TEACHER’S NAME : PN.PATHMAVATHY A/P P.S .SIVAM
CLASS : 6 ATAS 3
Obesity and overweight have in the last decade become a
according to the World Health Organization (WHO), back in
2005 approximately 1.6 billion adults over the of age 15 and
above were overweight, at least 400 million adults were
obese and at least 20 million children under the age of 5
years were overweight.
Experts believe, if the current trends continue by 2015 ,
approximately 2.3 billion adults will be overweight and
more than 700 million will be obese. The scale of the
obesity problem has a number of serious consequences for
individuals and government health systems.
• Overweight and obesity are defined by the
WHO as abnormal or excessive fat
accumulation that presents a risk to an
• The WHO defines an adult who has a BMI between 25
and 29.9 as overweight
• an adult who has a BMI of 30 or higher is considered
• a BMI below 18.5 is considered underweight,
• between 18.5 to 24.9 a healthy weight .
WHICH TYPE ARE YOU IN ?
• body fat between boys and girls are differences at
• However although BMI correlates with the amount of
body fat, BMI does not directly measure body fat and
some people, such as athletes, may have a BMI that
identifies them as overweight even though they do not
have excess body fat.
• Other methods of estimating body fat and body fat
measurements of skinfold thickness and waist
calculation of waist-to-hip circumference ratios,
techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography,
and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Research shows that lack of sleep increases the risk of
For example, one study of teenagers showed that
with each hour of sleep lost, the odds of becoming
obese went up
People who sleep fewer hours also seem to prefer
eating foods that are higher in calories and
carbohydrates, which can lead to overeating, weight
gain, and obesity.
Sleep helps maintain a healthy balance of the
hormones that make you feel hungry (ghrelin) or full
When you don't get enough sleep, your level of
ghrelin goes up and your level of leptin goes down.
This makes you feel hungrier than when you're well-
Overweight and obesity tend to run in families.
Your chances of being overweight are greater if one or
both of your parents are overweight or obese.
This is because families also share food and physical
activity habits, a link exists between genes and the
Children adopt the habits of their parents. A child who
has overweight parents who eat high-calorie foods
and are inactive will likely become overweight too
However, if the family adopts healthy food and
physical activity habits, the child's chance of being
overweight or obese can be reduced.
Some Malaysians aren't very physically active
many people spend hours in front of TVs and computers
doing work, schoolwork, and leisure activities
In fact, more than 2 hours a day of regular TV viewing
time has been linked to overweight and obesity.
People who are inactive are more likely to gain weight
because they don't burn the calories that they take in
from food and drinks.
Some examples :
fewer physical demands at work or at home
because of modern technology and
lack of physical education classes in schools.
relying on cars instead of walking
Energy balance means that your energy IN equals
your energy OUT. ( ENERGY IN = ENERGY OUT )
Energy IN is the amount of energy or calories you get
from food and drinks.
Energy OUT is the amount of energy your body uses
for things like breathing, digesting, and being
To maintain a healthy weight, your energy IN and
OUT don't have to balance exactly every day. It's the
balance over time that helps you maintain a healthy
• The same amount of energy IN and energy OUT over time =
weight stays the same
• More energy IN than energy OUT over(divide) time = weight
• More energy OUT than energy IN over(divide)time = weight
– Some people eat more than usual when they're
bored, angry, or stressed.
– Over time, overeating will lead to weight gain and
may cause overweight or obesity.
• Additional fat tissue in the body needs oxygen and
nutrients in order to live, which requires the blood
vessels to circulate more blood to the fat tissue.
• This increases the workload of the heart because it
must pump more blood through additional blood
• More circulating blood also means more pressure on
the artery walls.
• Higher pressure on the artery walls increases the blood
• In addition, extra weight can raise the heart rate and
reduce the body's ability to transport blood through
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
• Obesity is the major cause of diabetes.
• Diabetes usually begins in adulthood but, is
now actually occurring in children.
• Obesity can cause resistance to insulin, the
hormone that regulates blood sugar.
• When obesity causes insulin resistance, the
blood sugar becomes elevated.
• Even moderate obesity dramatically increases
the risk of diabetes.
– Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) is
present 10 times more often in obese people
compared to those who are not obese.
– Coronary artery disease is also more prevalent
because fatty deposits build up in arteries that
supply the heart.
– Narrowed arteries and reduced blood flow to the
heart can cause chest pain (angina) or a heart
– Blood clots can also form in narrowed arteries and
cause a stroke.
In women, being overweight contributes to an
increased risk for a variety of cancers
• gallbladder, and uterus.
Men who are overweight have a higher risk of
colon and prostate cancers.
Obesity can affect the knees and hips because of
the stress placed on the joints by extra weight.
Joint replacement surgery, while commonly
performed on damaged joints, may not be an
advisable option for an obese person because the
artificial joint has a higher risk of loosening and
causing further damage.
( INCLUDING OSTEOARTHRITIS)
Sleep apnea, which causes people to stop breathing
for brief periods, interrupts sleep throughout the
night and causes sleepiness during the day.
It also causes heavy snoring.
Respiratory problems associated with obesity occur
when added weight of the chest wall squeezes the
lungs and causes restricted breathing.
Sleep apnea is also associated with high blood
SLEEP APNEA AND RESPIRATORY
• Although lots of people think they'll cut calories
by cutting breakfast, the opposite is true
• Studies show that eating breakfast helps you
consume fewer total calories for the day
• People who eat cereal for breakfast have lower
BMIs than people who skip breakfast or dine on
meat and eggs.
• Walk an Extra 2,000 Steps Daily
– Just a simple walk around a few blocks can help
you stay fit and prevent obesity
– Try to do something every day that gets you
walking around, even if it is just a 15 minute walk
around your neighborhood or workplace on your
• Take the Stairs
– This simple change can help you burn hundreds of
extra calories a day.
– Whenever you are tempted to take the elevator,
be it at work or the library, hit the staircase and
– Stairs are a great way to burn some extra calories
and can help energize you after working long
hours at a desk or another sedentary job.
• EAT A BALANCED DIET
– You need an understanding of what foods are
high in saturated fats and cholesterol therefore
you can avoid these items which build up in your
stomach, arteries and veins.
– Eat quantity of food base on the food pyramids
• just because you eat one slice of cake doesn’t
mean your whole plan is wrecked
Don’t starve yourself, you’ll
probably end up with some kind
of an eating disorder, and that’s
even harder to cope with.
• Make a small goals.
– Start small and set goals for yourself
– Example’s goal :
• walk to school
• do twenty minutes of exercise
• don’t eat so much for dinner
– draw up a simple and flexible plan for yourself.
Include exercise, meals and room of occasions.
• Obesity or even being overweight has serious
effects on the individual and the society. Both
need to take action to examine the causes of this
problem and find solutions.
• Diciplines and patients are needed to curb this
FATIN NUR NAJWA BINTI KHOZAINIRASYIDATUL NAJWA BT ROSMAN
NUR NABILA BT HASHIM
THANK YOU FOR YOUR
NURUL UMIRAH BT MOHD HASHIM
ABD AZIZ BIN SAIFUDIN