PRESENTED BY :-
ASRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
The Sasan Ultra Mega Power Project (UMPP) is a Government of India initiative
to develop a
large power plant in India. Sasan Power Limited (SPL) is currently developing a
coal-fired UMPP to be located in Sasan, Madhya Pradesh, approximately 25 km
captive pithead coalmines. The Sasan project will be a 6x660 MW coal-fired
Sasan Power Limited (SPL) was incorporated on February 10, 2006. This
incorporated as a wholly owned subsidiary of Power Finance Corporation Limited
in order to
build, own, operate and maintain the Sasan Ultra Megawatt Power Project at
Pradesh. It was transferred to Reliance Power under the provisions of a share
agreement dated August 7, 2007 and is now a fully owned subsidiary of Reliance
· Location: Sasan, Madhya Pradesh, a 3,000 acre cluster of 5 villages Sidhikhurg,
Sidhikala, Tiyara, Jhanjhi and Harrhawa containing a population of about 10,000
approximately 25 km from three captive pithead coalmines.
· Date Initiated: Feb 10, 2006 with the incorporation of Sasan Power limited (SPL).
· Size: 3,960 MW coal-fired ultra mega power project (UMPP) - 6x660 MW
· Annual Emmissions: 26,000-27,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year or 832 grams
carbon dioxide per kilowatt hour
· Local Displacement: About 6,000 people will lose their land and homes once the Rs
20,000-crore ($200 billion) project takes off. Both issues are critical because the green
cover here belies the stark poverty of an area that has just one or two pakka
houses. Most farmers and daily labourers live in mud hutments.
· Power Use: The states sharing the power are Madhya Pradesh (Lead Procurer) with a
37.50% share, followed by Punjab (15%), Uttar Pradesh (12.5%), Delhi (11.25%),
At present, India’s total installed power capacity stands at
1,47,402.81MW. Of this, the contribution of each sources are
Thermal - 93,392MW
Hydro - 36,647.76MW
Nuclear sources - 4,120 MW
Renewable energy _ 13,242.41 MW.
India’s power generation capacity 68% below target in 2009.
There is a huge demand for power in FY10.It is expected to grow by
4.6% with a capacity of 7,730 MW are likely in FY10.
“GENERATION OF THERMAL POWER”
The coal is brought and crushed to powder. This is feed to Boiler for
In Boiler the water is converted to steam.
In Super heater the moisture content is removed from the steam and
that steam is called super heated steam
The superheated steam rotates the shaft of the High pressure
The Exhausted steam is sent to preheater and the steam then
rotates the Intermediate pressure(IP) Turbine
The steam from the IP turbine is then feed to low pressure turbine.
The turbine shaft is connected to the Generator, which produces
The power generated is then Transmitted.
Prime mover coupled to Alternator
Prime mover is driven by energy obtained from
various sources such as
burning of fuel
pressure of water
Force of wind etc.
Nuclear power plants use a nuclear reactor’s heat to operate a steam
Fossil fuelled power plants may also use a steam turbine generator or in
the case of natural gas fired plants may use a combustion turbine.
Geothermal power plants use steam extracted from hot underground
Renewable energy plants may be fuelled by waste from sugar cane,
municipal solid waste, landfill methane, or other forms of biomass
In integrated steel mills, blast furnace exhaust gas is a low-cost, although
Waste heat from industrial processes is occasionally concentrated enough
to use for power generation, usually in a steam boiler and turbine
Solar thermal electric plants use sunlight to boil water, which turns the
1. Cooling tower 10. Steam Control valve 19. Superheater
2. Cooling water pump 11. High pressure steam turbine 20. Forced draught (draft) fan
3. transmission line (3-phase) 12. Deaerator 21. Reheater
4. Step-up transformer (3-phase) 13. Feed water heater 22. Combustion air intake
5. Electrical generator (3-phase) 14. Coal conveyor 23. Economiser
6. Low pressure steam turbine 15. Coal hopper 24. Air preheater
In India 65% of total power is generated by the Thermal Power Stations .
Thermal power plant basically works on Rankine cycle
In thermal power station, water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine
which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is
condensed in a condenser & recycled to where it was heated; this is known as Rankine
Coal handling plant
Super-heater and re-heaters
Steam turbine generator
Ash handling plant
Switch yard & Control room
Raw coal from
mine via railway
Boiler furnace ( tangential firing of
Coal conveyor is a belt type arrangement, that are used to move coal efficiently.
Coal arriving by train can be stocked for later use or taken straight to the coal bunkers.
