Final project report

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Final project report

  1. 1. IN THE NAME OFTHE MOST BENEFICENT AND MERCIFUL
  2. 2. Project Report :New branch of pizza hutSubmitted To:
  3. 3. Mr. ADEEL AKHTARSubmitted By: MUHAMMAD JAVED 59M.COM 4th session (2010-2012) THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY BAHAWALPUR
  4. 4. MY PARENTS AND TEACHERS And also to ALL MYWELL WISHERS.
  5. 5. Almighty ALLAH is the entire source of knowledge and wisdom endowed tomankind and His dearest Nabi, MUHAMMAD (PBUH) is a light of guidance andknowledge for humanity as a whole.Everyone has a long list of individuals to whom he is indebted. We are noexception. We are firstly, with humble gratitude bow our heads before AlmightyALLAH for giving us strength, courage, patience and inspiration, and enable us tocomplete this project. To work for this project, was a difficult task, because it isabout NEW PIZZA HUT BRANCHWe acknowledge with thanks and admiration, our dependence on all of ourrespondents on their nice co-operation and giving us their loyal time. We feelGreat pleasure and honors to express our gratitude from the citadel of hearts to ourrespected and dignified instructor SIR.ADEEL AKHTAR Without whose guidance it would have been difficult for us to achieve Our objectives He provide us, his in-depth approach of the subject “Project Management“ And taught us a lot of tell analysis techniques which we have applied during data analysis. His sympathetic behavior has an ever lasting impression on the page of our memory.
  6. 6. THANKS:
  7. 7. DescriptionExecutive summaryHistory of ice makersPEST ANALYSISComparativeSTRATEGYPersonnel AnalysisSWOT AnalysisConclusion & Recommendations
  8. 8. The Project:Most of areas of Pakistan have long duration of summer due to which demand for ice is high formore than six months of the year. As in India demand for ice is more due to GOLAWALAduring summer. Other growing markets for ice plant are industries linked to FOOD PRODUCTSi.e. fish, dairy, packaged food, restaurants etc. With this growing demand a large number of iceplants are operating in the country.. My proposed project is useful and beneficial for Bahawalpur city. Food products industries likefish, dairy, packaged food, restaurants are linked to this industry. Mainly it produces for the“Cold Storage” purpose. So we generate the idea to set up an ice plant according to therequirements of the people of this city as this city has a great demand. Depending on the factsthis area of opportunity has not been exploited properly. We primarily focused on developing anidea to set up a ice manufacturing plant for business purpose or to be known as“ICE 2 ICE, ICE PLANT”.This project is related to setting up an ice plant of 50-tons capacity per day to cater to the needsof the associations such as fish sellers, hotels, restaurants, dairy, etc. The proposed project willmanufacture ice blocks varying from 130 kg to 150 kg in weight.The History of Ice MakersOnly within the past 200 years or so have people been able to make ice in their homes. If youhad lived in a warm climate before then, you might never see ice in your lifetime. Until theadvent of refrigeration and freezing technology, ice was cut from lakes and rivers during thewinter and stored in insulated places for use during warmer months. Ice also was imported fromcold to warm climates. The quality and quantity of the ice, however, was unpredictable at best.Ice Maker Inventors o In 1850, Dr. John Gorrie, a physician, scientist, inventor and humanitarian, demonstrated an ice maker and was granted a patent for the design in 1851, though he never brought it into commercial production. Gorrie is considered the father of refrigeration, inventing, among other things, an air-cooling system for a Florida hospital. He was not the only one working in the field, however. Alexander Twining received a patent in 1853 for an ice maker, and James Harrison of Australia received a patent in 1855 for an ice maker as well. In 1866, Thaddeus Lowe invented the first commercially produced ice machine, with the first commercially produced ice being sold in Dallas that same year. Home Refrigeration
