By: Elizabeth Rath and Abby HermanCI 5431Dr. David O’BrienSummer 2013Assessment andIdentification ofStruggling Readers in thePrimary Grades
GOALS• To share resources that teachers can use to be mosteffective when assessing and identifying struggling readersin our classrooms.• Inform our audience of the state of assessment andnecessity for purposeful, meaningful assessments thatdrive-instruction and classroom interventions.
RATIONALEAssessment of foundational reading skills is integral for youngreaders success in literacy, before self efficacy suffers"The rationale for early assessment lie in (a) research on reading development thatindicates the importance of basic skills for future success and (b) classroom evidencethat early diagnosis and remediation of reading difficulties can improve childrensreading achievement"(Paris S. Hoffman J., 2004)"A child who is a poor reader in first grade is 88% more likely to remain a poor readerin 4th grade" (Juel, 1988)"The early years are the focus for the prevention of reading difficulties" (Clay, 1993)
RATIONALEComprehensive, balanced literacy assessments will allowteachers to identify and target the areas in which our strugglingreaders need support."Current reading assessment practice reflects a series of imbalances that influenceteaching and learning. As teachers, we are challenged to provide effective instructionfor all students. Effective instruction depends on assessment that helps teachers andstudents move toward and attain daily and annual reading goals."(Afflerbach et. al, 2011)"A single assessment cannot adequately represent the complexity of a childs readingdevelopment."(Paris S. Hoffman J., 2004)
Who Are Struggling Readers?1. Students with biological difference, i.e. dyslexia (Pressley,2006)2. Readers of lower than average intelligence or "GardenVariety" (Stanovich, 2001)3. Poor readers of average intelligence but victims of poorinstruction (Pressley, 2006)4. Typically achieving students who feel like poor readers(OBrien, 2008)
CRITICAL FINDINGSWe have organized our critical findings into four categories ofassessment. After we present each category and its findings, wewill supply resources for professional development that youcould use in your schools.
Four Types of Assessmentshttp://reading.uoregon.edu/cia/assessment/assess_types.php• Screening - Designed as a first step in identifying children who may be athigh risk for delayed development or academic failure and in need of furtherdiagnosis of their need for special services or additional reading instruction.• Diagnostic - Helps teachers plan instruction by providing in-depthinformation about students skills and instructional needs.• Progress Monitoring - Determines through frequent measurement ifstudents are making adequate progress or need more intervention toachieve grade-level reading outcomes.• Outcome - Provides a bottom-line evaluation of the effectiveness of thereading program in relation to established performance levels.
Screening• Given to all students to identify those who may be at risk forreading struggles.• Given at least 3 times a year to prevent "false negatives".• The screening measures will change as students gather newskills, but should be reflective of the skill set they shouldalready have.
Screening cont.• Screening assessments give you a first glimpse of the child asa reader, so you can determine who may be in need of furtherdiagnosis and intervention. Screening tools should not be usedin isolation - its like trying to determine why a basketball teamlost based solely on the score. (Afflerbach et. al. 2011)Sources:Hall, S. (n.d.). Helpful assessment for struggling young readers. Retrieved fromhttp://www.greatschools.org/special-education/LD-ADHD/742-struggling-young-readers.gsTorgesen, J. K. (2002). The prevention of reading difficulties. Journal of School Psychology,40(1), 7-26.
Screening ResourcesStudent Inventory and interviews(An article by Yetta Goodman about reading interviews)Get Ready to ReadELORS
Diagnostic Assessments• After screening assessments have indicated a student maybe struggling, or after progress monitoring tools show that astudent is not making adequate progress, a diagnosticassessment should be administered.• Diagnostics will help target the specific areas in whichstudents can improve.• Using the information from a diagnostic assessment, we cancreate learner profiles to tailor instruction to specific needs.Source:Lipson , M., Chomsky-Higgins, P., & Kanfer, J. (2011). Diagnosis: The missing ingredient inrti assessment. The Reading Teacher, 65(3), 204-208.
Diagnostic ResourcesSpecific skills focused assessments - alphabetics,phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, etc.(these may be targeted assessments that you already use in your classroom)DIBELSDRA
Diagnostic ResourcesAssessing Reading SkillsFrom Reading RocketsPBS television seriesLaunching Young Readers
Progress Monitoring• Given 3 times per year for all students, at least monthly forstruggling readers.• If previously identified students are not making progress,change the intervention. If students not previously identifiedas struggling appear to be stagnating, continue with adiagnostic assessment.