Control room with remote control system helps to ensure that conveyors take the coal to the
Each unit has six pulverizing fuel mills, each
capable of pulverizing 40 tones of coal per hour
Inside the mills, ten giant hollow steel rollers
crush the coal into a fine powder
Crushing the coal into a fine powder makes
easier to burn it more completely
By pulverizing the coal combustion efficiency of
A boiler or steam generator is a closed
vessel in which water is converted into
steam, under pressure
It is the major components of a thermal
Always designed to absorb maximum
amount of heat released in the process
Boilers are of two types-
Fire tube boiler
Water tube boiler
The steam produced in the boiler,
goes to the steam drum and is then
piped to super-heaters where it is
heated above saturation
At this point steam is now turned
into a very powerful source of
This rotates the turbine to which
generator is on the other end.
From rotating generator electricity
Economizer is device which
recover the heat from the flue
gases on their way to chimney.
Flue gases coming out of the
boiler carry lot of heat.
An economizer extracts a part
of this heat from flue gases and
uses it for heating feed water.
This use of economizer results
in saving coal consumption and
higher boiler efficiency
Reheater is also a steam boiler in which heat is
added to this high-pressure steam, which
has given up some of its energy in expansion
through the intermediate-pressure turbine.
The steam after reheating is used to rotate the
second steam turbine where the heat is
converted to mechanical energy.
This mechanical energy is used to run the
generator, which is coupled to turbine , there
by generating electrical energy.
STEAM TURBINE GENERATOR
The turbine generator consists of a series of
steam turbines interconnected to each other and
a generator on a common shaft.
There is a high pressure turbine at one end,
followed by an intermediate pressure turbine, a
low pressure turbines, and the generator.
As steam moves through the system, it loses
pressure and thermal energy and expands in
volume, requiring increasing diameter and
longer blades at each succeeding stage to
extract the remaining energy.
The entire rotating mass may be over 200
metric tons and 100 feet (30 m) long.
Steam after rotating steam turbine comes to the condenser.
The purpose of condensor is to condense the outlet steam from steam
turbine to get the condensed steam in the form of pure water.
This water is then Pumped back to the boiler.
ASH HANDLING PLANT
The percentage of ash in coal is 5% in good quality coal & about 40%
in poor quality coal.
Power plants generally use poor quality of coal , thus amount of ash
produced by it is quite large.
A modern 1000MW plant produces about 4800 tons of ash daily.
The stations use some conveyor arrangement to carry ash to dump
A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water should be
devoid of air and other dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones.
In order to avoid corrosion of the metal, power station uses
a Deaerator, for the removal of air and other dissolved gases from the boiler
A deaerator has a vertical, domed deaeration section mounted on top of a
horizontal cylindrical vessel which serves as a deaerated boiler feed water
An electrical generator is a machine
which converts mechanical energy into
electrical energy through electro
mechanical energy conversion.
The generator is driven by directly
coupled steam turbine at a speed of
The electricity then goes to a
“transformer” where the voltage is
increased to 4,00,000 volts before
sending it to the “Grid” for distribution
The condensate (water) formed
in the condenser after
condensation is initially at high
temperature. This hot water is
passed to cooling towers.
It is a tower- or building-like
structure in which atmospheric
air circulates in direct or indirect
contact with warmer water and
the water is thereby cooled.
Placed where switching operation of power distribution is performed.
Air insulated switch yard of 220KV-400KV are used.
Main Components of Switch Yard:
These are used for automatic switching during normal or abnormal
Manufacturer ABB Limited
Type of Circuit Breaker SF6
Rated Voltage 245 KV
Under Site Condition of 40 0C
Under Site Condition of 50 0C
Rated Frequency 50 Hz
These are used to disconnect transmission line under no-load
condition for safety, isolation and maintenance.
Rated current for site conditions 2000 A
Rated Voltage 245 KV
Rated Frequency 50 Hz
Operating time of Isolator Less than 12 sec.
These are used to discharge lightning over voltages and
switching over voltages to earth.
Manufacturer Crompton Greaves Ltd, Nasik
Model No. ZLA X 25 C
Ref. Standard IEC 99 – 4. 1991
Rated Frequency 50 Hz
Max. Leakage Current 5 mA
The conductors to which several incoming and outgoing lines are
They are made up of Cu & Al,
The incoming and outgoing cables are provided for metering
These are used to step-down currents for measurement, control &
Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current
and monitoring the operation of the power grid.
VT measure voltage and this parameter used for protection of system.
For high voltage CVT (capacitive voltage transformer) is used instead
of VT and capacitors play divider role.
We can also use these capacitors for PLC system.
PLC means programmable logic control system