Ship Organization

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Ship Organization

  1. 1. Ship Organization <ul><li>A ship's crew is divided into three distinct sections: </li></ul><ul><li>those who navigate the ship </li></ul><ul><li>those who maintain the machinery and controls, carrying out all repair functions on-board. </li></ul><ul><li>the catering department that takes care of the catering needs of the complement. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Ship Organization <ul><li>Seafarers hold a variety of professions and ranks, and each of these roles carries unique responsibilities which are integral to the successful operation of a seafaring vessel. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Ship Organization <ul><li>A ship's bridge, filled with sophisticated equipment, requires skills differing from those used on the deck, which houses berthing and cargo gear, which requires skills different from those used in a ship's engine room, and so on. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Ship Organization <ul><li>The following is only a partial listing of professions and ranks. Ship operators have understandably employed a wide variety of positions, given the vast array of technologies, missions, and circumstances that ships have been subjected to over the years. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Ship Organization <ul><li>A ship's crew can generally be divided into three main categories: the deck department, the engineering department, and the steward's department, </li></ul>
  6. 7. Ship Departments SHIP DECK ENGINE CATERING
  7. 8. Modern ship's complement <ul><li>Captain/Master </li></ul><ul><li>Captain is the traditional customary title given to the person in charge of a ship at sea. </li></ul>
  8. 9. The Captain <ul><li>On most legal documents in the merchant shipping industry, the captain is correctly referred to as the ship's Master. A nautical &quot;captain&quot; may be a civilian with a master's license or a naval commissioned officer of any rank. </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Captain <ul><li>On shore, a harbormaster, as the equivalent chief of a port, is sometimes titled &quot;captain&quot; if he had merchant marine or naval rank and professional service in command at sea. Many shipping companies also hire experienced captains to run their operations department. </li></ul>
  10. 11. The Captain <ul><li>A person holding an unrestricted master's license (or certificate) is called a Master Mariner, and may use the acronym MM after their name. The term unrestricted indicates that there is no restriction of size, power or geographic locale on the license. It is the highest level of professional qualification amongst mariners. </li></ul>
  11. 12. The Captain <ul><li>Among professional mariners, the title &quot;Captain&quot; is generally reserved for someone who has served in command of a merchant vessel, and not for someone who may hold a command license but has never been appointed to a command position. Captains retain the title while working in a maritime related field ashore. </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Captain <ul><li>The term Master Mariner was in use in England from at least the 13th century and was introduced in America in the mid-19th century. </li></ul>
  13. 14. The Captain <ul><li>An unrestricted master's license is colloquially called a &quot;Master's Ticket&quot;, &quot;Master's Unlimited&quot; or just a &quot;Master's.&quot; In the UK the official name a Master Mariner’s qualification has varied over the years. </li></ul>
  14. 15. The Captain <ul><li>The conventions or acts governing the license have evolved alongside the shipping industry. The master's license is sometimes still referred to as a Class 1 or Master Foreign-Going certificate as it was named during the latter part of the 20th century. The UK Maritime & Coastguard Agency, inline with the amended STCW convention, presently title the license as Master Unlimited. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Rights and responsibilities <ul><li>The captain has enormous legal powers and is responsible in all aspects for a ship underway. Powers include the right to use deadly force to suppress piracy and mutiny. It was a myth that the captain can conduct a marriage. However this can now be done on Bermudan flag ships in international waters. The Master must hold a Marriage Officers Licence, valid on a designated ship, in order to do this, which is issued by the Minister of Labour, Home affairs and Public Safety in Bermuda. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Rights and responsibilities <ul><li>At sea, the captain enjoys absolute command. This authority holds true even if higher-ranking persons are aboard. If a higher-ranking person gives the captain an order, care is taken to specify what is desired rather than how to do it. Rank does not give the right to interfere in the captain's running of the ship. </li></ul>
  17. 18. THE DECK DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The Deck Department is an organizational unit aboard naval and merchant ships. A Deck Officer is an officer serving in the deck department The main work of the deck department is proper watchstanding and the maintenance of the ship's hull, cargo gear, and accommodations as well as the ship's life saving and firefighting appliances </li></ul>
  18. 19. THE DECK DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The navigators are deck officers and report to the Master </li></ul><ul><li>A typical deck department for a merchant ship would include </li></ul>