Progress Monitoring cont.• Progress monitoring should be a balance of qualitative andquantitative: observation and data-driven• "A robust classroom assessment program continuallyprovides detailed information about students currentcompetencies and next steps." (Afflerbach, 2011)Source:Safer, N., Bootel, J., & Halland Coviello, R. (2006, 09 28). Improving student outcomesthrough progress monitoring. Retrieved from http://www.studentprogress.org/doc/VASEA9-28-06.pdf
Progress Monitoring ResourcesGuided reading observations(A source to defend the importance and usefulness of guided reading in the classroom)Iaquinta, A. (2006). Guided reading: A research based response to the challenges ofearly reading instruction. Early Childhood Educational Journal, 33(6).Curriculum-Based Measures (CBM)(A powerpoint presentation about progress monitoring and the effectiveness of CBM)National Center on Student Progress Monitoring(Site provides many resources for classroom use, and professional development)
Progress Monitoring ResourcesJan Richardsons Reading Progress LogThis works well for tracking student progress and is useful as a tool to seewhere further diagnosis is needed to ensure all students are progressing..
Outcome Assessment• Given to determine how students are performing in relation toeach other.• Can help teachers realize the efficacy ofinstruction/intervention.• Are not high quality tools for driving instruction. (Afflerbach,2011)• Can be used as a screening tool in some instances (ex:looking at last years test data to see who may be in need offurther diagnosis)
Outcome Assessment ResourcesOrganizing comprehensive data and using multiple assessmentsto identify areas of difficulty for studentsRubin, J. (2011). Organizing and evaluating results from multiple reading assessments.The Reading Teacher, 64(8), 606-611.End of unit assessmentsStandardized assessments*Many outcome assessment tools are mandated by district, state or federal governmentor are related to classroom curricula.
Other Helpful Resources for AssessmentUniversity of Oregon Center on Teaching andLearning - Big Ideas in Beginning ReadingFurther explains the four categories of assessment, and their uses.Reading RocketsAbout - about the reading rockets siteAdvisors - who are those on the advisory panel?Struggling Readers - why to readers struggle?Assessment Process - compilation of assessment related articlesTarget the Problem - web-based tool to help teachers and families provide support totheir struggling readersGuided Reading with Dr. Jan RichardsonA large collection of assessment and observation tools that can be implemented as partof a guided reading program in the classroom
"Best Practices"Assessment practice in the classroom should be reflective of ourunderstanding of the four assessment types and their purposes.Each type is meaningful on its own, but in order to identify andbest serve our struggling readers, we must usea balanced approach.This comprehensive method of assessment will allow teachers totarget specific reading needs so that effective, data-driveninterventions can be provided for our to help our strugglingreaders succeed.
Works CitedAfflerbach, P., Kim, J., Elliker Crassas, M., & Cho, B. (2011). Best practices in literacy assessment. In L.Morrow & L. B. Gambrell (Eds.), Best Practices in Literacy. Instruction (4th ed., pp. 319-340). NewYork, New York: The Guilford Press.Clay, M. M. (1993). An observation survey of early literacy achievement. Portsmouth, NH: HeinemannJuel, C. (1988). Learning to read and write: A longitudinal study of fifty-four children from first through fourthgrade. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 437-447.OBrien, D. G., & Dillon, D. R. (2008). The role of motivation in engaged reading of adolescents. In K.Hinchman & H. Sheridan-Thomas (Eds.), Best practices in adolescent literacy instruction New York, NewYork: Guilford Press.Paris, S., & Hoffman, J. (2004). Reading assessments in kindergarten through third grade: Findings fromthe center for the improvement of early reading achievement. The Elementary School Journal ,105(2), 199-217.Pressley, M. (2006). Reading instruction that works: The case for balanced teaching. (3rd ed., pp. 66-95).New York: The Guilford Press.Stanovich, K. E. (1988). Explaining the differences between the dyslexic and the garden-variety poorreader: The phonological-core variable-difference model.Journal of Learning Disabilities,21(10), 590-604.
BibliographyAllington, R. (2011). Best practices with Struggling Readers. In L. Morrow & L. B. Gambrell (Eds.), BestPractices in Literacy Instruction (4th ed., pp. 96-116). New York, New York: The Guilford Press.Linklater, D., OConnor, R., & Palardy, G. (2009). Kindergarten literacy assessment of English Only andEnglish language learner students: An examination of the predictive validity of three phonemicawareness measures. Journal of School Psychology, 47, 369-394.Pomplum, M. (2004). The differential predictive validity of the initial skills analysis: Reading screening testsfor K-3. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64(813)Rupley, W. H., Blair, T. R., & Nichols, W. D. (2009). Effective reading instruction for struggling readers: Therole of direct/explicit teaching. Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming LEarningDifficulties,24(2), 125-138.Rynolds, M., Wheldall, K., & Madelain, A. (2011). Early identification of young struggling readers:Preliminary benchmarks for intervention for students in years one and two in schools inSouth Wales. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 16(2), 127-143.Valencia , S., & Buly, M. (2004). Behind the test scores: What struggling readers really need. The ReadingTeacher, 6(6), 520-531