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Tree is life

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Tree is life

  1. 1. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 | P a g e Introduction Trees are the largest and longest living organisms on earth. Trees are our best friends. They play a very important role in our life. We can not live without them. They give us timber, paper and firewood. Timber is used in making houses, train compartments, big boxes, tools etc. Without paper life may be difficult for us. Paper is necessary for study and writing. People in villages use firewood to cook meals. They use wood to build houses, huts, carts and agriculture tools. Trees also give us food, gum and medicine. Plants are very important for us. They provide us fresh fruits, wood, natural herbs and many things of professional value. They also add to the beauty of life. However, the trees on our planet are being depleted at a very fast rate. According to some estimates, more than 50 percent of the tree cover has disappeared due to human activity. Trees helped us to live from ancient & they are our best friends. But people couldn’t understand the truth & they destroyed the trees as enemies. We helped to destroy natural forests & built concreate forests. We helped to cutting down trees from using timber products. But at the last we defeated from this war against trees. Because we can’t live without trees. Now we don’t have - living climate, fresh water, fresh air, enough foods. This is the global destruction. Let us all join to save the world for future generation from save trees. Help to stop the war against trees. Let us join with trees as our friends peacefully. Trees are Nature's wonders and a great gift to mankind as well as to all those who depend on them. While some dependents stay on the trees, others come to them to rest or to feed. Still others use them to raise their offspring. Humans have used almost any and every tree to their benefit. As a matter of fact the unawareness of the the bad effects of cutting trees to our environment leads to Irresponsible behavior by people ,many people did not even know that by cutting down trees they are basically committing a murder because the more trees we have the better the oxygen in our environment and vice versa The truth about Deforestation has been shown. Some people are trying to fight this problem. Others are ignoring it and hoping it will go away. Still others don't even seem to care. It is very sad that the same humans are destroying trees all over the world in the name of "development". This can be to create factories, new townships, wider roads, railways, entertainment centres and so on. They do not realize that they are making a big mistake.
  2. 2. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2 | P a g e Benefits of Trees
  3. 3. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3 | P a g e Trees combat the greenhouse effect Global warming is the result of excess greenhouse gases, created by burning fossil fuels and destroying tropical rainforests. Heat from the sun, reflected back from the earth, is trapped in this thickening layer of gases, causing global temperatures to rise. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a major greenhouse gas. Trees absorb CO2, removing and storing the carbon while releasing the oxygen back into the air. In one year, an acre of mature trees absorbs the amount of CO2 produced when you drive your car 26,000 miles. Trees clean the air In one year an acre of mature trees can provide enough oxygen for 18 people. Trees absorb odors and pollutant gases (nitrogen oxides, ammonia, sulfur dioxide and ozone) and filter particulates out of the air by trapping them on their leaves and bark. Forests play an essential role in purifying the air we breathe. Of course, trees don't have lungs the way human beings do. They "breathe," or respire, thanks to a process called photosynthesis. So, what is photosynthesis? All leaves and plants contain living cells that take in sunlight. By capturing the sun's energy, the leaf's cells gain the strength to decompose the sap supplied by the roots, thus providing the tree with nutrition. Not only does the leaf need light to decompose sap and transform it into food for the tree, it also needs air. Air is filtered by the tree and returned to the atmosphere. That is why we say that trees purify the air.
  4. 4. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4 | P a g e Trees cool the streets and the city Trees and other plants help cool the environment, making vegetation a simple and effective way to reduce urban heat islands. Trees and vegetation lower surface and air temperatures by providing shade and through evapotranspiration. Shaded surfaces, for example, may be 20–45°F (11–25°C) cooler than the peak temperatures of unshaded materials.1 Evapotranspiration, alone or in combination with shading, can help reduce peak summer temperatures by 2–9°F (1–5°C).2, 3 Trees and vegetation are most useful as a mitigation strategy when planted in strategic locations around buildings or to shade pavement in parking lots and on streets. Researchers have found that planting deciduous trees or vines to the west is typically most effective for cooling a building, especially if they shade windows and part of the building’s roof. Trees conserve energy Three trees placed strategically around a single-family home can cut summer air conditioning needs by up to 50 percent. By reducing the energy demand for cooling our houses, we reduce carbon dioxide and other pollution emissions from power plants.
  5. 5. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5 | P a g e Trees help prevent water pollution Trees reduce runoff by breaking rainfall thus allowing the water to flow down the trunk and into the earth below the tree. This prevents storm-water from carrying pollutants to the ocean. When mulched, trees act like a sponge that filters this water naturally and uses it to recharge groundwater supplies. Some trees have the ability of phytoremediation. This is the uptake of contaminants (mostly heavy metals) through the roots and then stored in vascular tissues. The plants are able to accumulate the contaminants without any harm to the plant. In turn, the contaminants are being extracted from the soil, thus making it less polluted. Trees help prevent soil erosion On hillsides or stream slopes, trees slow runoff and hold soil in place. the strong roots of the trees holds the soil and preventing it from being very soft. Also the roots of the trees drink water from the soil which lessen the probability to have floods.
