Developing Fluency
EDP521 Methodology of Teaching
Speaking and Listening
Dr. Alan Klein
Fluency . . .
• Involves the processing of language in “real
time” (focusing on communication)
• Does not require much att...
Fluency, Accuracy, and Complexity
• Fluency is measured by speed of access or
production.
• Accuracy is measured by reduci...
Increases in Fluency Involve Ls’
Changes in Knowledge of L2
Fluency is more than simply an increase in speed
of processing...
Fluency Is Likely to Develop if . . .
• Language activities are meaning focused.
• Ls participate in activities using prev...
Designing Fluency Activities
(4/3/2 Technique)
• Ls should process a large quantity of language.
• The demands of the acti...
Characteristics of Fluency Tasks
• Easy for Ls (controlled topic)
• Clear outcome (focus on the message)
• Time pressure
•...
Planning and Preparation by Ls
(individually or in groups)
Preparing for fluency activities:
• Brainstorming the topic
• P...
Fitting Fluency into a Course
• Where L2 is not used outside class, 25% of
class activities should have fluency as their
g...
If Fluency Is the Goal of a Unit . . .
• Early parts of the unit prepare Ls for later
parts. Since fluency is a SKILL (LIS...
Techniques for Developing
Fluency in Listening . . .
• Involves meaning-focused activities
• Uses topics, language items, ...
Listening Fluency and
Top-Down Processing
• In top-down processing, Ls bring a lot of topic-
related knowledge to the task...
Techniques for Developing
Fluency in Speaking . . .
• Can make use of
repetition and
rehearsal (pyramid
procedure).
• Can ...
Monitoring Fluency Tasks
Examining the Context of the Material
LIST = Skill (Fluency)
• What is the learning goal of the task?
Example: if it’s und...
Checklist for Examining
Fluency Materials
(ex: from a textbook)
1. What will keep Ls interested in the message
involved?
2...
Checklist for Observing a
Listening Fluency Activity
1. Are the Ls interested in the message?
2. Are the Ls easily able to...
Checklist for Observing a
Speaking Fluency Activity
1. Are the Ls interested in the activity and its
outcome?
2. Are they ...
Fluency, the Neglected Strand
• Teachers often feel that new materials need
to appear in every lesson, thus short-changing...
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(2013) 8 developing fluency By Dr. Alan Klein ( Institute of Foreign Languages, Cambodia)

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This file is sent to all Teachers of English who really want to build their student English fluency.
This is the work of Dr. Alan Klein.

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(2013) 8 developing fluency By Dr. Alan Klein ( Institute of Foreign Languages, Cambodia)

  1. 1. Developing Fluency EDP521 Methodology of Teaching Speaking and Listening Dr. Alan Klein
  2. 2. Fluency . . . • Involves the processing of language in “real time” (focusing on communication) • Does not require much attention or effort from the L (it’s known material). • Is a skill (Language, Ideas, Skills, Text), making the best possible use of what is already known. 2
  3. 3. Fluency, Accuracy, and Complexity • Fluency is measured by speed of access or production. • Accuracy is measured by reducing the amount of errors. • Complexity is measured by the presence of complicated grammatical constructions (subordinate clauses). 3
  4. 4. Increases in Fluency Involve Ls’ Changes in Knowledge of L2 Fluency is more than simply an increase in speed of processing. There’s a sophistication in the understanding of the language: • Joining language sequences into larger units • Broadening the use of some rules • Narrowing the use of some rules • Using rules more effectively 4
  5. 5. Fluency Is Likely to Develop if . . . • Language activities are meaning focused. • Ls participate in activities using previously known items. • Ls have support to perform at a higher level. • Ls have substantial opportunities for both receptive and productive language use. 5 If the language items that have been learned are not readily available for fluent use, then the learning has been of little purpose!
  6. 6. Designing Fluency Activities (4/3/2 Technique) • Ls should process a large quantity of language. • The demands of the activity should be limited (the Ls control the topic/ideas). • Ls have opportunities to repeat performance in decreasing amounts of time. 6
  7. 7. Characteristics of Fluency Tasks • Easy for Ls (controlled topic) • Clear outcome (focus on the message) • Time pressure • Repetition (change partners, not content) 7
  8. 8. Planning and Preparation by Ls (individually or in groups) Preparing for fluency activities: • Brainstorming the topic • Pre-reading on the topic • Observation of others doing the activity • Repeated opportunities to do the activity • Preparing and practicing in L1 • Prediction 8
  9. 9. Fitting Fluency into a Course • Where L2 is not used outside class, 25% of class activities should have fluency as their goal. • Fluency activities often involve linking of skills: – Reading followed by listening – Discussion followed by listening – Writing followed by speaking The earlier activities provide preparation and support for the later activity. 9
  10. 10. If Fluency Is the Goal of a Unit . . . • Early parts of the unit prepare Ls for later parts. Since fluency is a SKILL (LIST), the earlier parts cover the LANGUAGE, IDEAS, and TEXT. • The final part of the unit represents the fluency learning goal. 10
  11. 11. Techniques for Developing Fluency in Listening . . . • Involves meaning-focused activities • Uses topics, language items, and experiences already familiar to Ls (knowledge from L1) • Encourages Ls to reach a high level of performance through: – meaning-focused repetition – increased speed of output – opportunities for prediction – using previous background knowledge 11
  12. 12. Listening Fluency and Top-Down Processing • In top-down processing, Ls bring a lot of topic- related knowledge to the task. • In bottom-up processing, Ls rely primarily on the language of the text to understand. • Fluency tasks should be largely top-down because these tasks allow Ls to perform at speed without having to think too much about language forms. 12
  13. 13. Techniques for Developing Fluency in Speaking . . . • Can make use of repetition and rehearsal (pyramid procedure). • Can be theme based and continue for an extended number of classes. 13
  14. 14. Monitoring Fluency Tasks
  15. 15. Examining the Context of the Material LIST = Skill (Fluency) • What is the learning goal of the task? Example: if it’s understanding the IDEAS of the text, then Ls need to have mastered the LANGUAGE items (vocabulary, grammar), the SKILL, and the TEXT format. • So, are the other aspects of the task within the L’s experience? 15
  16. 16. Checklist for Examining Fluency Materials (ex: from a textbook) 1. What will keep Ls interested in the message involved? 2. How is the activity made easy for the Ls to do? 3. What encouragement is there for the Ls to perform at a faster than usual level? 16
  17. 17. Checklist for Observing a Listening Fluency Activity 1. Are the Ls interested in the message? 2. Are the Ls easily able to understand the message? 3. Is the message presented to the Ls at a challenging rate that encourages fluency? 17
  18. 18. Checklist for Observing a Speaking Fluency Activity 1. Are the Ls interested in the activity and its outcome? 2. Are they easily able to find things to talk about? 3. Are they speaking without a lot of hesitation? (um, ah, er) 1. Are they speaking at a fast rate? 18
  19. 19. Fluency, the Neglected Strand • Teachers often feel that new materials need to appear in every lesson, thus short-changing fluency activities. • Fluency development activities are a very useful bridge between KNOWING & USING. 19

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