  9. 9. o Refrigeration was invented in the mid-1800s then continuously developed by different people in different countries. Home refrigerators began to replace the old-fashioned ice box, but the early models did not have freezer compartments. By the 1920s refrigerators in the home became widespread in the West. Freezer compartments and ice cube trays were gradually added to new refrigerator models so that people could make ice cubes at home. First Ice Maker in a Refrigerator o In 1953 the Servelcompany first introduced a refrigerator with a built-in ice maker. The technology gradually evolved from people having to fill the water manually to water hook-ups that allowed the houses tap water line to be connected to the ice maker. By the 1960s, refrigerators with built-in ice makers were widespread. First Ice Maker in the Door of a Refrigerator o In 1965, Frigidaire introduced the first refrigerator with the ice maker in the door, along with a water dispenser, so that ice and water could be dispensed without having to open the appliance. By 1985, ice cube maker storage had improved so that up to 12 pounds of ice could be kept on hand. Ice plant requirementsSpace
  10. 10. Modern icemakers are compact in comparison with block ice equipment, but it is not alwayspossible to compare directly the space occupied by different types; for example they may not beavailable in the same unit sizes. However some guidance on the space requirements foricemakers with a nominal capacity of 50 tons a daySpace required for an icemaker producing 50tons/dayType of ice Floor area m2 Height mBlock 190 (5000 sqftapprox) 5.0PowerAverage power and peak power requirements may be different, and both have to be considered atthe planning stage. The average power relates to the energy consumed in making a ton of ice,and this is important in calculating operating cost. Peak power is important to the designer sinceit will determine what electrical supply is required, and may also affect operating cost if a peakdemand factor is applicable.The energy required to make a tons of ice is not constant. It varies widely depending on anumber of factors, the most important of which areType of ice unitsOperating temperatureMake-up water temperatureCooling water temperatureAir temperatureSize of plantUtilization of plantMethod of refrigerationEnergy consumption figures quoted by manufacturers for unspecified operating conditionsshould be used only as a general guide.Other Equipment Other Equipment Details Quantity
  11. 11. Generator 100 KVA (Engine Bus) 1Transformer 100 KVA 1Water Bore Diameter 3” – 4” 1Total Equipment CostFurniture & FixtureDescription Qty Cost/Unit Total CostTables 3 5,000 15,000Chairs 12 1,500 18,000Fans 4 1,800 7,200Lights 12 350 4,200Computer 1 20,000 20,000Telephone 1 2,500 2,500Total Furniture & Fixtures 66,900Office VehicleDescription Qty Cost/Unit Total Cost
  12. 12. Suzuki Pick-up 1 500,000 500,000Motorcycle (Honda 70) 1 58,000 58,000Bicycle (Chinese) 1 4,000 4,000Total Vehicle Cost 562,000
  13. 13. Input Requirement:The basic raw material required for producing ice blocks is water, common salt. These rawmaterials are readily available in the local market. Replenishments needed during maintenanceare ammonia gas and compressor oil.Raw Material Description 2,010 2,011 2,012 2,013 Ammonia consumption @ Rs. 21,840 24,960 28,080 31,200 Nacl consumption @ Rs. 5,950 6,800 7,650 8,500 Compressor oil for Rs. 19,600 22,400 25,200 28,000 TOTAL 47,390 54,160 60,930 67,700Factory overhead: a) FIXED COSTS -Power KW 600 10 72,000 - Machinery @ 2.34% installed cost 70,241 - Building @ 1% construction cost 16,720 - Vehicles @ 5% of cost 28,100 Total Fixed cost 219,618
  14. 14. Water and Gas: Equipment detail unit Water Bore Diameter 3” – 4” 1 GAS 6Electricity: 2012 2013 2014 2015 Electricity Expense 72,000 79,200 87,120 95,832 Technology involved:Technology/Process OptionsThe machinery used for the ice plant is local. It includes compressor, condenser, water tanksuitable for 350-700 ice cans, brine agitator, accumulator for parallel supply of ammonia,craneand trolley, oil separator, ice cans of size 11” x 22” x 48”, electric motor Merits & demerits of a particular technologyThe local machinery is readily available in the market at a very reasonable price. One of thebenefits of using locally manufactured machinery is availability of spare parts and it’s easier tofind operators to operate these machines.
  15. 15. Machine MaintenanceThe maintenance process starts after mid of July. Normally, it takes one month for theoverhauling of plant, during which the plant is closed for one month.