  6. 6. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6 | P a g e Trees shield children from ultraviolet rays Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. Trees reduce UV-B exposure by about 50 percent, thus providing protection to children on school campuses and playgrounds - where children spend hours outdoors. Trees Heal Studies have shown that patients with views of trees out their windows heal faster and with less complications. Children with ADHD show fewer symptoms when they have access to nature. Exposure to trees and nature aids concentration by reducing mental fatigue. Fruit harvested from community orchards can be sold, thus providing income. Small business opportunities in green waste management and landscaping arise when cities value mulching and its water-saving qualities. Vocational training for youth interested in green jobs is also a great way to develop economic opportunities from trees.
  7. 7. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7 | P a g e Trees provide a canopy and habitat for wildlife Sycamore and Oak are among the many urban species that provide excellent urban homes for birds, bees, possums and squirrels . It is only natural that wherever trees are planted, wildlife and other plants are sure to follow. Trees provide shelter and food for a variety of birds and small animals, such as squirrels and beavers. Enhancing growth diversity, trees create an environment that allows the growth of plants that otherwise would not be there. Flowers, fruits, leaves, buds and woody parts of trees are used by many different species. Bacteria and fungi contained in tree parts cause decay which makes nesting easier for some birds and increases soil fertility and structure for furrowing by other land animals. Trees also provide shade, reduce water and air temperatures and contribute to the overall health of aquatic ecosystems by providing habitat, shelter and food for aquatic species such as turtles, otters, beavers and fish.
  8. 8. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8 | P a g e Deforestation Deforestation is when humans remove or clear large areas of forest lands and related ecosystems for non-forest use. These include clearing for farming purposes, ranching and urban use. In these cases, trees are never re-planted. Since the industrial age, about half of world's original forests have been destroyed and millions of animals and living things have been endangered. Despite the improvements in education, information and general awareness of the importance of forests, deforestation has not reduced much, and there are still many more communities and individuals who still destroy forest lands for personal gains. Forests are cleared all around the world for a number of reasons, including: Harvesting of timber to produce wood and paper products Clearing land for farms, cash-crop plantations, and cattle ranching Clearing land for urban development, including homes and roads. Forests are also being destroyed by acid rain resulting from our pollution-causing activities and through the introduction of disease and invasive species. Deforestation is a very real environmental threat. Our once vast forests are disappearing. All around the world, trees are being cut down too quickly for earth to regenerate new forests.
  9. 9. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9 | P a g e Pictures of Deforestation
  10. 10. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10 | P a g e What happens when forests are cleared? Floods and soil erosion The roots of a tree make gaps in the soil so that when it rains the water can sink in before being absorbed by the soil. These spaces also allow air and water to reach the roots of the plants. When trees removed using heavy machinery, the soil is pushed down and the gaps fill in. Because all plants and trees need that water and air to reach roots, the conditions become unfriendly for new growth. Because the soil no longer can absorb the water, when it rains the water remains on the top of the soil and this can result in floods. The moving water also can completely wash away the top layer of the soil. This is called soil erosion. Without the top layer of soil, which is full nutrition, plants are not fed and find it hard to grow. What we lose: About 24 billion tons of agricultural topsoil (the top layer of soil) wash or blow away each year. Drought Forests help produce rainfall. The more trees, the more water gets absorbed into clouds and the more rain falls. If the forests disappear, there will be less rain resulting in drier conditions that eventually lead to drought. Once this happens, the damage is extensive making it difficult to plant more trees or plants later because the soil is so hard and dry.
  11. 11. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11 | P a g e Greenhouse gases and Acid rain The earth's atmosphere contains a number of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases trap the heat from the sun inside the atmosphere. Some greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and water vapour. We need these gases in small amounts, but they can be harmful at high levels. Forests help remove large amounts of CO2 from the air. They absorb the gas during photosynthesis. However, more CO2 is produced than all the trees can absorb when fossil fuels are burned, for example and when forests are cut down, even less CO2 is being absorbed leaving it trapped in the atmosphere. As greenhouse gases build up, more of the sun’s heat gets trapped and that can lead to climate change (the disruption of the delicate balance of the earth's ecosystems). The added pollution in the atmosphere can also lead to acid rain when the gases mix with water in clouds. When this is deposited on forests it can damage the trees and the ecosystem as a whole.
