SEEE 5123NATURAL RESOURCES ECONOMICS LOGGING IN MALAYSIA : THECHALLENGES OF SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT. RASHIDAH BT ABDULLAH 810163
INTRODUCTION Malaysias deforestation rate is accelerating faster than that of any other tropical country in the world, according to data from the United Nations. Analysis of figures from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) shows that Malaysias annual deforestation rate jumped almost 86 percent between the 1990-2000 period and 2000-2005. Declining of forest cover in Malaysia is because of urbanization, agricultural fires, and forest conversion for oil-palm plantations and other forms of agriculture.
Logging is the process in which certain trees are cut down by a lumberjack or machine, such as the feller butcher, for forest management and timber. In forestry, the term logging is sometimes used in a narrow sense concerning the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest. For example, lumber yard. Illegal logging refers to what in forestry might be called timber theft. It is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws. It has serious economic and social implications for the poor and disadvantaged.
Malaysia has probably one of the best rainforest protection policies in developing Asia, but in practice logging still carries on as it always has. The majority of Malaysias remaining forests are managed for timber production, and each state is empowered to formulate forest policy independently. During the past two decades, sustainable forest management has been non-existent. While Malaysia has the policy framework for sustainable forest management in the form of the National Forestry Act of 1984, it has failed to enforce the legislation.
LITERATURE REVIEWS (1) ZULKIFLI, Y. & ANHAR, S. 1994. Effects of selective logging methods on suspended solids concentration and turbidity level in streamwater. The impacts of conventional‘ and closely-supervised selective logging methods on streamwater quality were studied in three small catchments in the Berembun Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia. With increasing demand for timber and non-timber forest products, demand for forest areas to be logged would be expected to increase. This linkage has resulted in logging operations in Peninsular Malaysia to move toward the hill forest (Farid and Abdul Rahman, 1999).
Based on studies by Pervaze A. Sheikh, about the illegal logging in United States was found that Illegal logging is a pervasive problem throughout the world, affecting countries that produce, export, and import wood and wood products. Illegal logging exists in the United States but is primarily done by individuals or small operations. Research by M. Auer et al (2003), also came out with the empirical evidence of some other countries that allegedly contribute to illegal logging by importing illegally obtained wood products.
THE ISSUES OF LOGGING IN MALAYSIALogging and Sustainable Forest Management. Based on Brutland Report (1987), sustainable development can be defined as a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the organization on the environments ability to meet present and future needs. The timber harvest rates in Malaysia have always been dissimilar. Diminishing forest resource, heightened public awareness of and opposition to forest degradation, and other adverse environmental consequences had reduce logging in Peninsular Malaysia. Till it is hard for us to manage a sustainable for the forest resources. Besides that, it is also hard for us to achieve sustainable forest management as illegal logging activities have affected the forest reserves in Malaysia.
Impact of Illegal Logging in Malaysia. If illegal logging is characterized as large-scale destructive logging, it can potentially lead to the conversion of forests to grassland, depletion of plant species (e.g., tree species such as mahogany), and in some cases depletion of animal populations that depend on the habitats being logged. If logging is not done according to mandated management plans, it can potentially lead to collateral damage, whereby other tree species and younger trees are damaged, risk of fire is increased, and potential for sustainable harvesting of timber is lowered. In several countries where illegal logging takes place, the volume of timber extracted illegally is greater than the official harvested total. Further, illegal logging and trade are connected to other illegal activities such as corruption, tax evasion, and money laundering, among other things. If illegal logging is prevalent in a country, there may be a low propensity to invest.
THE WAYS TO PREVENTING AN ILLEGAL LOGGING IN MALAYSIA1)Law Enforcement of Illegal Logging Policy. National Forestry Act (1984). -In 1984, the National Forestry Act was amended to provide for stiffer penalties for illegal logging and enlisting the Police and Armed Forces to assist the Forestry Departments in carrying out enforcement to curb illegal logging, timber theft and encroachments. Environmental Quality Act 1974 (EQA). - This guidelines provided that environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report of a certain project should be made available to the public upon request. Those who are about to makes development in the forest areas should have a permitted by the government first and follow all the rules provides by the goverment. Those who fail to comply will be fined and compound as set forth in the acts of EQA 1974. The Malaysian Timber Certification Council Process,1994 (MTCC). -MTCC has been established to monitor the implimation of all the forestry activities. MTCC also provided the rules to be followed in the standard setting to develop the forest management and chain-of-custody certification standards used in the Malaysia.
2) Implementing of Forestry Public Education. This is a best way to create a good motivation to the public to appreciate the wealth of forest resources. Prior to the amendments of the National Forestry Act, 1984, very little effort has been done by the Forestry Department to educate the public on the importance of forest law enforcement. However, since the revision in 1993, nation wide seminar and dialogs were conducted with the objective of informing loggers, sawmillers and the general public on the importance of forests and forest industries, including forest law.
3) Reforestation Programme. Reforestation is the restocking of existing forests and woodlands which have been depleted, an effect of deforestation. Reforestation can be used to improve the quality of air pollution, rebuild natural habitats and ecosystem, mitigate glonal warming and harvest for new forestry resources, particularly timber.4) Forest Reservation. A reserve forest or a reserved forest is a specific term for designating forests and other natural areas which enjoy judicial or constitutional protection under the legal systems of many countries. The term forest reserve may also be used in some contexts in these countries.
CONCLUSION Illegal logging is not good activities for theforest development since it brings a lot of adverseeffects on the environment. It is also effect thesustainable forest managemant are quite difficult toachive in the long term. Thus, to avoid illegallogging continues to destroy forest resources in thefuture, so prevention action must be taken by thevarious parties. Finally, in future, the nextgeneration will be able to see the forestry areas.