THEORIES OF LEARNING
Presented to fill paper work English for Spesific Purpose (ESP)
Whicch is hold by Mrs. Firadusiah. M.pd
ABDUL. RASYID (18201201030011)
ACH. ARIANTO (18201201030014)
USWATUN. HASANAH (18201201030218)
TRI. WAHYUNINGSIH (18201201030 )
ENGLISH TEACHING LEARNING PROGRAM
THE STATE OF ISLAMIC COLLEGE (STAIN) PAMEKASAN
THEORIES OF LEARNING
Theories of learning is the conceptual framework describing how information is
absorbbed, processed, and retained during the learning. This is about how the learners process
the information in which they have took. Learners may have their style in learning process but
they have a same destinition in order to understanding what they learnt.
Learning laguage means the understanding of structure and the processes of the mind.
Unfortunately, we know about the the people thinking. Althought, when people try improve
the techniques, methods and content of language teaching, they have to try and find what they
will do in the classroom atmosphere.
Develoments in leaening theory have followed a simmilar pattern to those in language
description, and ech has had some effect on the other. When Looking about the importance of
each for language teaching, it is best to consider the theories relating to language and learning
In twentieth century there was no coherent theory of learning available to language
teacher, until psyhcology had been established as respectable subject of scientific enquiry in
the early twentieth century. There are five main stages have identified of development which
are commomnly known as : Behaviorism, Mentalism, Cognitive Code, Affective Factor, and
II. KINDS OF MAIN STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
This is about the mechanical process of habit formation and brings product of frequent
reinfocement or stimulus – response sequence. This methods, showing the learning process as
a change in behavior, and will arrange the environment to elicit desire responses through such
devises as behevioral objectives.
Pattern of this methods are :
New language should always be dealt with in the sequence : hear, speak, read, write.
Frequent repetation is essential to effective learning.
All errors must be immeditely corrected.
According chomsky’s definition in Tom Huchinson and Alan Waters said that Thinking
must be rule-governed • A finite • Fairly small • Set of rules enables the mind to deal with the
potentially infinite range of experience it may encounter. The mind in other wodrs, does not
just respon to thestimilus,it use the individual stimuli in order to find the underlying pattern or
sistem. Unfortunately, learning is consist not of forming habits, but acquiring rules.
C. Cognitive Code.
The cognitive code takes the learner to be an active procesor of information. Therefore,
the learner takes process actively to make sense of data, and learning can be saidto have taken
place when the learner has managed to impose some short of meaningful interpretation or
pattern on the data. In ESP project has concern on making the student aware of their reading
strategies. So that tey can aplpy them on understanding to understanding texts in foreign
D. Affective Factor.
The cognitive theory has explained thet learners wiil learn when they actively think
about something. In this case learners try to combinethe emotinal factor and cognitive theory
in order to take success or otherwise of a language learning experience. That is the reason why
the important elements in the development of ESP is motivation.
There are two influential of motivation in language learning. They are :
Instrumental motivation. This is reflection of external needs. It means that learner
learn the language does not becase they want to, but they may be need some aims.
Likes speaker, examanaion etc.
Integrative motivation. In this case leaners learn the language because the they use it
as communicative speech to the otehers.
In ESP, as much as any good teaching, needs to be intrinsically motivating. It should
satisfy their need as a learners as well as their needs as potential target users of the language.
E. Learning and Acquisition.
In this case learning is seen as conscious process, while aquisition proceeds
unconsciously. In this section the two terms interchangeably. It means that when people
learning language, automaticaly they will aquire it in unconsciously. That is why the both
terms are interchangeably.
In the ESP we also will know about the a Model for Learning. It presents the mind as a
network conditions, rather like a road map. There are some various of mind way when the
learners showing an idea. The mind of the learner like a development agency. It brings a
settlement into a netwok and so develope his potential. To reach this, communication links
must be established. Therefore, communication network can proceeds from existing links.
To sum up, learning theories have their style in used. On the other hand, leaners may
have their distinguish in understanding learning language. Teachers have to take an electic
approach in order to teach learners. It is important to make good understanding process of the
students. In ESP, we known a cognitive, affective and others aspecs to learning, and each can
be a resource to the ESP pratisioner.
Hutchinson, Tom and Water Alan. 1987. English Specific Purpose. Great Britain :
Hill. F. Winfred. 2009. Alih bahaasa Khosim. M. Theories Of Learning. Bandung :
www. Theoris of Learning. com