  16. 16. Energy required to manufacture ice kWh/ton of ice madeType of ice Temperate areaBlock 40-50The values in Table are for icemaker machinery only.WaterIn addition to water for making ice, water may be required for cooling, as in a refrigeration plantcondenser, or for heating, as in a warm water defrosting system.The amount of water required for making ice is roughly equal to the amount of ice beingproduced plus some allowance for wastage and for prevention of buildup of solids in the watercirculating system.Fresh water for making ice for use with fish must satisfy the requirements for drinking water. Inaddition, the chemical composition of water for making ice must meet the equipmentmanufacturers requirements; hard water containing excessive amounts of solids may foul theicemaker and may also yield a soft wet ice. On the other hand pure water may cause problems,particularly in flake ice plants, because the ice sticks hard to the drum; the remedy is to fit adosing device that puts 200-500 g salt into each tons of water to improve release of the icewithout making the ice detectably salty when used on fish.It is inadvisable to use shell and tube condensers in a refrigeration system where cooling water isrun to waste, unless a plentiful supply of cheap water is available, independent of the domesticdrinking water supply; otherwise water costs may be prohibitive, since 15 tons of cooling waterat 10°C or 60 tons at 25°C are required for each tons of ice produced. Other factors can affectcooling water consumption, and manufacturers precise figures should be used at the detailedplanning stage.Air cooled condensers can be used on small plants, but for most commercial installationsevaporative condensers, or shell and tube condensers with a cooling tower, are more likely to besupplied. Evaporative condensers and cooling tower cooling systems normally use less than 1/2tons of water for each tons of ice, plus some small additional allowance if an overspill isnecessary to prevent buildup of solids in the recirculated water.
  17. 17. Block iceTapered rectangular metal cans filled with water are immersed in a tank containing refrigeratedsodium chloride brine. The dimensions of the can and the temperature of the brine are usuallyselected to give a 24 hour production time, and batches of cans are emptied and refilled insequence during that period. Ice block weight can range from 12 to 150 kg depending onrequirements; 150 kg is regarded as the largest size of block one man can conveniently handle. Ablock ice plant requires continuous attention and is labour intensive. The icemaker and the storerequire a good deal of floor space and impose heavy loads on the building structure. For thesereasons block ice plants are going out of use, and more modern automatic plants are replacingthem.Location:We would set up our ice plant 10-15 minutes walking distance from Bahawalpur. As ice isnot easily available in this area and people of this area bears a lot of transportation expenses toget ice, so we are selecting this area to set up our ice plant.Product’s Range and Plant Capacity:We will be producing block ice only. The proposed project has a capacity of producing 50 iceblocks on the basis of 2 shifts of 12 hours. The maximum capacity of plant is 5000 tons perannum. Estimated capacity during:Market Entry Timing:
  18. 18. The ice plant should be started up when the season begins in mid Sep and closed when it end upin mid June. The peak season is of four months i.e. from March to mid June. The rest of theperiod is moderate season. The best time to enter into this business is in the month of March.Raw Material Requirement:The basic raw material required for producing ice blocks is water, common salt. These rawmaterials are readily available in the local market. Replenishments needed during maintenanceare ammonia gas and compressor oil.Machinery Requirements:The main equipment required for running the ice plant is compressor, capacitor, condenser, andelectric motors, power etc.Name of civil contractors:XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXMachinery Suppliers:XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
  19. 19. Project Engineering:The machinery of the proposed project will be purchased from any experienced engineer or aspecialized ice making machine manufacturer.Implementation Stage:Total time period for the starting of project is estimated to be 2 month year from the date ofapproval of finance.Cost of the Project:The total cost of the project is estimated to be Rs.3 millionThe fixed cost of the project is Rs. 4.50millionwhich arefinanced locally. The amount of initial permanent net working capital required is Rs. 5lakh.Means of Finance:Forty Percent (40%) of the estimated cost of the proposed project will be obtained through loanand the remaining 60%will be contributed by the Owner.Financial Plan:The total cost of the project is estimated to be Rs(3000000).Forty percent Rs (2.40 million)of theestimated cost of the proposedproject will be obtained through loan from Habib Bank Ltd and theremaining 60% Rs (2.60 million) will be contributed by the owner.Implementation Schedule: S.NO ACTI V I T IES MONTH YEAR 1 Order for Local Machinery may 2012
  20. 20. 2 Arrival of Local Machinery at site June 2012 Construction of Building and Civil 3 Works: Start June 2012 Complete JULY 2012 4 Erection &Installation of Machinery Start MAY 2012 Complete MAY 2012 5 Order for Raw Materials APRIL 2012 6 Start of Commercial Production JULY 2012 Market AnalysisTarget Customers:The target customers for ice plant can be divided into two categories:  Domestic users, such as ice cream sellers.  Second category is institutional buyers, who buy in bulk, hotels, restaurants, fish sellers, dairy plants etc.Description of Market:Institutional buyers buy the bulk of the block ice production, in institutions related to foodindustry. Business sectors, which utilize ice in the country, include the following:For theprotection of fish, Meat and also for Dairy Plants.Other potential institutional buyers of ice are bakeries, confectioners, hotels which buy iceblocks in bulk
  21. 21. Present Demand:In market our production’s demand is more than200 ice blocks per day. Which is already servedby our competitors, but we are having location advantage and we can take over the market.Demand Supply Gap:Our production of ice blocks is 50 ice blocks per day and there is demand of 200 ice blocks perday. So there is demand supply gap of 150 blocks.Ex-factory price:Our whole sale price is Rs. 280 per ice blockRetail price:Our retail price is Rs. 320per ice block.Distribution Channel:Ice blocks are supplied to supplier through trucks, bullock cart etc. Technical Analysis:Block ice is the most popular type of ice sold for a variety of reasons. It melts more slowly thanother types of ice and thus lasts longer. It can be placed in open truck with only a tarpaulin toprotect it from the elements and shipped to a location of four hours away.Its rectangular shape makes it easy to stack of up to 15 meters and store large amounts. Block icehas merits of easy to transport and separate as well. Other types of ice have the tendency tofreeze into a solid mass, making it difficult to work with.
