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Shear wall

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position of oppening in shear wall

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Shear wall

  1. 1. Definition of shear wall Position Design provisions Behavior Case studies PRESENTATION OUTLINE 1
  2. 2. 2 Fig. 1 A reinforced concrete wall
  3. 3. Known as shear walls Designed to resist lateral forces Excellent structural system to resist earthquake Provided throughout the entire height of wall Practicing from 1960s for medium and high rise buildings (4 to 35 stories high) RC STRUCTURAL WALLS 3
  4. 4. Provide large strength and stiffness in the direction of orientation Significantly reduces lateral sway Easy construction and implementation Efficient in terms of construction cost and effectiveness in minimizing earthquake damage ADVANTAGES OF SHEAR WALLS 4
  5. 5. PLACEMENT OF SHEAR WALLS 5
  6. 6. Located symmetrically to reduce ill effects of twist Symmetry can be along one or both the directions Can be located at exterior or interior More effective when located along exterior perimeter of building PLACEMENT OF SHEAR WALLS 6
  7. 7. 7 Fig. 2 Reinforced concrete shear wall (Murthy C.V.R. ,2005)
  8. 8. Located symmetrically to avoid ill effects of twisting Symmetry can be along one or both the directions Can be located at exterior or interior More effective when located along exterior perimeter of building PLACEMENT OF SHEAR WALLS 6
  9. 9. Widely used design approaches for shear walls ACI method (ACI 318-1995) IS 13920:1993 - Indian Standard Ductile Detailing of RC members Code provides a ductile design to give adequate toughness and ductility to resist severe earthquakes CODES FOR DESIGN OF SHEAR WALLS 8
  10. 10. Thickness 150 – 400 mm Minimum reinforcement 0.25% of gross area in each direction Diameter shall not exceed 1/10 th thickness of section Reinforcement provided in two curtains when: Factored shear stress exceeds or Wall thickness exceeds 200 mm DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 9 0.25 ckf
  11. 11. Nominal shear stress, SHEAR STRENGTH OF WALLS 10 v u v w w V t d    Factored shear force Thickness of wall section Effective depth of wall section = for rectangular sections 0.8 wl
  12. 12. Design shear stress, from table 19 of IS 456:2000 If < minimum shear reinforcement If > shear reinforcement is designed for excess shear force of SHEAR STRENGTH OF WALLS CONTD… 11 v v c c c usV
  13. 13. 0.87 y h w us v f A d V S  SHEAR STRENGTH OF WALLS CONTD… 12 c w wVu t d = characteristic strength of steel = effective depth of wall section yf wd Area of horizontal shear reinforcement Vertical spacing
  14. 14. For where, FLEXURAL STRENGTH 13 u u w w x x l l   2 2 2 1 1 0.416 0.168 2 3 uv u u ck w w w w M x x f t l l l                                  2 0.36 u w x l          0.0035 0.87 0.0035 u yw x fl Es    0.87 y ck f f    u ck w w P f t l   0.87 0.0035 y s f E   st w w A t l  
  15. 15. FLEXURAL STRENGTH CONTD… 14 For 1u u w w x x l l    2 1 2 32 2 uv u u ck w w w w M x x f t l l l                    1 0.36 1 2 2               2 1 0.15 1 2 2 3                   1 3 6 /u wx l         ux  depth of NA from extreme compression fibre * ux  balanced depth of NA
  16. 16. Portions along edges of shear wall strengthened by longitudinal and transverse reinforcement Can have same or greater thickness compared to wall Develop good flexural strength Should have adequate axial load carrying capacity BOUNDARY ELEMENTS 16
  17. 17. Factors governing seismic behavior of shear walls: Ductility Stiffness Soil structure interaction effects Period of structure SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF WALLS 15
  18. 18. Ductility Ratio of displacement at maximum load to that at yield Highly desirable property for shear walls Stiffness Property of element to resist displacement More stiffer wall need more force to deflect it SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR CONTD… 16
  19. 19. Soil- structure interaction Structural damage directly related to depth of soil overlying the rock and period of vibration of soil Understanding relationship between period of vibrations of soil and structure is important SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR CONTD… 18
  20. 20. Period of a building Important index that identifies vulnerability to excessive drift A simple approximation to period of building: (Mete a Sozen, 2004) SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR CONTD… 19 4 2 3.5 w c w w T E I mh  
  21. 21. Some important conclusions from extensive experimental studies on seismic behaviour of shear walls: High axial load ratio is undesirable for structures [7] Damage always initiate from top of splices. So splice impacts seismic performance [1] SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR CONTD… 20
  22. 22. For accurate evaluation of seismic demands soil structure interaction must also be considered [8] Shear walls with staggered openings produce better results in earthquakes [4] SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR CONTD… 22
  23. 23. CASE STUDY 1 22
  24. 24. Three specimens W1, W2, W3 Represent slender shear walls Aspect ratio 4 Axial load ratios (ALR) 0.25,0.5,0.5 resp. BEHAVIOUR OF SHEAR WALLS UNDER HIGH AXIAL LOAD RATIO [R.K.L. Su and S.M. Wong] 23
  25. 25. 24 wh wl Fig. 3 A shear wall w w h l 1 1 2 2 Squat Intermediate Slender             Aspect ratio =
  26. 26. Three specimens W1, W2, W3 Represent tall slender shear walls Aspect ratio 4 Axial load ratios (ALR) 0.25,0.5,0.5 resp. BEHAVIOUR OF SHEAR WALLS UNDER HIGH AXIAL LOAD RATIO [R.K.L. Su and S.M. Wong] 23