  12. 12. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12 | P a g e Loss of Biodiversity Another harmful result of deforestation is the extinction of animal and plant species. They disappear because their environment and life cycles have been disturbed and they are unable to adapt to the changes. When species disappear, it is called extinction. Essential habitat is lost when forests are cut down; wildlife species lose their homes, their food sources and their place in the web of life. Even though extinction is part of life, it is happening far too quickly now. It is estimated that as many as 150-200 species around the world go extinct every day! Climate Change Plants absorb Carbon Dioxide CO2 (a greenhouse gas) from the atmosphere and uses it to produce food (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins that make up trees). In return, it gives off Oxygen. Destroying the forests mean CO2 will remain in the atmosphere and in addition, destroyed vegetation will give off more CO2 stored in them as they decompose. This will alter the climate of that region. Cool climates may get a lot hotter and hot places may get a lot cooler. Scientists have warned that the world's climate has changed a lot, and has affected many living and non-living things. Many places that were warmer are now getting colder, and many colder regions are getting much more colder or even warmer (know as Global Warming).
  13. 13. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13 | P a g e Pictures of Climates Change Causes
  14. 14. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14 | P a g e Trees and Air Pollution Trees and other plants make their own food from carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, water, sunlight and a small amount of soil elements. In the process, they release oxygen (O2) for us to breathe .Trees for the Future calculates that their trees remove approximately one million tons of CO2 from the atmosphere each year. Trees also remove other gaseous pollutants through the stomata in the leaf surface by absorbing them with normal air components. Air pollutants injure trees by damaging their foliage and impairing the process of photosynthesis (food making). They also weaken trees making them more susceptible to other health problems such as insects and diseases. The loss of trees in our urban areas not only intensifies the urban "heat-island" effect from loss of shade and evaporation, but we lose a principal absorber of carbon dioxide and trapper of other air pollutants as well.
  15. 15. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15 | P a g e What can we do to help preserve our forest ? Sometimes, we are overwhelmed by the extent of damage humans have caused, and we are not sure if an individual can make any impact. Yes you can, there are millions of people just like you, who are learning about the issue and taking little steps to help. Additionally, many governments, organizations and societies are making great strides in helping reducing deforestation, and encouraging forest plantations. But there is still a lot to do. Due to the extent and nature of forest destruction, efforts to stop deforestation and preserve them are best achieved at government and organization levels. This means that laws, rules and regulations from countries can help to enforce the preservation of forests. Laws on farming, timber and wood, as well as land use must be encouraged and enforced. Here are a few things you can also do to help. Make a conscious effort to share information with others (friends at school and family members) on deforestation and its' effects. Some of your friends may laugh at you and say it is silly to think that you can solve problems like this. But that is OK, things work better when responsible people don’t give up. Stand up for what you believe in. Join organizations, forest-preservation societies and pressure groups that aim to help preserve the rest of our natural resources. When more people work together, the impact is greater. Reduce the use of artificial items, recycle more and re-use items. Wood, paper, plastics and many other things we use everyday at home can be linked to natural resources being destroyed. This means that if we all recycle more, there will be less dependence on the environment (and trees). It also means that companies and governments will import less raw- materials from the forest regions of the world. There is a fun way to remember the most important points in forest preservation called TREES which means... -Teach others about the importance of the environment and how they can help save rainforests. -Restore damaged ecosystems by planting trees on land where forests have been cut down. -Encourage people to live in a way that doesn't hurt the environment. -Establish parks to protect rainforests and wildlife. -Support companies that operate in ways that minimize damage to the environment.
  16. 16. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16 | P a g e Plant a tree and get air for free The tree is your friend Feel free plant a tree
  17. 17. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 17 | P a g e Conclusion: Trees are immensely useful to all of us. They give us so much, taking almost nothing in return. Trees are important to humankind not only economically, environmentally and industrially, but also spiritually, historically and aesthetically, for they sustain human life through direct and indirect gains by providing a wide range of products for survival and prosperity. Trees for the Future is also actively involved in educating students and communities about global issues, our role in the environment, and energy efficiency. Trees for the Future calculates that their trees remove approximately one million tons of CO2 from the atmosphere each year. They help us to remain calm and cool, provide us with a charming surrounding and share their wealth with us so selflessly. Better management of forests would allow governments to responsibly cut down trees and develop those areas for the welfare of society. However, we must condemn irresponsible, unsupervised hacking of trees anywhere on the planet. At the same time, we must grow more and more trees.
  18. 18. Páññasástra University of Cambodia Environmental Science _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 18 | P a g e Reference http://www.epa.gov/heatisland/mitigation/trees.htm http://www.treepeople.org/top-22-benefits-trees https://www.theforestacademy.com/trees-in-our-lives/trees-purify-the-air/ http://www.urbanforestrynetwork.org/benefits/wildlife.htm http://www.ecokids.ca/pub/eco_info/topics/forests/threats.cfm http://eschooltoday.com/forests/what-is-forest-degradation.html http://www.dnr.state.md.us/forests/publications/urban2.html http://multiwood.in/savetrees/tag/save-trees/

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