  22. 22. Manufacturing Process:Production Process Flow Cleaning of Sheet Steel Ice Containers Placing of Containers in Water Tank containing Nacl Filling of Sheet Steel Ice Containers with water while vertically Temp Reduced to –17°C to –20°C Movement Nacl Tank by floating in of Ice Blocks hooks Delivery of Ice Blocks Extracting of Ice Blocks from Sheet Steel Containers Movement of Ice Blocks by hooks Delivery of Ice Blocks
  23. 23. Flow ChartIce cans are placed in can grids and moved to beneath the filling tank which automatically fillseach can with proper level of pre-cooled water and then stop. Filtered water must be used tomake ice intended for human consumption.The cans are then hoisted and carried to the brine tank and immersed inside. The brine, which isa calcium chloride solution kept at a temperature of -10degree, is constantly circulated byagitator in order to keep the temperature consistent throughout the tank.Air is blown into the center of the can to induce a swirling motion. This causes any impuritiesand air bubbles in the water to be collected in the center of cans. Prior to finish freezing, this coreis removed by a suction pump and replaced with fresh pre-cooled water.The time required for the water to be frozen varies according to the size of cans being used,150lbs. block requires 24 hours, 300 lbs. Takes 48 hours.When the ice has completely formed, the grids are lifted up from the brine tank and moved toplace in the thawing tank. Using the warm water,which heats the can until the ice allowed to beslid out. The block ice is then removed from the can by a can dumper.The empty cans are returned to filling tank for next ice making cycle. The ice is moved to icestorage and stacked by an ice stacker, or it can be delivered to customer right away uponrequested.
  24. 24. List of Machinery:DescriptionAmmonia Compressor (8x8) , Driven WheelAmmonia Condensor Atmosphere type with 2" pipeElectric Motor 100 H.P.1450 RPMBrine Tank for 720 Ice cans, 4mm local madeCooling Coil V-type 4" pipe & 1800 ftBrine Agitator 18" Fan MetalAccumulator for parallel supply of ammoniaCrane & Trolley with Railing Channel & GirderAmmonia Valves for Complete PlantAmmonia Pipes for Complete PlantOil Separator Buffer Type4 gauge Suction, Discharge, Oil PressureWood work for Ice Cans, Tank CoverIce Cans of 1.5 mmWater Fitting CompleteElectric Motor 7.5"Centrifugal Pump 2.5"x3"
  25. 25. Cooling coil Gas transfer pipeReceiver Cool water pumpCondenser
  26. 26. Other EquipmentOther Equipment Details QuantityGenerator 100 KVA (Engine Bus) 1Transformer 100 KVA 1Water Bore Diameter 3” – 4” 1Total Equipment CostFurniture & FixtureDescription QtyTables 3Chairs 12Fans 4Lights 12Computer 1Telephone 1Total Furniture & FixturesOffice VehicleDescription QtySuzuki Pick-up 1Motorcycle (Honda 70) 1Bicycle (Chinese) 1Total Vehicle Cost
  27. 27. Input Requirement:The basic raw material required for producing ice blocks is water, common salt. These rawmaterials are readily available in the local market. Replenishments needed during maintenanceare ammonia gas and compressor oil.Raw Material Description 2,010 2,011 2,012 2,013 Ammonia consumption @ Rs. 21,840 24,960 28,080 31,200 Nacl consumption @ Rs. 5,950 6,800 7,650 8,500 Compressor oil for Rs. 19,600 22,400 25,200 28,000 TOTAL 47,390 54,160 60,930 67,700Factory overhead: a) FIXED COSTS -Power KW 600 10 72,000 - Machinery @ 2.34% installed cost 70,241 - Building @ 1% construction cost 16,720 - Vehicles @ 5% of cost 28,100 Total Fixed cost 219,618
  28. 28. Water and Gas: Equipment detail unit Cost/unit Total cost Water Bore Diameter 3” – 4” 1 200,000 200,000 GAS 6 40000 240,000Electricity: 10% PER ANNUM. 2010 2011 2012 2013 Electricity Expense 72,000 79,200 87,120 95,832Technology involved:Technology/Process OptionsThe machinery used for the ice plant is local. It includes compressor, condenser, water tanksuitable for 350-700 ice cans, brine agitator, accumulator for parallel supply of ammonia, craneand trolley, oil separator, ice cans of size 11” x 22” x 48”, electric motor.Merits & demerits of a particular technologyThe local machinery is readily available in the market at a very reasonable price. One of thebenefits of using locally manufactured machinery is availability of spare parts and it’s easier tofind operators to operate these machines.Machine MaintenanceThe maintenance process starts after mid of July. Normally, it takes one month for theoverhauling of plant, during which the plant is closed for one month.
