver’s failure to pay attention to the message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneous receipt of two or more messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver is bored </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Barriers to Communication / Problems in receiver comprehension <ul><li>Receiver may not understand some of the words used </li></ul><ul><li>Personal interests </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional responses </li></ul>
  31. 32. Dealing with communication barriers <ul><li>Focus on the objective </li></ul><ul><li>Unserstand the other party </li></ul><ul><li>Be organized </li></ul><ul><li>Seek feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Know yourself </li></ul>
  32. 33. Communication and Technology <ul><li>iPods </li></ul><ul><li>Information at students’ convenience </li></ul><ul><li>Need for computer literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Less connected </li></ul><ul><li>Need for balance </li></ul>