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Using Public Buses as Mobile Gateways in VANET Clouds

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Presentation at IEEE ICCE 2014, Las Vegas, USA

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Using Public Buses as Mobile Gateways in VANET Clouds

  1. 1. Using Public Buses as Mobile Gateways in Vehicular Clouds Rasheed Hussain*, Fizza Abbas*, Junggab Son*, Sangjin Kim**, and Heekuck Oh* *Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, South Korea **Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, South Korea Rasheed Hussain PhD Candidate, Hanyang University, South Korea rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr IEEE ICCE 2014, January 10, Las Vegas, USA HANYANG UNIVERSITY ERICA INFORMATION SECURITY & PRIVACY LAB.
  2. 2. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Agenda Theme Motivation Problem Statement Introduction Baseline Proposed Scheme Benefits of the Proposed Scheme Conclusion Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 2
  3. 3. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Main Theme Role of public transport in VANET and its successor VANET-based Clouds Using the highly predictable mobility dynamics of buses (time and space) for services in vehicular clouds Using buses as mobile gateways in the gradual deployment of VANET-based clouds For instance Data aggregation in VANET-based clouds Do we really need RSUs in urban areas?! Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 3
  4. 4. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Motivation Trust in VANET User and location privacy requirements in VANET Uniformity of transmission range Vehicular density Initial stages of VANET Deployment of RSUs Advantages of Tall vehicles How to make a successful comm. among cars and infrastructure Cost-effective way to use the already-established infrastructure Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 4
  5. 5. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Problem Statement Initial stage of VANET is likely to face infrastructure deployment problem For instance deployment of RSUs Governments might get reluctant in spending money while being not sure of its success There are schemes and/or standards that enable V2V and V2I communications, but in V2I, the β€˜I’ part is to be deployed beforehand in optimized fashion How to enable vehicles to communicate with each other and with Infrastructure efficiently? These questions will be answered in this research Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 5
  6. 6. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Introduction [1/4] VANET Key players: Vehicles, RSUs, Mgt. and Revocation authorities Communication paradigms: V2X (𝑋 ∈ {𝑉, 𝐼}) Zero infrastructure Infrastructure-based Application Classes: Safety, Non-safety, and Infotainment Standards DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication) IEEE 802.11p Communication Range: Up to 1000m but normally 300m Situation awareness is achieved through beacon messages Local and extended traffic views Despite of a fairly good amount of research, VANET still couldn’t make it to the deployment stage! Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 6
  7. 7. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Introduction [2/4] Vehicles are not century old boxes anymore! Today’s vehicles are resource-rich Different perspectives Vehicles will waste resources (and they are doing now) Vehicles on their own cannot handle some applications VANETs evolved to VANET-based clouds and it is becoming buzzword in the research community VANET-based clouds services are still underway and being researched We aim at the services that use beacons as input Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 7
  8. 8. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Introduction [3/4] VC Taxonomy [Hussain et al. IEEE CloudCom 2012] VANET Clouds Vehicular Clouds Static Clouds Vehicles using Clouds Dynamic Clouds Hybrid (InterVehicle Clouds) CAA Rent-out Resources IaaS Rented Resources Traffic Information P2P Data Storage IaaS and NaaS Infotainment IaaS and NaaS Pay-asyou-go Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 8
  9. 9. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Introduction [4/4] Traffic Lights Management on a large scale Rush hours or a concert at a city hall A jammed highway Traffic directed to another route Worst case would jam the new route instead of jammed highway Cloud in a parking lot Rent out resources Planned Evacuation and more Dynamic HoV (High Occupancy Veh.) Lane designation NaaS (Network as a Service) Internet, advertisements, pay-as-you-go services, Storage as service VWaaS (Vehicle Witnesses as a Service) [Hussain et al.] To appear in IEEE CloudCom 2013 Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 9
  10. 10. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Preliminaries [1/2] Network and System Model VANET Public, semi-public, and private vehicles Registration and Revocation Authorities Road-side Infrastructure Public Buses infrastructure Cloud Infrastructure Cloud service provider(s) Multi-cloud environment Network Model Urban scenario with public transport (Buses) Road network with fixed routes and bus stops Almost all or at least major part of the urban locality is covered by the bus routes Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 10