  27. 27. applied axial load axial load capacity at a section AXIAL LOAD RATIO 25 Axial load ratio = ' u c g P ALR f A  compressive strength of concrete gross cross section of the wall ' cf  gA 
  28. 28. TESTING METHODOLOGY 26 Fig.4 Testing rig (R.K.L. Su and S.M. Wong,
  29. 29. Specimens placed in a steel loading frame Compressive axial force applied from bottom simulated gravity load Push and pull forces to the flange beam represented lateral seismic loads TESTING METHODOLOGY CONTD… 27
  30. 30. 28 Fig. 5 Testing rig and load application (Su and Wong, 2006)
  31. 31. Specimens placed in a steel loading frame Compressive axial force applied from bottom simulated gravity load Push and pull forces to the flange beam represented lateral seismic loads TESTING METHODOLOGY CONTD… 27
  32. 32. 28 Testing rig and load application (Su and Wong, 2006)
  33. 33. W1 exhibited flexural ductile failure Cracks developed at early stage Propagated inwards to the core of the section OBSERVATIONS 29 Fig. 6 Failure pattern of specimen W1 (Su and Wong, 2006)
  34. 34. W2 and W3 exhibited brittle compression failure Spalling of concrete observed due to high ALR OBSERVATIONS CONTD… 30 Fig.7 Failure pattern of specimens W2 and W3 (Su and Wong, 2006)
  35. 35. ALR affect failure High ALR has a suppressive effect on ductility As ALR increases energy dissipation decreases Axial stiffness reduces with increasing lateral deformation Leads to reduction in applied axial load With high ALR faster and greater reduction SUMMARY 31
  36. 36. 32 Fig. 8 Energy dissipation of specimens (Su and Wong, 2006)
  37. 37. High ALR affect failure High ALR has a suppressive effect on ductility As ALR increases energy dissipation decreases Axial stiffness reduces with increasing lateral deformation Leads to reduction in applied axial load With high ALR faster and greater reduction SUMMARY 31
  38. 38. 33 Fig. 9 Reduction in ALR (Su and Wong, 2006)
  39. 39. CASE STUDY 2 34
  40. 40.  To study effect of staggered openings  5 specimens with same amount of reinforcement  Represented 4 storey rectangular walls  Specimen W1 without opening  W2,W3,W4 with staggered openings  W5 with regular openings SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF SHEAR WALLS (MOSOARCA MARIUS, 2013) 35
  41. 41. 36 Wall without opening
  42. 42.  To study effect of staggered openings  5 specimens with same amount of reinforcement  Represented 5 storey rectangular walls  Specimen W1 without opening  W2,W3,W4 with staggered openings  W5 with regular openings SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF SHEAR WALLS (MOSOARCA MARIUS, 2013) 35
  43. 43. 36 Wall without opening Staggered openings
  44. 44.  To study effect of staggered openings  5 specimens with same amount of reinforcement  Represented 5 storey rectangular walls  Specimen W1 without opening  W2,W3,W4 with staggered openings  W5 with regular openings SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF SHEAR WALLS (MOSOARCA MARIUS, 2013) 35
  45. 45. 36 Wall without opening Staggered openings Regular openings
  46. 46. TESTING METHODOLOGY 37 Fig. 10 The test bench (Mosoarca Marius, 2013)
  47. 47. Reversed cyclic lateral loads A constant vertical force Seismic behaviour studied for different horizontal displacements Behaviour of specimens monitored by transducers, strain gauges etc. TESTING METHODOLOGY CONTD… 38
  48. 48. OBSERVATIONS 39 Model Initial cracking Plasticized concrete Crushed concrete P (kN) P (kN) P (kN) W1 29.33 113.63 114.43 W2 25.12 100.12 103.72 W3 25.13 88.63 92.03 W4 25.15 88.40 95.90 W5 17.7 69.70 73.80
  49. 49. Walls with staggered openings were more rigid With same amount of reinforcement ductile failure observed for staggered opening walls and brittle failure for regular opening walls Staggered opening walls failed at higher seismic forces and horizontal displacements SUMMARY 40
  50. 50.  Shear walls are efficient in resisting earthquakes  More efficient with increased ductility  Soil structure interaction studies are important  ALR ratio has adverse influence on seismic performance of shear walls  Shear walls with staggered openings are more effective than walls with regular openings CONCLUSIONS 41
  51. 51. 1. Anna Birely and Dawn Lehman (2008). “Investigation of the seismic behavior and analysis of reinforced concrete structural walls”. The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China. 2. Lepage, A (1994). “Seismic Drift Estimates for RC Structures”. Eleventh World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Acapulco, Mexico. REFERENCES 42
  52. 52. 3. Murty, C.V.R.(2005). “Earthquake Tips. Learning Earthquake design and Construction”. IIT Kanpur 4. Mosoarca Marius (2013). “Seismic behavior of reinforced concrete shear walls with regular and staggered openings after the strong earthquakes between 2009 and 2011”. Journal of Engineering Failure Analysis. REFERENCES CONTD… 43
  53. 53. 5. Mete A. Sozen, (2004) “Earthquake Engineering from engineering seismology to Performance based Engineering”. Second Edition, CRC Press. 6. Shimazaki and Sozen, M.A., (1984).”Seismic drift of reinforced conctrete structures”. Technical Research Report of Hazana- Gumi, Tokyo. Vol. 5, ISSN 0385- 7123. REFERENCES CONTD… 44
  54. 54. 7. Su, R.K.L. Wong, S.M. (2006). “Seismic behavior of slender reinforced concrete shears walls under high axial load ratio”. Journal of Engineering Structures, 29 (2007) 1957-1965. 8. Yuchuan Tang and Jian Zhang (2010). “Probabilistic seismic demand analysis of a slender RC shear wall considering soil- structure interaction effects”. Journal of Engineering Structures, 33 (2011) 218-229. REFERENCES CONTD… 45
  55. 55. THANK YOU…

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