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Presentation muet (2)

  1. 1. OBESITY TEACHER’S NAME : PN.PATHMAVATHY A/P P.S .SIVAM CLASS : 6 ATAS 3
  2. 2.  Obesity and overweight have in the last decade become a global problem.  according to the World Health Organization (WHO), back in 2005 approximately 1.6 billion adults over the of age 15 and above were overweight, at least 400 million adults were obese and at least 20 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight.  Experts believe, if the current trends continue by 2015 , approximately 2.3 billion adults will be overweight and more than 700 million will be obese. The scale of the obesity problem has a number of serious consequences for individuals and government health systems.
  3. 3. • Overweight and obesity are defined by the WHO as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to an individuals health.
  4. 4. • The WHO defines an adult who has a BMI between 25 and 29.9 as overweight • an adult who has a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese – • a BMI below 18.5 is considered underweight, • between 18.5 to 24.9 a healthy weight . WHICH TYPE ARE YOU IN ?
  5. 5. • body fat between boys and girls are differences at various ages. • However although BMI correlates with the amount of body fat, BMI does not directly measure body fat and some people, such as athletes, may have a BMI that identifies them as overweight even though they do not have excess body fat. • Other methods of estimating body fat and body fat distribution include  measurements of skinfold thickness and waist circumference,  calculation of waist-to-hip circumference ratios,  techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  6. 6. CAUSES OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY
  7. 7. • LACK OF SLEEP
  8. 8. Research shows that lack of sleep increases the risk of obesity For example, one study of teenagers showed that with each hour of sleep lost, the odds of becoming obese went up People who sleep fewer hours also seem to prefer eating foods that are higher in calories and carbohydrates, which can lead to overeating, weight gain, and obesity. Sleep helps maintain a healthy balance of the hormones that make you feel hungry (ghrelin) or full (leptin).  When you don't get enough sleep, your level of ghrelin goes up and your level of leptin goes down. This makes you feel hungrier than when you're well- rested.
  9. 9. GENES AND FAMILY HISTORY
  10. 10.  Overweight and obesity tend to run in families.  Your chances of being overweight are greater if one or both of your parents are overweight or obese.  This is because families also share food and physical activity habits, a link exists between genes and the environment.  Children adopt the habits of their parents. A child who has overweight parents who eat high-calorie foods and are inactive will likely become overweight too  However, if the family adopts healthy food and physical activity habits, the child's chance of being overweight or obese can be reduced.
  11. 11.  Some Malaysians aren't very physically active  many people spend hours in front of TVs and computers doing work, schoolwork, and leisure activities  In fact, more than 2 hours a day of regular TV viewing time has been linked to overweight and obesity.  People who are inactive are more likely to gain weight because they don't burn the calories that they take in from food and drinks.  Some examples : fewer physical demands at work or at home because of modern technology and conveniences  lack of physical education classes in schools. relying on cars instead of walking
  12. 12. Lack of Energy Balance
  13. 13. Energy balance means that your energy IN equals your energy OUT. ( ENERGY IN = ENERGY OUT ) Energy IN is the amount of energy or calories you get from food and drinks. Energy OUT is the amount of energy your body uses for things like breathing, digesting, and being physically active. To maintain a healthy weight, your energy IN and OUT don't have to balance exactly every day. It's the balance over time that helps you maintain a healthy weight. • The same amount of energy IN and energy OUT over time = weight stays the same • More energy IN than energy OUT over(divide) time = weight gain • More energy OUT than energy IN over(divide)time = weight loss
  14. 14. Emotional Factors
  15. 15. – Some people eat more than usual when they're bored, angry, or stressed. – Over time, overeating will lead to weight gain and may cause overweight or obesity.