  11. 11. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Preliminaries [2/2] Bus network (Seoul Station) Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 11
  12. 12. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Baseline Related work on Public Transport in VANET Key Updates () Routing (οƒΌ) Next Hop & Relayer (οƒΌ) Mobile Gateway () Aggregation () Service Providers () Our Emphasis Generalized approach as full fledge MGs (Mobile Gateways) Infotainment, Aggregation Use-Case Aggregation in VANET-based Clouds V2C Communication Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 12
  13. 13. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Proposed Scheme [1/7] Communication Model MG is intermediate between vehicles and Infra. MG collects data from vehicles, classifies, compresses, aggregates and sends it to cloud for processing Skip List concept in case of unicast communication Vehicles Broadcast beacons according to DSRC standard Service requests MG Broadcasts service messages from service providers with QoS information Receives messages from neighbors and aggregates them Sends Aggregated Messages (AMs) to cloud Disseminates warning messages and traffic information among vehicles Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 13
  14. 14. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Proposed Scheme [2/7] Architecture SL Level 1 VANET Cloud Aggregated Message 4G DSRC SL Skip List Services Gateway SL Level 2 SL Level 3 Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 14
  15. 15. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Proposed Scheme [3/7] Road is dissected into segments beforehand and buses construct 𝐴𝑀 for every segment it passes through (one-hop) If there are more than one bus in the segment, then at certain time, one of them will be elected as segment leader and it will rotate Messages Beacon: 𝐡 𝑖 = π·π‘Žπ‘‘π‘Ž||𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑑||π‘†π‘’π‘π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘–π‘‘π‘¦ π‘ƒπ‘Žπ‘Ÿπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘’π‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘  𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑑 = π‘ π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘£π‘–π‘π‘’ π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘ž. , 𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑑 π‘–π‘›π‘“π‘œπ‘Ÿπ‘šπ‘Žπ‘‘π‘–π‘œπ‘›, 𝑒𝑑𝑐. AM (Aggregated Message) 𝐴𝑀 𝑖 = 𝐴𝑀 𝑖 π‘Ž ||𝐴𝑀 𝑖 𝑏 , π‘Ž: π‘Žβ„Žπ‘’π‘Žπ‘‘, 𝑏: π‘π‘’β„Žπ‘–π‘›π‘‘ 𝑗 𝐴𝑀 𝑖 [𝑗 ∈ (π‘Ž, 𝑏)] = π‘‘π‘–π‘šπ‘’π‘ π‘‘π‘Žπ‘šπ‘||𝐡𝑒𝑠 𝐼𝐷 ||π‘Ÿπ‘œπ‘’π‘‘π‘’ 𝐼𝐷 ||π‘™π‘œπ‘ π‘π‘’π‘Ÿ ||𝐴𝑔𝑔. π·π‘Žπ‘‘π‘Ž π‘‘π‘–π‘Ÿ ||(𝑆𝑅1 , 𝑆𝑅2 , … , 𝑆𝑅 𝑛 ) 𝐴𝑔𝑔. π·π‘Žπ‘‘π‘Ž π‘‘π‘–π‘Ÿ can be either 𝐴𝑔𝑔. π·π‘Žπ‘‘π‘Ž π‘Ž or 𝐴𝑔𝑔. π·π‘Žπ‘‘π‘Ž 𝑏 π‘™π‘œπ‘ π‘π‘’π‘Ÿ is the starting point of current segment, 𝑆𝑅 is the service request 𝑆𝑅 𝑖 = βˆ†π‘‘||𝑠. 𝑑𝑦𝑝𝑒||βˆ†π‘™π‘œπ‘||β„Žπ‘’π‘Žπ‘‘π‘–π‘›π‘”||π‘„π‘œπ‘† 𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒π‘₯ Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 15
  16. 16. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Proposed Scheme [4/7] Warning Messages π‘Šπ‘€: π‘‘π‘–π‘šπ‘’π‘ π‘‘π‘Žπ‘šπ‘||𝑀. 𝑑𝑦𝑝𝑒||π‘™π‘œπ‘ π‘ π‘‘π‘Žπ‘Ÿπ‘‘ ||π‘™π‘œπ‘ 𝑒𝑛𝑑 ||π‘›π‘’π‘π‘’π‘ π‘ π‘Žπ‘Ÿπ‘¦ π‘Žπ‘π‘‘π‘–π‘œπ‘› Overlapping segments Should MG handle it or Cloud? Both approaches have pros and cons Dynamic is more challenging (segment size?) Static approach puts the load on cloud where dynamic does it on MG Handover is the problem in dynamic approach Best choice seems to be Cloud A C E D B Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 16
  17. 17. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Proposed Scheme [5/7] Algorithm 1. Procedure: Aggregate 2. Input: 𝑩 π’Š ∈ 𝑩[𝒕 π’Šβˆ’πŸ ,𝒕 π’Š] 3. Output: 𝑨𝑴 𝒕 π’Š , Aggregated message at time 𝒕 π’Š 4. Receive beacons from neighbors in the broadcast period and receive SA ( Service Advertisements) from service providers 5. Broadcast SAs to the neighbors in transmission range 6. Examine the receive buffer 7. Do { 8. Extract mobility data and 𝑆𝑅 from 𝐡 𝑖 and store in 𝐴𝑀 buffer and 𝑆𝑅 buffer respectively} 9. While (End of receive buffer) 10. Construct 𝐴𝑀 11. Send 𝐴𝑀 to the cloud Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 17
  18. 18. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Proposed Scheme [6/7] Feasibility Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 18
  19. 19. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Proposed Scheme [7/7] Advantages of our Proposed Scheme No need for extensive location and user privacy concerns in MGs Synchronization in Key updates Initial stages of VANET would get much out of this scheme No static infrastructure needed at the first deployment stage Mobile gateways add flexibility to the system at daytime Potential Issues Night time But at night time keeping the traffic density in mind, such mechanism would not be necessary Future Plan Look into the financial comparison between two approaches Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 19
  20. 20. rasheed@hanyang.ac.kr ` Conclusions Public Transport buses used as mobile gateways to cloud and VANET infrastructure Urban scenario where buses cover almost all the roads of the city Buses are tall and have an edge for better beacon reception rate Targets the problems posed by the static RSU infra. Separate comm. channels (DSRC and 3/4G) Aggregation is taken as a use-case in the proposed scheme Information Security & Privacy Laboratory @ Hanyang University ERICA 20

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