  19. 20. Deck Department <ul><li>(1) Chief Officer/Chief Mate </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Second Officer /Second Mate </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Third Officer / Third Mate </li></ul><ul><li>(0-1) Boatswain </li></ul><ul><li>(2-6) Able Seamen </li></ul><ul><li>(0-2) Ordinary Seamen </li></ul><ul><li>( 1 ) Deck Boy )Peggy) </li></ul>
  20. 21. Deck Department Duties <ul><li>Maintenance of ships hull </li></ul><ul><li>Navigational duties </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Maintenance of deck equipment </li></ul>
  22. 23. The Chief Officer <ul><li>The chief mate is the head of the deck department. </li></ul><ul><li>This involves administrative tasks such as scheduling work, quality control, coordinating with other departments, and conflict resolution. </li></ul>
  23. 24. The Chief Officer <ul><li>The chief mate also compiles supply, overtime, and cost control records, and requisitions or purchases stores and equipment </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>The Chief Officer as the head of the deck department on a merchant vessel, is second-in-command after the ship's Master. His primary responsibilities are the vessel's cargo operations, its stability, and supervising the deck crew. </li></ul>The Chief Officer
  25. 26. <ul><li>The mate is responsible for the safety and security of the ship, as well as the welfare of the crew on board. Additional duties include maintenance of the ship's hull, cargo gears, accommodations, the life saving appliances and the firefighting appliances. The Chief Mate also trains the crew and cadets on various aspects like safety, firefighting, search and rescue, and various other contingencies. </li></ul>The Chief Officer
  26. 27. <ul><li>On most vessels, the Chief Officer and First Officer (or First Mate) are synonymous, but passenger vessels often carry a separate First Officer who is junior to the Chief Officer. </li></ul>The Chief Officer
  27. 28. THE SECOND OFFICER <ul><li>The Second Officer (or Second Mate) of a merchant vessel is usually in charge of navigation and is the next licensed position above Third Officer and below Chief Officer. The second mate typically stands the 12-4 navigation watch. That is, the Second Mate will stand watch from 1200 to 1600 at noon and again from 0000 to 0400 in the nights. The Second Mate is typically the navigation officer aboard a ship. </li></ul>
  28. 29. THE SECOND OFFICER <ul><li>The navigation officer is responsible for maintaining the charts and navigational equipment on the bridge. The duties also usually entail developing the voyage plans under the direction of the ship's Master. In the United States system, it takes 360 days of sea service as a licensed Third Officer before one can become a Second Officer. </li></ul>
  29. 30. THE SECOND OFFICER <ul><li>The other duties of this position often depend upon the type of ship worked aboard. On oil tankers, the second officer usually provides the Chief Mate with assistance in tank cleaning </li></ul>
  30. 31. THE THIRD OFFICER <ul><li>The Third Officer or Third Mate is the third officer of a merchant vessel. The most junior officer of the ship, the Third Mate is usually the safety officer (responsible for firefighting equipment, lifeboats, emergency systems) and is in charge of a (bridge or cargo) watch. </li></ul>
  31. 32. A Deck Cadet (or Apprentice) <ul><li>is a nautical school graduate, entitled to a seaman's book, but is not an officer-proper. The cadet must first carry out a one-year training on board ships, executing tasks of an officer-of-the-watch under the supervision of senior officers </li></ul>
  32. 33. A Boatswain, <ul><li>often (at least since 1868) phonetically spelled and pronounced bosun, is in charge of the unlicensed deck crew and is sometimes also third or fourth mate. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Ship's carpenters, <ul><li>.though once ubiquitous, are now rare. They are, however, frequently found aboard passenger liners. Ship's carpenters are sometimes referred to by the nickname, &quot;Chips.&quot; </li></ul>
  34. 35. Able Seaman <ul><li>In the modern merchant marine, an able seaman (AB) is a member of the deck department and must possess a merchant mariner's document. An AB will work in a ship's deck department as either a watchstander, a day worker, or a combination of these roles. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Able Seaman <ul><li>At sea an AB watchstander's duties include standing watch as helmsman and lookout. A helmsman is required to maintain a steady course, properly execute all rudder orders and communicate utilizing navigational terms relating to heading and steering. While the ship is not underway, a watchstander may be called upon to stand security-related watches, such as a gangway watch or anchor watch. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Ordinary Seaman <ul><li>In the Merchant Marine, an Ordinary Seaman or OS is an entry-level position in a ship's deck department. An OS performs a variety of duties concerned with the operation and upkeep of deck department areas and equipment. Upkeep duties include scaling, buffing, and painting decks and superstructure; as well as sweeping and washing the deck. An OS may splice wire and rope; break out, rig, overhaul, and stow cargo-handling gear, stationary rigging, and running gear. Additionally, the OS secures cargo, as well as launches and recovers boats. </li></ul>