  29. 29. Personnel analysisFactory staff:S.NO Type of Staff Number Basic salary Total salaries required per Person, per year per month1 Tank man 6 5,000 1800002 Machine 1 6000 36,000 Operator ADMINISTRATION AND GENERAL STAFFDescription Qty Salary Monthly Annual Salary CostAccounts Officer 1 7,000 7,000 42,000Security Guard 1 6,000 6,000 36,000Driver 2 5,000 10,000 60,000Office Boy 1 3,000 3,000 18,000TotalAdministrativeExpenses 156,000
  30. 30. SWOT AnalysisStrengths:The labor to manufacture ice is easily available we can reach easily to low cost labor. Moreoverthe location advantage for our project is very much attractive. We can avail maximum advantagefrom this market.Weaknesses:Our weakness is that we are not producing ice up to the present demand of the consumer.Because we have one unit to produced ice if we increase the plant in to 2 then we increase theproduction.Opportunities:Duration of summer doesn’t matter because the packaged food exporting business keeps ongoing for almost whole year and the fishing activities keeps going on for almost 7-8 months ayear. Due to which demand for ice is high for more than 7 months a year. Growing market forice plants are industries linked to food products i.e. fish, dairy, bakeries, restaurants etc. Withthis growing demand a large number of ice plants are operating in the country.There are approximately 1,300 ice plants operating in the Punjab, catering to the needs ofdifferent institutional and domestic buyers. The total installed capacity of ice plants in Punjab isapproximately 432,669-tons of ice blocks per day2. The need of ice blocks is increasing due toeconomic growth, as major buyers are institutional buyers (dairy, bakery, hotel, etc.), who buy inbulk.
  31. 31. Threats:Competitive Structure of the marketThe market of the ice plant is highly competitive; therefore if the entrepreneur is not wellresponsive and fulfilling the demand of the consumer he/she may not be able to capitalize theopportunity properly.Selection of the wrong venueSelection of the wrong venue can be a major hurdle in achieving the desired business objectives.The clientele taste should be properly tracked.
  32. 32. Conclusion & Recommendation: The location plays an important role, as finished ice blocks should be easily accessible todealers .  It is important that solid ice blocks are produced through proper freezing time utilization as solid ice blocks are much heavier, more transparent and provides higher price in the market.  Weather factor plays an important role, due to seasonal nature of the business i.e. In summers the demand for ice blocks increases, while after mid September the temperature starts changing & demand starts to fall, which means the entrepreneur should reduce the production according to the demand of ice.  One of the most important aspects for success of any business is minimizing the cost of  production, in case of ice plant this can be achieved by proper training of workers, which would ensure reduction in raw material wastage and better maintenance of machinery etc.  It is advisable to run the plant on natural gas, rather than electricity, as the major expense in production of ice is electricity. The use of natural gas instead of electricity will reduce the electricity expense approximately by half.In order to sell the ice blocks, it is recommended to develop a chain of dealers who buy the iceblocks on regular basis. The dealer deposits a guarantee in the shape of cash security, keeping inview the number of blocks to be purchased on daily basis. In case the dealer is unable to pick theagreed number of blocks on a particular day, the amount is deducted from his security.
  33. 33. GOOD LUCKWe wish a very best of luck to icemanufacturing plant. May it progress inthis field and achieve its desired goals. (AMEEN)

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