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A solar cell

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A solar cell basic function and its equivalent circuit diagram with proper explanation

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A solar cell

1. 1. Seminar By: Pritam Rath Regd. No. 0911013206 Dept. Of Electrical Engineering ITER, Bhubaneswar A SOLAR CELL 1
2. 2. Efficiency Study Solar Cell Types Equivalent Circuit Diagram Maximum Cell Performance Solar Cell Characteristics A Solar Cell How to Harness Solar Power Solar Energy – Need 2
3. 3. SOLAR ENERGY – NEED FOOD ENERG Y HUMAN HUMAN HOTEL A HOTEL B 80 INR 150 INR COAL, NUCLEAR SOLAR, GEO THERMAL, WIN D LESS COSTLY BIT COSTLY 3
4. 4. HOW TO HARNESS SOLAR ENERGY P N P N Solar Power is converted to electricity using PV (Photovoltaic) effect.Solar Power is concentrated and converted to thermal energy which is converted to electric energy. 4
5. 5. In 1839, Edmond Becquerel found that two different brass plates immersed in a liquid produced a continuous current when illuminated with sunlight. We now believe that he had made a copper - cuprous oxide thin - film solar cell. Later in the 1870s, Willoughby Smith, W. G. Adams, and R. E. Day discovered a PV effect in selenium. A solar cell is a semi-conducting device made of silicon or other materials, which, when exposed to sunlight, generates electricity. It uses the Photovoltaic technology. A SOLAR CELL 5
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7. 7. MATERIALS FOR A SOLAR CELL WHY SEMICONDUCTORS ARE USED?? 7
8. 8. SOLAR CELL CHARACTERISTICS I-V CHARACTERISTICS (WITHOUT ILLUMINATION) P N P N I V I=Io{exp(V/VT)-1} Where, Io= reverse saturation current VT = Voltage equivalent of Temperature Normally at 20 degrees it is 26 mV. VT = kT/q 8
9. 9. SOLAR CELL CHARACTERISTICS I-V CHARACTERISTICS (WITH ILLUMINATION) I V P N P N Isc Isc Voc Voc 9
10. 10. SOLAR CELL CHARACTERISTICS I-V CHARACTERISTICS Voc Isc I=-Isc+Io{exp(V/VT)-1} Voc=VT ln{(Isc/Io)+1} 10
11. 11.  Fill Factor FF= Vm.Im/Voc.Isc  Efficiency, Efficeincy=Vm.Im/Solar Power MAXIMUM CELL PERFORMANCE Vm V P Max. Power Point 11
12. 12. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM I=Isc-Io{exp(V/VT)-1} 12
13. 13. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 13
14. 14. • Bulk Material Cell • Thin-Film Cell • Single Crystal Silicon Cell • Multicrystalline Silicon Cell • Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) Cell • GaAs Cell • CIGS Cell • CdTe Cell • Organic PV Cell SOLAR CELL TYPES 14
15. 15. THICKNESS OF ACTIVE MATERIAL Bulk Material Thin-Film Cell 15
16. 16. TYPE OF ACTIVE MATERIAL USED Single Crystal Silicon Cell Multicrystalline Silicon Cell16
17. 17. TYPE OF ACTIVE MATERIAL USED Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) Cell 17
18. 18. TYPE OF ACTIVE MATERIAL USED GaAs Cell CIGS Cell Organic PV Cell18
19. 19. EFFICIENCY STUDY 19
20. 20. 20  Martin A. Green, Keith Emery, Yoshihiro Hishikawa and Wilhelm Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables”, Published online 18 June 2010 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/pip.1021.  B H Khan, “Non-Conventional Energy Resources”, TMH-2nd Edition, Page 159-179.  en.wikipedia.org/wiki.Solar_cell.  http://pveducation.org/pvcdrom/solar-cell- operation/iv-curve REFERENCES