  37. 38. THE ENGINE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>Engineers run and maintain all machinery, reporting to the Chief Engineer. Also on board are the crew or 'Ratings', who are 'other ranks' or hands who, though not officers, play a key role in running the ship by assisting the officers in daily operations. In the Engine department, this includes Wiremen (who assist Electrical Officers), Fitters, Motormen (or donkey greasers, depending on nomanclature)and Wipers or utilitymen who play a large role in the daily upkeep of the engine room. </li></ul>
  38. 39. THE ENGINE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>The original term Engineers (on a ship) meant the technical people who dealt with the engines , as opposed to the Consulting Engineer concept (their counterparts on land). Marine Engineers are generally more 'hands on', and often get dirty, sweaty and work in arduous conditions with temperatures in the engine room spaces exceeding 45 - 50 degrees Celsius (122 degrees Fahrenheit). Patience and a logical approach needs to be maintained at all times, especially when dealing with heavy machinery in a seaway. Managing the 'rough' engine-room crew is not a job for the faint hearted ! </li></ul>
  39. 40. THE ENGINE DEPARTMENT <ul><li>There are 4 classifications of Marine Engineering licences throughout the merchant marine, those being Chief Engineer, First Assistant/Second Engineer, Second Assistant/Third Engineer, and Third Assistant/Fourth Engineer. Those who join without experience are Fifth Engineers / Trainee Marine Engineers (TMEs) or Junior Engineers. Those who join without an engineering licence are given the rank of Engine Cadet. Engine Cadets usually only work under the supervision of a watchkeeping engineer. They are mostly only day workers and are usually given one day off per week to study for gaining their licences. Engine Cadets are generally poorly paid and are often the target for the worst jobs and practical jokes. </li></ul>
  40. 41. A common Engineering crew for a ship is: <ul><li>Chief Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Second Engineer / First Assistant Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Third Engineer / Second Assistant Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth Engineer / Third Assistant Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth Engineer / Junior Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Oiler (unlicenced qualified rating) </li></ul><ul><li>Greaser/s (unlicensed qualified rating) </li></ul><ul><li>Entry-level rating (such as Wiper (occupation), Utilityman, etc) </li></ul>
  41. 42. Chief Engineer <ul><li>The Chief Engineer on a merchant vessel is the official title of someone qualified to oversee the engine department. The qualification for this position is colloquially called a &quot;Chief's Ticket&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chief Engineer commonly referred to as &quot;The Chief&quot; or just &quot;Chief&quot; is responsible for all operations and maintenance that have to do with all engineering equipment throughout the ship. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Second Engineer/First Assistant Engineer <ul><li>The Second Engineer or First Assistant Engineer is the officer responsible for supervising the daily maintenance and operation of the engine department. He or she reports directly to the Chief Engineer. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Second Engineer/First Assistant Engineer <ul><li>On a merchant vessel, depending on term usage, &quot;The First&quot; or &quot;The Second&quot; is the marine engineer second in command of the engine department after the ship's Chief Engineer. The person holding this position is typically the busiest engineer aboard the ship, due to the supervisory role this engineer plays and the operations duties performed. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Second Engineer/First Assistant Engineer <ul><li>Operational duties include responsibility for the refrigeration systems, main engines (steam/gas turbine, diesel), and any other equipment not assigned to the Second Assistant Engineer/Third Engineer or the Third Assistant Engineer/Fourth Engineer(s). If the engine room requires round the clock attendance and other junior engineers can cover the three watch rotations, this officer is usually a &quot;day worker&quot; from 0630-1830. </li></ul>
  45. 46. Third Engineer/Second Assistant Engineer <ul><li>The Third Engineer or Second Assistant Engineer is junior to the Second Engineer/First Assistant Engineer in the engine department and is usually in charge of boilers, fuel, auxiliary engines, condensate, and feed systems. This engineer is the third highest marine engineer in rank. Depending on usage, &quot;The Second&quot; or &quot;The Third&quot; is also typically in charge of fueling or bunkering, if the officer holds a valid Person In Charge (PIC) endorsement for fuel transfer operations. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Third Engineer/Second Assistant Engineer <ul><li>The exact duties of this position will often depend upon the type of ship and arrangement of the engine department. On ships with steam propulsion plants The Second/Third is in charge of the boilers, combustion control, soot blowers, condensate and feed equipment, feed pumps, fuel, and condensers. On diesel and gas turbine propulsion plants, this engineer is in charge of auxiliary boilers, auxiliary engines, incinerator, air compressors, fuel, and fuel oil purifiers. </li></ul>
