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# Energy and environment

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### Energy and environment

1. 1. Resource and Management
2. 2. Energy  In physics, energy is an indirectly observed quantity that is often understood as the ability of a physical system to do work on other physical systems. Since work is defined as a force acting through a distance (a length of space), energy is always equivalent to the ability to apply pulls or pushes against the basic forces of nature, along a path of a certain length.
3. 3. Energy  Sun is only one source of energy for the planet: Earth.  The radiant energy of sun in the form of electromagnetic waves are released from the sun during the transmutation of hydrogen to helium and are converted in to chemical energy. This energy required by all living organisms.   This chemical energy stored in the food of living organisms is converted in to potential energy by the arrangement of the constituent atoms of food in a particular manner.
4. 4. Energy Energy exists in two forms: 1. Potential energy is energy stored in matter. i.e. stored energy 2. kinetic energy is motion energy i.e. free energy.
5. 5. Law of Thermodynamics  The first law of Thermodynamics: It states that the amount of energy in the universe is constant. It may change from one form to another, but it can neither be created nor destroyed. Light energy can be neither created nor destroyed as it passes through the atmosphere.
6. 6. Law of Thermodynamics  The second law of Thermodynamics: It states that non-random energy (mechanical, chemical, radiant energy) cannot be changed without some degradation into heat energy. The change of energy from one from to another takes place in such a way that a part of energy assumes waste form. In this way, after transformation the capacity of energy to perform work is decreased. Thus energy flows from higher to lower level. 
7. 7. Types of Energy  Non-renewable energy  Renewable energy
8. 8. Nonrenewable energy  Nonrenewable energy is energy that comes from the ground and is not replaced in a relatively short period of time.  Non-renewable sources of energy can be divided into two types: 1. Fossil fuels: Fossil fuels include; coal, oil and natural gas. These resources come from animals and plants that have died millions of years ago and then decomposed to create a useable source of energy for humans. 2. Nuclear fuel: Nuclear fuel makes use of the radioactivity of some elements.
9. 9. Fossil fuels  Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms.  The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years.  Coal, oil and natural gas are fossil fuels.
10. 10. Fossil fuels  Coal: Total Global Coal Production (including hard coal and lignite): - 7678 Mt (2011) - 7201 Mt (2010) - 4677 Mt (1990)
11. 11. Nonrenewable energy: Fossil fuels  Oil: Oil is any neutral chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at underground temperatures, is immiscible with water but soluble in alcohols or ethers.  Oils have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are usually flammable and slippery . Oils may be originated from animal, vegetable, or petrochemical . It can be volatile or non-volatile.
12. 12. Nuclear energy  The use of nuclear technology requires a radioactive fuel. Uranium ore is present in the ground at relatively low concentrations and mined in 19 countries. This mined uranium is used to fuel energy-generating nuclear reactors with fissionable uranium-238 which generates heat that is ultimately used to power turbines to generate electricity.  Nuclear power provides about 6% of the world's energy and 13–14% of the world's electricity
13. 13. Nuclear energy Nuclear energy is produced in two different ways:  Nuclear Fission: In nuclear fission, the nuclei of atoms are split, causing energy to be released. The atomic bomb and nuclear reactors work by fission. The element uranium is the main fuel used to undergo nuclear fission to produce energy since it has many favorable properties. Uranium nuclei can be easily split by shooting neutrons at them. Also, once a uranium nucleus is split, multiple neutrons are released which are used to split other uranium nuclei. This phenomenon is known as a chain reaction.
14. 14. Nuclear Fission:
15. 15. Nuclear Fusion  Nuclear Fusion: In nuclear fusion, the nuclei of atoms are joined together, or fused. This happens only under very hot conditions. The Sun, like all other stars, creates heat and light through nuclear fusion. In the Sun, hydrogen nuclei fuse to make helium. The hydrogen bomb, humanity's most powerful and destructive weapon, also works by fusion. The heat required to start the fusion reaction is so great that an atomic bomb is used to provide it. Hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium and in the process release huge amounts of energy thus producing a huge explosion.
16. 16. Renewable energy  Renewable energy is energy that comes from resources which are continually restocked by natural process.  Types of renewable energy:  Sunlight  Wind  Water (tides, waves, hydropower)  Geothermal
17. 17. Renewable energy  Sunlight (solar energy): Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly by using photovoltaics (PV) cell, or indirectly by using concentrated solar power (CSP).  PV convert light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. The world largest PV plants are Agua Caliente Solar Project(over 200 MW) in the United States, and Charanka Solar Park (214 MW) in India.  CSP use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Largest CSP is located in ‘Mojave Desert’ of California which has capacity to produce 354 MW electricity.
18. 18. Renewable energy Wind: Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using – Wind turbines to make electrical power, Wind mills for mechanical power, Wind pumps for water pumping or drainage, Sails to propel ships.
19. 19. Renewable energy  Wind turbines: A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electric power. Largest operational on shore wind farms are located in the United States and China. The Gansu Wind Farm in China has over 5,000 MW capacity which has installed with a goal of 20,000 MW by 2020.
20. 20. Renewable energy  Windmill: windmill is a machine that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy. This mills are used for milling grain, pump water for land drainage etc.
21. 21. Renewable energy  Water: Hydropower or water power is power derived from the energy of falling water, which may be exploited for useful purposes.  Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower. The production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy.
22. 22. Renewable energy  Geothermal: Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth (fig 1). Resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the Earth's surface, and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock called magma. Earth's geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%).
23. 23. Fig. 1
24. 24. Biobased energy: Renewable or not?
25. 25. Biobased energy  Tire rubber from plant  Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research, developed a rubber extraction process from the roots of Russian Dandelions (Taraxacum koksghyz).  Analysis showed that pure rubber with good quality was obtained. With this rubber, Apollo Vredestein has produced the first tires that contain natural rubber from Europe. The tires will undergo extensive testing over the coming months.
26. 26. Biobased energy  Pork meat grown in the laboratory  The scientists, led by Professor of Physiology Dr. Mark Post, made pork meat in his laboratory. The meat, grown from bovine stem cells into strips of muscle, is the first made from a petri dish and costs around \$393,000.  The meat muscle grown in a lab in the Netherlands, then mixed with layers of fat, also grown in the lab, to make the burger.  Dr Mark Post, of the Maastricht University in the Netherlands, said his objective is to recreate meat but with a more resource-friendly approach. It can also reduce animal suffering and can provide food safely.