  16. 16. • Additional fat tissue in the body needs oxygen and nutrients in order to live, which requires the blood vessels to circulate more blood to the fat tissue. • This increases the workload of the heart because it must pump more blood through additional blood vessels. • More circulating blood also means more pressure on the artery walls. • Higher pressure on the artery walls increases the blood pressure. • In addition, extra weight can raise the heart rate and reduce the body's ability to transport blood through the vessels. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
  17. 17. • Obesity is the major cause of diabetes. • Diabetes usually begins in adulthood but, is now actually occurring in children. • Obesity can cause resistance to insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar. • When obesity causes insulin resistance, the blood sugar becomes elevated. • Even moderate obesity dramatically increases the risk of diabetes. DIABETES
  18. 18. – Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) is present 10 times more often in obese people compared to those who are not obese. – Coronary artery disease is also more prevalent because fatty deposits build up in arteries that supply the heart. – Narrowed arteries and reduced blood flow to the heart can cause chest pain (angina) or a heart attack. – Blood clots can also form in narrowed arteries and cause a stroke. HEART DISEASE
  19. 19.  In women, being overweight contributes to an increased risk for a variety of cancers • breast, • colon, • gallbladder, and uterus.  Men who are overweight have a higher risk of colon and prostate cancers. CANCER
  20. 20. Obesity can affect the knees and hips because of the stress placed on the joints by extra weight. Joint replacement surgery, while commonly performed on damaged joints, may not be an advisable option for an obese person because the artificial joint has a higher risk of loosening and causing further damage. JOINT PROBLEMS ( INCLUDING OSTEOARTHRITIS)
  21. 21.  Sleep apnea, which causes people to stop breathing for brief periods, interrupts sleep throughout the night and causes sleepiness during the day. It also causes heavy snoring. Respiratory problems associated with obesity occur when added weight of the chest wall squeezes the lungs and causes restricted breathing. Sleep apnea is also associated with high blood pressure. SLEEP APNEA AND RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS
  22. 22. OSTEOARTHRITIS SLEEP APNEA
  23. 23. THE WAYS TO PREVENT OBESITY
  24. 24. • Although lots of people think they'll cut calories by cutting breakfast, the opposite is true • Studies show that eating breakfast helps you consume fewer total calories for the day • People who eat cereal for breakfast have lower BMIs than people who skip breakfast or dine on meat and eggs.
  25. 25. EXERCISE
  26. 26. • Walk an Extra 2,000 Steps Daily – Just a simple walk around a few blocks can help you stay fit and prevent obesity – Try to do something every day that gets you walking around, even if it is just a 15 minute walk around your neighborhood or workplace on your lunch break.
  27. 27. • Take the Stairs – This simple change can help you burn hundreds of extra calories a day. – Whenever you are tempted to take the elevator, be it at work or the library, hit the staircase and climb up. – Stairs are a great way to burn some extra calories and can help energize you after working long hours at a desk or another sedentary job.
  28. 28. • EAT A BALANCED DIET – You need an understanding of what foods are high in saturated fats and cholesterol therefore you can avoid these items which build up in your stomach, arteries and veins. – Eat quantity of food base on the food pyramids
  29. 29. REMEMBER !! • just because you eat one slice of cake doesn’t mean your whole plan is wrecked Don’t starve yourself, you’ll probably end up with some kind of an eating disorder, and that’s even harder to cope with.
  30. 30. • Make a small goals. – Start small and set goals for yourself – Example’s goal : • walk to school • do twenty minutes of exercise • don’t eat so much for dinner – draw up a simple and flexible plan for yourself. Include exercise, meals and room of occasions.
  31. 31. CONCLUSION • Obesity or even being overweight has serious effects on the individual and the society. Both need to take action to examine the causes of this problem and find solutions. • Diciplines and patients are needed to curb this problems
  32. 32. Presented by: FATIN NUR NAJWA BINTI KHOZAINIRASYIDATUL NAJWA BT ROSMAN NUR NABILA BT HASHIM THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION ! NURUL UMIRAH BT MOHD HASHIM ABD AZIZ BIN SAIFUDIN
  33. 33. ANY QUESTION ?

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