  47. 48. Fourth Engineer/Third Assistant Engineer <ul><li>The Fourth Engineer or Third Assistant Engineer is junior to the Second Assistant Engineer/ Third Engineer in the engine department. The most junior marine engineer of the ship, he or she is usually responsible for electrical, sewage treatment, lube oil, bilge, and oily water separation systems. Depending on usage, this person is called &quot;The Third&quot; or &quot;The Fourth&quot; and usually stands a watch. Moreover, the Fourth Engineer may assist the third mate in maintaining proper operation of the lifeboats. </li></ul>
  48. 49. Engineering Cadet <ul><li>An Engineering Cadet (or Apprentice) is a nautical school graduate, entitled to a seaman's book, but is not an officer-proper. The cadet must first carry out a one-year training on board ships, executing tasks of an officer-of-the-watch under the supervision of senior officers. </li></ul>
  49. 50. A Motorman <ul><li>A Motorman is a senior unlicensed crewmember in the engine room of a ship. </li></ul><ul><li>Pumpman </li></ul><ul><li>A position frequently found aboard fuel tankers. </li></ul>
  50. 51. Oiler <ul><li>An Oiler </li></ul><ul><li>is one of the most junior crewmember in the engine room of a ship (senior only to a Wiper). An Oiler's role consists mainly of keeping machinery lubricated. </li></ul><ul><li>Wiper </li></ul><ul><li>A Wiper is the most junior crewmember in the engine room of a ship. Their role consists of wiping down machinery and generally keeping it clean. </li></ul>
  51. 52. Steward's department <ul><li>This department is responsible for the vessel’s catering </li></ul><ul><li>It is usually headed by a chief steward </li></ul>
  52. 53. Chief Steward <ul><li>The Chief Steward is the senior unlicensed crewmember working in the Steward's department of a ship. Most merchant marine vessels do not carry a purser. </li></ul><ul><li>The chief steward directs, instructs, and assigns personnel performing such functions as preparing and serving meals; cleaning and maintaining officers' quarters and steward department areas; and receiving, issuing, and inventorying stores. </li></ul>
  53. 54. Chief Steward <ul><li>The chief steward also plans menus; compiles supply, overtime, and cost control records. The Steward may requisition or purchase stores and equipment. Additional duties may include baking bread, rolls, cakes, pies, and pastries. </li></ul><ul><li>A Chief Steward's duties may overlap with those of the Steward's Assistant, the Chief Cook, and other Steward's Department crewmembers. </li></ul>
  54. 55. Chief Cook . <ul><li>The Chief Cook is a senior unlicensed crewmember working in the Steward's department of a ship. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chief Cook directs and participates in the preparation and serving of meals; determines timing and sequence of operations required to meet serving times; inspects galley and equipment for cleanliness and proper storage and preparation of food. The cook may plan or assist in planning meals and taking inventory of stores and equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>A chief cook's duties may overlap with those of the Steward's Assistant, the Chief Steward, and other Steward's Department crewmembers. </li></ul>
  55. 56. Steward's Assistant <ul><li>A Steward's Assistant or SA is an entry-level crewmember in the Steward's department of a ship. This position can also be referred to as Galley Utilityman or Messman. The role of the SA consists mainly of cleaning and assisting with the preparation and serving of meals. </li></ul>
  56. 57. <ul><li>Chief Steward </li></ul><ul><li>The Chief Steward is the senior unlicensed crewmember working in the Steward's department of a ship. Most merchant marine vessels do not carry a purser. </li></ul><ul><li>The chief steward directs, instructs, and assigns personnel performing such functions as preparing and serving meals; cleaning and maintaining officers' quarters and steward department areas; and receiving, issuing, and inventorying stores. </li></ul><ul><li>The chief steward also plans menus; compiles supply, overtime, and cost control records. The Steward may requisition or purchase stores and equipment. Additional duties may include baking bread, rolls, cakes, pies, and pastries. </li></ul><ul><li>A Chief Steward's duties may overlap with those of the Steward's Assistant, the Chief Cook, and other Steward's Department crewmembers. </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Cook </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chief Cook is a senior unlicensed crewmember working in the Steward's department of a ship. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chief Cook directs and participates in the preparation and serving of meals; determines timing and sequence of operations required to meet serving times; inspects galley and equipment for cleanliness and proper storage and preparation of food. The cook may plan or assist in planning meals and taking inventory of stores and equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>A chief cook's duties may overlap with those of the Steward's Assistant, the Chief Steward, and other Steward's Department crewmembers. </li></ul><ul><li>Steward's Assistant </li></ul><ul><li>A Steward's Assistant or SA is an entry-level crewmember in the Steward's department of a ship. This position can also be referred to as Galley Utilityman or Messman. The role of the SA consists mainly of cleaning and assisting with the preparation and serving of meals. </li></ul>

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